Wednesday, 31 March 2021

Agriculture Journal: March 2021

International Journal of Environmental and Agriculture Research (IJOEAR)

ISSN: 2454-1850

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.25125/agriculture-journal

WorldCat , Scilit, MDPI AG (Basel, Switzerland), Tyndale University College & Seminary, Indiana University, Indexed in Qualis (Interdisciplinary Area) (Brazilian system for the evaluation of periodicals, maintained by CAPES) and Many more

Impact Factor: 5.99.

Determinants of Farmer’s Participation in Soil and Water Conservation Practices in North- Central Highlands of Ethiopia

Abstract Soil erosion is the major threat in the highlands of Ethiopia. Even if large number of conservation campaigns have been undertaken, the efforts are less effective, because of low intention to farmer’s participation in soil and water conservation (SWC) works. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of farmer’s participation in soil and water conservation (SWC) in Borena woreda, north-central highlands of Ethiopia. Samples of 148 households were selected following Stratified, proportional sampling technique. Household survey, focus group discussion, and key informant interview methods were used to collect primary data. Secondary data were also collected from Woreda agriculture office, published, and unpublished documents. Both descriptive statistics and Binary logistic regression model using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 were used to analyze the data. About 76.35% of the respondents were participants. However, 57.52% of participants were without their interest. The binary logistic regression results showed that perception, extension service, training, and slope of their land found to have a positive and significant influence on farmer’s participation. Whereas, age of household head and off-farm income found to have negative and significant influence on farmer’s participation in SWC practices. When farmers get extension and training service, they become willing to participate in SWC practice because they acquire necessary information and skill. Therefore, the Woreda Agricultural office should provide extension service and encourage farmers training for the sustainable management of the land and its productivity.

Keywords— Binary logit model, Borena Woreda, Determinants, Extent, Farmer’s participation, SWC.

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Study of the influence of a Bioabsorbent derived from Orange Peel on a filtering soil using seawater irrigation by capillarity

Abstract— The effect of rain on our planet has been the most important meteorological phenomena to be reproduced by humans. It has been vital for the hydration of the soil, making it possible for agriculture to prosper and progress. However, the great secret of irrigation is in the ground, in the water tables and aquifers that store and manage water, storing every drop of rain and distributing the water through the underground river basins, indirectly irrigating everything, from the mountain to the sea, making the cultivation of crops possible. This means that the type of soil is as important as the water supply.

Irrigation for agriculture has always simulated rainfall; therefore, it has copied irrigation from above and has focused on the soil drainage capacity. From this point of view, saline water is not beneficial for this activity, but it may be the only source of irrigation water for arid regions, especially in developing countries, where there’s a scarcity of water and the population is rapidly growing. Storing irrigation water for both agriculture and the increasing population is necessary for the developing country’s prosperity.

The use of seawater applied to irrigation is not a new technique, there’s evidence that proves that in 1719 the Sestao’s Carmelite monks, located in Vizcaya, made use of this practice.

When considering the possibility of irrigation without desalination, always through capillarity systems, it is essential to consider some critical factors, such as the substrate of the ground, the distance of the water table, the salt composition of the seawater, chemical reactions of the ground with the salts or the drainage of the ground. Modifying any of these parameters can cause salinization effects, loss of humidity or desertification of the substrate, amongst others.

This study shows the influence of a bio absorbent obtained from the orange peel on the behaviour of a substrate based on silicon sand.

Keywords— Desertification, Desalination, Reusable, Seawater Table, Bioabsorbent.

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Production of Vermicompost from Rose Flower Petal Wastes

Abstract The flower waste obtained from markets and temples could be effectively utilized for vermicomposting and production of good quality vermicompost. Eudrilus eugeniae species is good for vermicomposting of flower waste at shorter time period. The results obtained proved that 30% inclusion of flower waste along with cow dung gives good yield of vermicompost. Eudrilus eugeniae does not require soil for habitation. Provision of good quality cow dung enhances the water holding and nutrient supplying capacity. Maximum temperature (27.96oC) was recorded in VT6 and pH ranged between 7.58 and 8.76 in all treatments. VT6 treatment also showed the maximum electrical conductivity (3.94 mhos/cm). 42.50% of Organic Carbon was observed in VT2. A high concentration of N (0.59%) was found in VT5 treatment and phosphorous (0.68%) in VT4. The maximum weight of earthworm (3080 mg) was achieved in VT5 with a growth rate of 24 mg/worm/day. High yield of vermicompost (1422gm/2kg of substrate) was also obtained in VT5 treatment. The present study revealed that the temperature at a range of 260C, pH 7.5 to 8 and moisture content of 49 to 50% were the ideal parameters to activate metabolic activity, cocoon production and reproductive action of Eudrillus eugeniae..

Keywords— Earthworm, Eudrillus, Vermicomposting, Flower wastes, Rosa berberia.

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Striving for restoration of wetlands functions and values in the City of Kigali

Abstract— This work aimed to present the commitment of the Government of Rwanda of relocating all illegal activities from wetlands in the framework of environmental protection; to highlights human activities established into wetlands of Kigali City and their categories; and to mention some initiatives of restoration. Its scope is limited to governmental policies presentation and analysis, to the presentation of different activities that degrade wetlands in the City of Kigali and to highlight some initiatives for restoration.

Documentation, camera and field survey were used in data collection and ArcGIS 10.2 was used as software for spatial analysis and presentation and the survey covered all districts of the City of Kigali. Activities that harm wetlands include: residential home, commercial activities, industrial activities, parking, garages, ware houses, carpentry and welding workshops, dumping sites, bricks burning, petrol stations, carwash, schools, health centers, worship houses, domestic animal growing and play grounds.

Relocation of these activities is the enforcement of the environmental law and the government commitment to environment management. Some of these activities were legally established and their relocation has to be compensated and those illegally established will not be compensated. Many of these wetlands will be left into conservation in order to recover their functions of storing and releasing water and buffering the impacts of floods; providing habitat for plants and animals; providing water storage, improve water quality and reduce pollution, etc. Some few other will be made up into recreational areas like Nyandungu Recreational Park, Kimicanga Entertainment Center and Gikondo wetland parks.

Keywords— biodiversity, ecosystem, Kigali, restoration, wetlands.

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The Biochemical Indices of Drought Resistant Species of Iori Plateau (East Georgia)

Abstract Existing forecasts of climate change predict significant warming, seasonal precipitation change, and strong and frequent droughts in the coming decades. Drought resistant plant species have more chance to survive. Predictions make the study of the biology of drought-resistant species especially relevant today. Antioxidant system, which plays an important role in plant stress resistance, is of special interest. Moreover, antioxidant substances are characterized by healing properties as well. Mechanisms of drought resistance of plants growing on arid territories of Georgia are practically unexplored. Presented study aimed to investigate the characteristics of antioxidant system of leaves of drought resistant species (Euphorbia falcata L. (sickle spurge), Lycopsis orientalis L. (small bugloss), Cotinus coggygria Scop. (smoke tree), Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Russian olive) and Amygdalus communis L. (almond)) growing at one of the most arid regions of Georgia - Iori plateau (East Georgia). Analyses were made in two vegetative phases – flowering and fruit-bearing. From the obtained results, it is clear that the studied species have more or less different biochemical stress-adaptive mechanisms, which include certain enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of antioxidant system. In small bugloss in response to stress catalase was activated and synthesis of ascorbate-tocopherol and anthocyanins was enhanced; especially high amount of proline accumulation was noted. Phenols, anthocyanins and proline should be actively involved in stress resistance of sickle spurge. Russian olive was distinguished with high levels of ascorbate-tocopherol and anthocyanins, as well as proline; in addition the enzymatic antioxidants - catalase and peroxidase were activated, and soluble carbohydrates were accumulated. The protective systems of ascorbic acid and tocopherol, as well as phenolic compounds were active in smoke tree. From osmolytes content of proline increased, while the level of soluble carbohydrates was already the highest, compared to all tested species. Catalase was activated in response to stress in almonds; protective systems of ascorbate-tocopherol, phenols, and anthocyanins were active as well; among osmolytes content of carbohydrates was increased. The stability of carotenoids protective system of all studied species under stress conditions presumably indicates that experimental plants are less sensitive to radiation stress, and water deficiency is the main stress factor for them.

Keywords— antioxidants, drought resistance, osmolytes.

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Physical Properties of Non-Fermented and Fermented Tobacco of Burley Varieties and Lines

Abstract— The physical properties of the raw material are an objective indicator of the quality of the tobacco leaves and a reflection of their structure. They are very closely related to the structure and the content of the organic matter in the leaf. The selection of the variety, the applied agricultural techniques, the environmental conditions during the vegetation period, the leaf position, the technological maturity, as well as the conditions during drying, are important factors that have a strong impact on the formation of the physical and technological properties of the tobacco raw material. The tests included 4 varieties and 2 lines, namely: L-8 (control variety, Zimbabwe), Kentucky-22 (USA), B-963 (Bulgaria) and B-1246 (Bulgaria), all in fertile form, as well as the male sterile hybrid lines B-204/15 CMS F1 and B-206 A/15 CMS F1. The test was planted in 4 repetitions with a planting density of 90×50 cm according to the Randomized Block System method. After the evaluation of the tobacco according to the current Rulebook for qualitative evaluation of raw tobacco, we separated tobacco material from the middle belt, in order to get an insight into the differences of the physical properties from the examined varieties and lines in the non-fermented and fermented tobacco. The percentage portion of the main (mid) rib, the thickness of the leaves, and the materiality of the leaves, are important physical indicators of the quality of the raw material, and from the obtained results we can point out the line B-206 A/15 CMS F1, where the average content of the main rib of the non-fermented tobacco leaf is within the limits of 26.82%, in the line B-206 A/15 CMS F1 there is up to 25.13% portion of the main rib of the fermented leafs. The leaf portion in the newly obtained line is within the range from 73.18% (non-fermented tobacco leaf) to 74.87% (fermented tobacco leaf). The materiality is within the range from 41.26 g/m² for non-fermented tobacco leaf up to 41.90 g/m² for fermented tobacco leaf, and the leaf thickness is 91.5 μm (non-fermented tobacco leaf) up to 77.2 μm (fermented tobacco leaf).

The obtained data from non-fermented and fermented tobacco, the content of the main rib (%), the thickness of the tobacco leaves (μm), the materiality of the leaves (g/cm2), are determined according to recognized methods that are being applied in the operation of the accredited laboratory - L04 within the Department of Technology, Fermentation and Fabrication at the Scientific Tobacco Institute Prilep.

Keywords— non-fermented, fermented, tobacco, burley, leaves.

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Application of Termite Bait with Variation of Methyle Eugenol, Pineapple Peel Extract and Bintaro Liquid Smoke

Abstract— One of the alternative methods of termite control that can be done is the feeding method. In this study, impregnated bait will be formulated with Pineapple peel extract and Bintaro liquid smoke which functions as a poison for termites. To attract termites to eat poisonous bait, 1% of an attractant compound in the form of methyl eugenol is given to the artificial bait. The concentrations of liquid smoke used were 2 and 4%. Pineapple peel extract is known to have antifeedant activity (reduces appetite) against pests that eat it. The active ingredients in this extract have the ability to damage the digestive mucosa of termites and kill the termite symbiont protozoa so that the ability of termites to digest can be decreased or lost. The concentrations of pineapple peel extract used in this study were 3 and 6%. Based on data obtained from data on time of death, percent mortality and percent palatability of termites to bait, it shows that the best treatment is treatment K7 which causes highest termite mortality for 12 days with palatability of bait is 7.55%.

Keywords— termite, bait, toxic, pineapple peel, bintaro.

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The Political Economy of Agricultural Development in Northern Nigeria

Abstract— The paper critically examines the political economy of agricultural development in Northern Nigeria. The agriculture resource has been a significant sector in the Nigerian economy in the past decades, and is still a key sector regardless of the oil boom; principally it provides employment opportunities for the teeming population, eradicates poverty and contributes momentously to the growth of the economy. The Agricultural sector suffered neglect during the hey-days of the oil boom in the 1970s. However, sustained economic development cannot be achieved without economic growth. Consequently, economic growth is necessary for sustained economic development. In the same vein, given the enormous resource endowment both in human capital and natural resources available in Nigeria, the performance of the Northern Nigeria economy has been far below expectation. Consequently, the contributions of agriculture to economic growth can be examined through the roles of the sector in the economy. The most direct contribution of agriculture to economic growth is to increase in incomes of smallholder farmers and therefore their purchasing power. The economic growth in Nigeria depends to a large extent on growth in the agriculture sector. However, the article reveals some factors that negatively impacting agricultural development in Nigeria include land tenure systems; increasing populations and constantly decreasing farmland size; inadequate of capital particularly for the adoption of improved agricultural technology; never-ending conflicts in the Northern Nigeria; throng rural-urban migration; low level of education; systemic corruption of government officials; excessive dependence of oil economy to the exclusion of agricultural economy; unfavourable economic development policies; inadequate infrastructure among others.

Keywords— Political, Economy, Northern Nigeria, Oil boom, Agriculture, Development.

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Influence of Presowing Irradiation and High Concentrations of Salts on Wheat

Abstract To investigate the salt resistance of Georgian endemic wheat species – Makha (Triticum aestivum subsp. macha (Dekapr. & Menabde) McKey) and Zanduri (Triticum timopheevii subsp. zhukovskyi (Menabde & Ericzjan) L. B. Cai) on the one hand, and the effect of pre-sowing irradiation on growth and development of the same species, on the other, experiments with 1.5% solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4 and pre-sowing treatment with ultraviolet irradiation (UV) (C section of the ultraviolet, distance 30cm from the source, irradiation for 1h) have been carried out. Wheat species were affected with stressors separately and in combination. The percentage of seed germination and length of 5-6 week seedlings was studied. Obtained results demonstrate that:

  1. Zanduri seeds are equally resistant to both chloride and sulfate salinization, while Makha seeds revealed more resistance to chloride salinization.
  2. Irradiation of Zanduri seeds with C section of UV-radiation inhibited germination, while treatment with the same spectrum of Makha seeds in contrary, led to significant activation of the process. This effect of seeds pre-sowing irradiation was maintained during the growth and development stages as well.
  3. Pre-sowing UV treatment of Makha seeds has canceled the inhibitory effect of NaCl on seed germination; while in variants with pre-sowing UV treatment and further processing with Na2SO4 and Na2SO4+NaCl even the stimulation of seed germination was mentioned.
  4. In order to increase the seed resistance to chloride and sulfate salinity, we consider it advisable to irradiate Makha seeds with UV before sowing; however, the optimal dose of radiation should be selected.

Keywords— chloride salinity, sulphate salinity, ultraviolet irradiation, wheat.

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Enriched Mesquite Piperidine Alkaloid Extract Improves the Performance in Growing Goats

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate levels of enriched mesquite piperidine alkaloid extract (MPA) comparison with sodium monensin on the nutrition and growth performance of goats fed diets with high concentrate content. Thirty Anglo-Nubian crossbred goats, 120 days of age, and initial body weight 21.82 ± 0.11 kg were distributed to the following diets: 0 (no additive), with MPA 9.2, 18.4, and 27.6 mg kg-1 or monensin (MON) 2.7 mg kg-1. The diets with MPA did not differ (P > 0.10) from the MON diet for the intake and digestibility of DM and OM. However, NDFap and CP intake (g kg-1 BW0.75), MON showed a higher mean compared to MPA, and their digestibility coefficients did not differ. There was a linear increase (P < 0.05) for the intake and digestibility of CP and NFC with the MPA levels. The metabolizable energy (ME) and daily weight gain (DWG) presented a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) with peaks estimated at 17.4 and 14.8. There was no difference (P > 0.10) for microbial nitrogen synthesis, and microbial efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with the MPA levels, but MPA did not differ (P > 0.05) from the MON. Nitrogen retention (NR, g day-1) increased (P < 0.05) with the MPA levels due to the linear increase of N intake (NI) and digested nitrogen (DN). For the diet with 27.6 mg kg-1 MPA, the DWG decrease occurred due to the lower digestible energy intake and microbial protein synthesis efficiency.

Keywords— Growth Promoter, Performance, Phytogenic Additive, Prosopis Juliflora, Rumen Fermentation.

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Impacts of Illegal Mining on Human Being, the Case of Huye District

Abstract The current study was about the impacts of illegal mining on wellbeing of people. More specifically the study intended to:

  • identify illegal mining practices in Huye District;
  • Assess the social, economic and environmental impacts of illegal mining on wellbeing of people of Huye District.
  • Find out solutions to social, economic and environmental impacts of illegal mining on environment and wellbeing of people of Huye District.

Keywords— Huye District, Illegal Mining impact on Human.

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Agriculture Journal: February 2021

International Journal of Environmental and Agriculture Research (IJOEAR)

ISSN: 2454-1850

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.25125/agriculture-journal

WorldCat , Scilit, MDPI AG (Basel, Switzerland), Tyndale University College & Seminary, Indiana University, Indexed in Qualis (Interdisciplinary Area) (Brazilian system for the evaluation of periodicals, maintained by CAPES) and Many more

Impact Factor: 5.99.

Estimation of DNA Fragmentation, Mutagenicity and Biochemical Changes in Mice Exposed to Diazinon and Its Commercial Formulation

Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of organophosphorus (OP) insecticide diazinon (DZN) and its formulation (DZNF) in bone marrow and germ cells, DNA fragmentation and biochemical changes induced in Swiss albino male mice. The mice were randomly divided into 7 groups (10 mice each), the 1st group served as control, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups, as well, 5th, 6th, and 7th groups are treated with 1/10LD50 (6.5 mg/kg bw), 1/20 LD50 (13mg/kg bw) and 1/40 LD50 (26mg/kg bw) of DZNF and DZN i.p with single dose/week for 4 weeks, respectively. At the end of treatment all animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after 24 h of the last treatment. Bone marrow and spermatocyte cells were subjected to chromosomal analysis. As well, liver and brain tissues were collected from all animals for DNA fragmentation and biochemical analyses. Cytogenetic analysis revealeda significant increase (more than 2 folds) in structural aberrations (Chromatid and chromosomal gaps, breaks, deletions, centromeric attenuation and end to end)as well as numerical variations in DZNF treated groups than DZN treated groups in a dose dependent manner. A significant increase (about 3 folds) also was found in DZNF treated groups in structural and numerical aberrations of spermatocyte cells than DZN treated mice in a dose dependent manner. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA fragmentation were significantly increased (about 2 fold) in mice exposed to DZNF than DZN exposed groups. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that DZNF is more genotoxic than DZN as assessed by cytogenetic analysis of both somatic and germ cells of mice and had adverse effects on DNA and biochemical parameters. These results suggested that the effects of DZNF and DZN are dose dependent and the treatment with DZNF is more hazardous and toxic than DZN and it is important to avoid toxicities induced by organophosphate insecticides, take a high level of caution and minimize its agricultural and household uses.

Keywords— Diazinon, formulation, mutagenicity, DNA fragmentation, biochemical changes, mice.

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Effect of Tillage Practices on Selected Soil Properties in Sudan Savanna Agro-Ecology of Nigeria

Abstract Field experiments were carried out in 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons to evaluate the effect of tillage practices on selected soil properties in Sudan Savanna Agro-ecology of Nigeria. Treatments consisted of zero tillage, flat beds and ridges, and were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Prior to experiment, surface (0-15 cm) soil samples were collected from eight points and bulked; post-harvest composite soil samples were also collected on the basis of treatments and were analyzed using standard analytical procedures. NCRIBEN-01M variety of sesame was used as the test crop for both cropping seasons. The data generated from the study were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using Genstat Release 10.3 DE after which significant means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 5 % level of probability. Based on the findings of this study, there were significant effects of tillage practices with respect to most soil parameters studied in 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons. The effects of tillage practices on soil nutrients indicated that the zero tilled plots had higher nutrients and organic matter, followed by the flat beds while the ridged plots gave lower values for essential nutrients and organic matter in both cropping seasons. For conservation or retention of essential nutrients as well as organic matter in soil, zero tillage is recommended for the study area.

Keywords— Soil properties, Sudan Savanna, Tillage Practices, Nigeria.

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Assessing the Impact of Urban Growth on the Forest Degradation in Musanze District

Abstract As the days are passing there are changes in development in many districts of the country where the urbanization is growing in term of expansion every day. This expansion is due to the population pressure where the population need to satisfy their needs and trying to accommodate themselves with all those acts the forests are damaged by population through constructions and by cooking and which leads to forest degradation. It is in this context that the present study was conducted in order to assess the impact of urban growth on the forest degradation in Musanze. The study had the Specific objectives which were the analyzing of the trend of forest degradation; the assessment of urban growth status; and to establish the relationship between urban growth and forest degradation. The researcher used data (orthophoto) from Rwanda Land Management and Use Authority of the period 2009-2019. The Arc GIS, total station TS06, Differential GPS, have been used for accomplishing this research. Results show that forests lost at rate of 3.3 % every year due to the heavy urban growth which is not monitored and this implicate that within 30 years there will not be any forest in Musanze district. It is recommended that the district should deliver the education and training courses to local communities; should organize special campaigns about importance of forests to the comminutes and the society, should mobilize the population and other stakeholders to plant many trees in whole city and also make the forestation.

Keywords— Musanze district, Urban growth, Forest degradation, City development.

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Manurial value Assessment of Coir Pith through Field Study

Abstract Pot culture studies with coir pith compost indicated that this material in combination with soil and sand can be a suitable for farm yard manure in potting mixtures. When used alone also, coir pith compost was found to be a good medium for the container cultivation. The only practical problem is the use of coir pith alone appears to be the anchorage. A part of this study with nutrient supplementation had indicated that the only major plant nutrient element among N, P, and K that is deficient in composted coir pith is nitrogen.

Keywords— Coirpith, potting mixture, NPK.

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Analysis of Physicochemical Parameters in Wastewater and Heavy Metals in Soils of Flower Farms in Ethiopia

Abstract Floriculture is a young and fast-growing industry in Ethiopia. The sector has created employment opportunity and contributed to our country’s economic development. But it is blamed for causing environmental pollution. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the concentration of pollutants in wastewater and soils of flower farms located in Ethiopia which were selected using purposive sampling. Wastewater and soil samples required for the determination of physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations were collected from the flower farms from April 1 to May 25, 2019. Physicochemical parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, phosphate, sulfate and chemical oxygen demand in wastewater, and concentrations of lead, cobalt, and zinc in soil were determined. Accordingly, the pH values of the four flower farms (Farm 1, Farm 2, Farm 4 and Farm 5) were slightly acidic and below minimum pH value (6) allowed for wastewater effluent set by Ethiopian Environmental Protection Authority. Electrical conductivity at all farms, total dissolved solid at Farm 4, chemical oxygen demand at Farm 3, and 4, sulphate at Farm 4, and phosphate at Farm 2 and 4 were above the provisional standard set by EPA. This study revealed that wastewater sample collected from Farm 4 doesn’t comply with EPA standard in all study parameters. While, the mean concentrations of cobalt and zinc of soil samples varied from 2.8 to 46.6 mg/kg and 54.4 to 111.1 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusively, the wastewater quality discharged from flower farms is not at a level it cannot cause harmful effect. Therefore, there is a need to ensure that wastewater is properly treated before discharged into the environment. Also, the authors recommend that further holistic investigation should be carried out on socio-economic and soil pollution of the floriculture industry in Ethiopia.

Keywords— Floriculture, Heavy metal, Physicochemical, Soil, Wastewater.

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Cellulosimicrobium funkei: A Novel Bacterium in Potassium Solubilization from Soil in Bangalore

Abstract Potassium (K) is a very essential element needed by plants for healthy growth and good yield. Most soils have abundance of potassium underneath in rock as insoluble forms that are unavailable for plant use. This research was carried out to join in the search to unearth microorganisms from the rhizosphere soil that are able to act on the mineral containing substances, solubilizing them to release the needed soluble form of the potassium for plant use. An isolate, which was characterized and identified to be Cellulosimicrobium funkei, showed significant solubilization on feldspar (a potassium containing compound) supplemented media. It is novel for potassium solubilization. The amount of potassium released by the isolate in comparison to reference cultures varied but favourably compared with the reference cultures. In glucose amended broth, solubilization was: Cellulosimicrobium funkei 7.04mg/l, Enterobacter hormaechei 7.15 mg/l and 6.91mg/l for Aspergillus terreus. Urea supplemented broth: Cellulosimicrobium funkei 5.45mg/l, Enterobacter hormaechei 5.38mg/l and Aspergillus terreus 6.33mg/l. KCl supplemented broth: Cellulosimicrobium funkei 10.23mg/l, Enterobacter hormaechei 8.05mg/l and Aspergillus terreus 9.11mg/l. For temperature, the cultures solubilized best at these respective temperatures: Cellulosimicrobium funkei 27oC, Enterobacter hormaechei 35oC and Aspergillus terreus 30oC. PH was 7.5 for Cellulosimicrobium funkei, 8 for Enterobacter hormaechei and for 7.5 for Aspergillus terreus. When they were now cultured using the combination of the above parameters Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Enterobacter hormaechei and Aspergillus terreus gave a maximum yield of 7.24mg/l, 7.03mg/l and 6.81mg/l of solubilized potassium respectively. This means that the isolate Cellulosimicrobium funkei yielded more solubilized potassium from feldspar than the reference cultures and could therefore be a better potassium solubilizer.

Keywords— Aspergillus terreus, Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Enterobacter hormaechei, Potassium, Soil, Solubilizing.

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Agriculture Journal: January 2021

International Journal of Environmental and Agriculture Research (IJOEAR)

ISSN: 2454-1850

Digital Object Identifier DOI: 10.25125/agriculture-journal

WorldCat , Scilit, MDPI AG (Basel, Switzerland), Tyndale University College & Seminary, Indiana University, Indexed in Qualis (Interdisciplinary Area) (Brazilian system for the evaluation of periodicals, maintained by CAPES) and Many more

Impact Factor: 5.99.

Rubber Tree Cultivation and Improvement: Laticifer Ring Count and Latex Yield Assessment of Rubber Species

Abstract— Rubber trees (Hevea spp.), the wilderness trees originating from rain forests of the Amazon, have been domesticated outside South America for more than a century. The trees, specifically of the species Hevea brasiliensis, are now widely established in the tropics especially in Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, opportunities to improve the latex yield productivity of these cultivated rubber trees are limited by their narrow genetic base since they have been descended from a small selection of seedlings derived from seeds collected in the 1800’s. Commercial rubber trees hence face this genetic vulnerability of inbreeding depression that could hamper progress in crop improvement. To explore the feasibility of broadening the genetic base, various Hevea species, viz. Hevea brasiliensis, Hevea benthamiana, Hevea camargoana, Hevea guianensis, Hevea nitida, Hevea pauciflora, Hevea rigidifolia and Hevea spruceana, were assessed for their possible contribution to the genetic improvement of the cultivated rubber trees particularly in latex yield output. The assessment showed that Hevea benthamiana, and Hevea spruceana to be promising in terms of the number of laticifer rings in the bark and latex yield. They are promising candidates for incorporation into the improvement programmes of the rubber tree in Malaysia.

Keywords Hevea species, latex yield, laticifer rings.

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Phosphorus Waste Production in Fish Farming a Potential for Reuse in Integrated Aquaculture Agriculture

Abstract The development of aquaculture in recent years to become the fastest growing food production in the world is accompanied by a secondary effect on the environment, since considerable quantities of waste can be produced and discharged into the environment, as these phosphorus-rich effluents, over time, can contribute to eutrophication phenomena in the aquatic environment. This pollutant is essentially of food origin and is a necessary macro-mineral for fish. However, current scientific and technical means are far from offering the solution to the environmental problems posed by aquaculture development. However, this effluent is a compound that is necessary for the soil as a fertiliser and has great potential for reuse. In this context, aquaculture systems must therefore be well managed to ensure the environmental sustainability of the sector by exploiting these phosphorus-rich discharges in the system of integrating aquaculture with agriculture. The integration of agricultural and aquaculture production systems is seen as a sustainable alternative and as a way to rationalise the use of water and fertilisers. However, for the optimisation of this integrated system to be justifiable in terms of the exploitation of phosphorus from aquaculture effluents, it is necessary to take ownership of the processes involved in the presence of food-borne phosphorus in these effluents and the possibility of its advantageous use both in aquaponics and in agricultural irrigation, the aim of which is to increase the efficiency and sustainability of both aquaculture and agriculture.

Keywords Aquaculture, Agriculture, Integration, Phosphorus, Effluent, Aquaponics, Irrigation.

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Characterization and Heating value Prediction of Municipal solid waste

Abstract There is an increasing trend of using municipal solid waste as an alternative energy resource, burning and converting it into energy in the form of heat or steam or electricity. The aim of this study is to predict energy value of MSW using compositional and proximate-based analysis of solid waste and compare the reliability of models in predicting the energy recovery potentials from different solid waste components. Physical characterization showed that food, yard, textile, leather, rubber, wood scrap, yard, metal, plastic and paper waste were the constituents of all waste samples in the study area, but in varying proportions. The energy content of combustible solid waste was estimated to be 17.50 MJ/kg for gross heating value, and 9.54 MJ/kg for net heating value, which revealed the suitability of solid waste as energy recovery option. In this study several proposed composition and proximate-based mathematical models have been used to estimate the HHV of municipal solid waste. The average high heating values estimated from some models were found to be 16.27 ± 0.90 MJ/kg (Model II), 16.45 ± 0.43 MJ/kg (Model III), 18.97 ± 0.03 MJ/kg (Model XVIII), and 16.60 ± 0.32 MJ/kg (Model XXIV) which were closely match the value with experimentally determined calorific value as 17.50 ± 0.68 MJ/kg. Therefore, it is concluded that the quantity of energy obtainable from a known amount and composition of mixed solid waste can be estimated using already developed models without conducting calorimetric experiments.

Keywords— Characterization, Heating value; Models, Proximate Analysis, Municipal solid waste.

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Effect of Pollination Methods on Fruit Set, Yield, Physical and Chemical Properties of Hayani Date Palm Cultivar

Abstract Field experiment was carried out at Ghour AlSafi in Jordan valley to study the effect of pollination methods on fruit set, yield and some fruit characteristics of Hayani date palm cultivars. Results showed that hand pollination method has better fruit set and yield, but it showed a reduction in fruit weight owing to the obvious increase in yield. The pollination method significantly affected fruit related traits particularly fruit diameter, fruit length to diameter ratio and total soluble solid (TSS).

Keywords— Fruit set, hand duster pollination, hand pollination, Hayani, pollen grain germination.

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Effect of Various Level of Nutrient Application on Yield and Yield Attributing Characters of Wheat at Dehradun, India

Abstract A field experiment was conducted in the Agronomy research farm, Uttaranchal (PG) College of Bio-medical Sciences and Hospital, Dehradun during Rabi season to study effect of different NPK levels on growth and yield of wheat and work out relative economics of different levels of NPK. This field experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effect of different NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potash) levels on the growth, yield and yield attributing characters of wheat cultivars PBW373. The thrice replicated treatments (T1: Control, T2:25% N2+50% P2O5+ 25% K2O, T3:50% N2+50% P2O5+50% K2O, T4:75% N2+50% P2O5+50% K2O, T5:100% N2+50% P2O5+50% K2O, T6:25% N2+100% P2O5+100% K2O, T7:50% N2+100% P2O5+100% K2O, T8:75% N2+100% P2O5+100% K2O, T9:100% N2+150% P2O5+150% K2O RDF) ha-1 were tested in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The results revealed that the highest growth, yield and yield attributing characters replied significantly to NPK fertilizers but access (higher dose than 100%) of Phosphorus and Potash shows negative results. It is resulted that highest growth was recorded with the treatment T5:100% N2+50% P2O5+50% K2O or application of (120-30-30) NPK Kg ha-1 and lowest conclude treatment combination was T1 (no fertilizer application). The highest days to maturity was recorded from treatment T5 while the lowest days to maturity was observed from treatment T1. Application of different NPK Levels on economics of wheat showed varied trend in benefit: cost ratio (B: C ratio). The maximum B: C ratio was obtained with treatment T2, while further increase in fertility levels obtained less B: C ratio followed by lowest rate of nutrient. The highest net return was obtained in the treatment T5 followed by treatment T2 and T3 respectively. It was due to the significantly higher grain and straw yield on treatment T5 crop than the other treatments, which resulted in higher net return and benefit cost: ratio. So it is concluded that the treatment T5 (100% N2+50% P2O5+50% K2O) shows best results on wheat crop and proved to the most remunerative dose. This study will enhance the nutrient use efficiency and fetch high and quality production of wheat in less cost of production without causing adverse effect on environment.

Keywords— Fertilizer, Growth, Nutrients, Soil fertility, wheat, Yield.

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Potential effect assessment of agricultural activities on water quality of rivers in Rwanda: “Case of Muvumba River in Nyagatare District”

Abstract The problem caused by agricultural sector to Water Quality pollution remains a big challenge for Rwanda Government. The general objective of the study was to assess the potential effect of agricultural activities on water quality in Nyagatare District. Specifically, the study assessed agricultural activities in around Muvumba River, examine the level of water quality pollution in Muvumba River, and reveal the relationship between agricultural activities and water quality from Muvumba River. Data collected through interview, and laboratory tests of water samples applied once per month in three points sampling of Muvumba River. The action starting from 19th March 2019 up to 20th March 2020. To determine the correlation between agricultural input and Water Quality data at all selected physic-chemicals parameters, by Linear Regression Model using SPSS statistics with 95% confidence interval. The results indicated that agricultural activities on surrounding of Muvumba River, are presented by the existence of different type of crops, non-protection of anti-erosions, non-wetland margins, the farmers using chemical fertilizers and pesticides, the results revealed also that all selected parameters have not addressed positive relationship or pollution, but many of them did, as per to Rwanda Standards Board guidelines. For sampling point one has taken as baseline because it is upstream of Muvumba river at Nyagatare District, in sampling point 2, the parameters that presented pollution were; turbidity (r=0.193), nitrites (r=0.393), iron(r=0.122), manganese (r=0.008); for the sampling point3: were pH (r=0.319); turbidity (r=0.212); nitrites (r=0.143); nitrates (r=0.618); nitrogen ammonia (r=0.441); Iron(r=0.889); manganese (r=0.269); agricultural activities in surrounding of Muvumba River have significantly contributed to the water quality pollution of Muvumba River, through substances of chemical fertilizers, crop residues, and soil sediments that are transported into the River by erosion. Conclusion of the study that creation of anti-erosions in a surrounding Muvumba River areas, protection of buffer zones, performing vegetation covers, inducing water management bodies at cells level, introducing awareness of farmers how ecosystem functions.

Keywords— Agricultural activities, Water quality, Water pollution, Muvumba River.

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Lettuce Growth and Production under Plastic Shading as a Response to different Microclimate Condition: A Preliminary Study of Climate Change Factors Impact on Crops

Abstract Crop production is vulnerable to climate variability, especially when it associated with increasing temperature. Results from global and local scale research with different methods consistently showed negative temperature impacts on crop yield especially vegetables. One reason of lacking research in quantifying the impacts of climate change on crops is difficult to modify the air temperature and climate change marked by global temperature increase happened on regional and sub-regional scales. Therefore, this primary research tried to overcome this problem with planting highland crops on lowland area which has higher temperature area and study what changes experienced in crops growth and production. Lettuce is chosen in this experiment since lettuce is a wild plant native to temperate regions then vulnerable to climate change and as leafy crops, lettuce is representative in examining temperature effects on crop, leaf area is the main determining factor affecting light interception by crop and lead to biomass production. The experiments were conducted under UV polyethylene sheet to reduce the incoming solar radiation, and measured microclimate factors along with lettuce growth and production. Numbers of leaves for both lettuce plants inside the shading were significantly lower and as the consequences the fresh weight was still lower. Direct full sunshine with lower intensity combined with low temperature is the characteristic of highland area, the habitat of lettuce in Tropical area. In open and under shading condition of the experiment, the incoming radiation was still in the range of recommended light intensity for lettuce production. However, the air temperature seemed too high for lettuce cultivation in lowland area. In the nature it is possible that if the earth temperature keeps rising more crops will inhibit higher altitude.

Keywords Microclimate, lettuce, radiation, climate changes, shading.

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Tuesday, 12 January 2021

Agriculture Journal: December 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-12, December 2020

Profile of the Tribal Families from Palghar District

Abstract This paper examines the profile of the tribal families from Palghar district. The study was conducted at the Palghar district. A sample of 120 tribal families were considered as respondents for present study. The respondents were interviewed with the help of specially designed schedule. Collected data was classified, tabulated and analysed by using various statistical method. The result of the study showed that most of the respondents have ‘medium’ family education status, ‘medium’ family size, ‘medium’ annual family income, ‘cultivation’ as their major occupation, ‘marginal’ land holding, ‘fair’ cropping pattern, ‘medium’ farming experience and ‘low’ social participation. The extension workers should consider these facts while planning and executing programmes for development of the tribal families living in Palghar district.

Keywords— Profile, Tribal families.

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In-Vitro Evaluation of selected Fungicides on the Growth and Sporulation of Alternaria alternata causing Blight Disease of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.)

Abstract Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important leguminous cold season crop cultivated widely in different parts of the world and in India. This crop is grown especially in U.P., Bihar, Punjab, Haryana and in the foot hill ranges of Himalayan region including north eastern states. In Manipur, it is an important winter vegetable cum pulse crop. However, this crop suffers attack of various diseases of fungi, viruses and nematodes resulting in substantial reduction in yield. Hence, an in-vitro evaluation of selected fungicides on the Growth and Sporulation of Alternaria alternata causing blight disease of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) was under taken in the present investigation. A judicious application of Tricyclazole and Copper oxychloride at 1000ppm can effectively manages the blight disease of broad bean and prevent economic loss due to disease condition.

Keywords— Alternaria alternata, broth media, solid media, sporulation, mycelium mat, radial growth, inhibition, fungicides, per cent disease incidence index.

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Effect of Pseudomonas Fluorescens in the Germination and Growth of Prosopis Laevigata under Greenhouse Conditions

Abstract Mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) is a tree of arid and semi-arid areas of northern and central Mexico. This species allows erosion control, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and improves soil quality. Pseudomonas fluorescens is a rhizobacterium that favors plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Also, promotes seed germination and development of Mesquite plants under adverse environmental conditions.

The aim is to evaluate the role of bacterial strains A7 and Sv of P. fluorescens, using two types of soil (vertisol and phaeozem), and adding vermicompost (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 tons/ha) in the germination and growth stages of mesquite (Prosopis laevigata).We tested the characteristics developed by the plants over 180 days. A randomized experimental design with four repetitions was used to test the seed germination rate and 16 more variables in the greenhouse, such as morphology, dry biomass accumulated, and morphological indices through the randomized factorial experimental design with three factors, 2x3x5x3.

Regarding the control treatment, the use of the bacterial strain A7 of P. fluorescens inhibited the germination of mesquite seeds, while the strain Sv favored seedlings development. We observed opposite effects; inhibition and growth in the germination stage, and development of the seedlings observed at 180 days when using the A7 and Sv strains of P. fluorescens.

Keywords Arid and semi-arid areas, Bacterial strain, Biofertilizer, Mesquite, Plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vermicompost.

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Effect of Industrialization and Urbanization on Agriculture

Abstract Industrialization and urbanization becomes a bane for the agriculture now days. With increase in industrialization and urbanization, the growth of agriculture sector decline continuously. Large area of land is covered under industry and infrastructure, which results in shortage of agriculture productive lands. The waste products of industry and urban areas are flowed in water bodies such as river, lakes and ponds which pollute them and make them unsuitable for any kind of use. The harmful effluents released from industry contaminate the air with harmful gases and suspended material. These gases and suspended particles affect the growth and development of plants and animals. The suspended particles are inhale during breathing and cause blockage in veins and arteries of animals and humans. To feed the ever increasing population of our country, the farmer put high pressure on shrinking land to get higher output. For this, farmer use modern technology and chemicals which reduce the productivity and fertility of soil. The polluted water of lakes and ponds become poisonous for the water living entities and results in death of plants and animal species. The waste effluents of urban areas and industry have high concentration of heavy metals which are very poisonous for animals and plants which survive under water and on land. The growth of plants and microbes in soil is reduced due to increase in concentration of heavy metal in soil. The effects of industries and urbanization need to be decreased to get a healthy environment for plants and animals. Special management practice needs to be developed to suppress this increasing problem to survive on earth.

Keywords— industrialization, urbanization, suspended particles, productivity, fertility, heavy metals, etc.

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Extraction and Formulation of Perfume from Lemongrass

Abstract Perfume extraction is the extraction of aromatic compounds from raw materials, using methods such as distillation, solvent extraction etc. The extracts are essential oils, absolutes, butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product. Here, in this work solvent extraction, Enfleurage method, hydrodistillation and steam distillation methods were used to extract essential oil from lemongrass leaves. Distillation based recovery processes such as steam and vacuum distillation are preferred for the extraction of essential oils from plant materials. Other methods include solvent extraction, expression or enfleurage. In the present work, four methods are used for oil extraction namely solvent extraction, hydrodistillation and enfleurage. By using solvent extraction, 2.07% yield of essential oil was obtained. In enfleurage method, we obtained 1.957% oil yield. 0.946% yield of oil was obtained by hydro distillation process. The steam distillation process gave 0.70% yield of oil. From the analysis solvent extraction gave the highest yield because of the less exposure air and heat and this confirm the literature value. The extracted essential oil was formulated into perfume using a fixative and carrier solvent.

Keywords— Perfumes, Lemongrass, Enfleurage method, hydrodistillation.

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One Case of Internal Fixation Treatment for Tibia and Fibula Fracture of Dogs

Abstract Tibia and fibula fracture is a common fracture of hind limb in dogs. It is caused by external force on the hind limb. After fracture happens, external fixation is often used for treatment, and the effect is ideal. However, if the fracture site is close to the joint, we suggest to use internal fixation as far as possible, so as not to cause sequelae of joint stiffness. The author diagnosed the fracture of tibia and fibula in the left hind limb of the poodle through combining the incidence, clinical manifestations and DR examination, and then used the internal fixation plate for internal fixation. Under postoperative care, the dog recovered well.

Keywords— fracture, tibia and fibula, internal fixation, internal fixation plate.

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Rubber Tree Cultivation and Improvement: Rootstock-Scion Compatibility between Hevea Species and Cultivated Planting Materials

Abstract Rootstocks have a clear effect on rubber tree growth and development during the seedling and immature stages. However, the exploration of Hevea species as rootstocks is relatively uncommon in the general practices in the cultivation and improvement programmes in Malaysia. Hevea species were tested in this research including Hevea brasiliensis, Hevea benthamiana, Hevea camargoana, Hevea guianensis, Hevea nitida, Hevea pauciflora, Hevea rigidifolia and Hevea spruceana. This research examined the successful bud-grafted percentage between scion and rootstock of different Hevea species and cultivated planting materials. The results demonstrated that rootstock-scion of H. benthamiana-PB 260 achieved the highest successful bud-grafted percentage at 94.5%, followed by H. nitida-RRIM 2001 (93.8%), H. nitida-PB 350 (92.3%) and H. pauciflora-PB 260 (90.8%). The lowest successful bud-grafted percentage came from H. benthamiana-RRIM 2025 at 51.1 %. Therefore, the exploration of Hevea species as potential rootstocks based on the successful bud-grafted percentage between rootstock-scion and their compatibility could be applied as a speed indicator for rubber nurseries to produce high quality planting materials.

Keywords bud-grafted, Hevea species, rootstock-scion.

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Criteria for the Selection of Vegetable Growth-Promoting Bacteria to be applied on Roselle Crop (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) and Bioremediation

AbstractIn order to define which are the most important criteria for the selection of plant Growth-Promoting bacterial strains of the Hibiscus sabdariffa L. crop (Roselle), bacterial strains isolated from the roots of Roselle plants of two varieties (Creole and Spider) were used, collected in the community of Río de los Peces, municipality of Candelaria Loxicha, Oaxaca and seeds of the same varieties. To characterize the varieties, the following were determined: total germination percentage (TGP), germination speed (GS), the root length (RL), the stem length (SL), the dry root biomass (DRB), the dry stem biomass (DSB) and the chlorophyll content (CC). Three types of LED lamps were used to illuminate the seedlings. The seeds inoculated with cells of six selected bacterial strains were grown in a greenhouse to determine: the stem length (SL) at 3, 45 and 65 days after sowing (das). The treatments were distributed under a completely random design and comparison of means (Tukey, p = 0.05). The TGP, DSB and DRB parameters were not useful in the selection process of the strains that promoted plant growth to a greater degree. The GS and SL to be considered safe criteria or not, what is important is the relationship of what happens at the time of germination and development of the seedlings in the laboratory and greenhouse. The SL of the plants in the greenhouse showed differences between strains, but not regarding the control and also only observed in the first days of development (3 das). The CC did not prove to be a good selection criterion either. The lamp composed of 15% white light, 27% blue light and 58% red light was the one that most promoted root growth.

Keywords—Plant Growth-Promoting bacteria strains, Hibiscus sabdariffa L, Bacterial strains selection criteria, LED lamps.

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Symptoms and their Assessment of Sugarcane Pokkah Boeng

Abstract Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is one of the main important commercial crops, mainly grown in tropical and subtropical countries in the world, because these areas provide suitable conditions for obtaining the best yield and productivity. Sugarcane is affected by many pathogens such as fungi, bacterial and viral diseases and fungal diseases are increasingly being affected internationally, affecting the quantity and/or quality of harvested crops. Among the fungal diseases, pokkah boeng have become the main problems faced by sugarcane growing countries, causing serious yield losses. However, there are many reports of an outbreak of the disease, which looks spectacular, but it caused trade and industrial losses. In this review we highlight the importance of sugarcane and the symptoms of the Pokkah Boeng disease tend to develop during period of rapid crop growth.

Keywords— Sugarcane, Pokkah Boeng, Symptoms, Pathogen, Fusarium.

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Study on the Extraction Technology of Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract by Enzymolysis Combined with Fermentation

Abstract In this paper, we select Ginkgo biloba leaves in Taizhou as raw materials and use cellulase and pectinase to hydrolyze Ginkgo biloba leaves, and then the Ginkgo biloba leaves extract was prepared by microbial fermentation. Firstly, cellulase and pectinase were selected for single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment to determine the effect of enzyme dosage, enzymolysis time, temperature and pH value on the extraction rate of Ginkgo biloba leaves; then, microbial fermentation was used to study the effect of optimal temperature, time and pH value on the extraction rate of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The results showed that: the optimal enzyme content was 0.2%, the time of enzymolysis is 2 h, the temperature of enzymolysis was 4 oC, the pH of enzymolysis was 4.5; the optimal microorganism content of fermentation was 4%, the temperature of fermentation was 30oC, the time of fermentation was 8 D, the pH of fermentation was 5,and extraction rate was 18.56%.

Keywords— Ginkgo biloba; enzymolysis; fermentation; Ginkgo biloba extract.

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Social and Environmental Concerns of Flower Farms in Central Ethiopia

Abstract The extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the flower farming industries has been linked to negative environmental and social impacts. The cross-sectional study was conducted to assess social and environmental concerns of flower farms in Central Ethiopia using questionnaires, focus group discussion and field visits. This study revealed that 317 (52.75%) of respondents reported that flower farms have been disposing of their flower residue of in the open field. The findings of this study showed that 216(36%) of inhabitants buy or receive empty chemical bags and containers that had been disposed by the flower farms. Focus Group Discussion participants perceived the decrease in volume and quality of groundwater, a decrease in productivity, land degradation, and increased emerging diseases due to the existence of flower farms in the area.. In addition, they reported abuse of employee rights, displacement of farmers from fertile land, death of cattle and fish, loss of acceptance for their agricultural and fish products. In conclusion, this study revealed that there are a poor waste management and unsustainable activities by the flower farms. The government should closely monitor these farms and undergo a holistic study to quantify environmental and local inhabitant’s opportunity costs of flower farming activity.

Keywords— Flower farm, Waste management, Environmental pollution, Pesticides, Fertilizer, Human health.

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Effects of Feeding Ice Fish and Feed on the Flavor of Chinese Crab

Abstract Eriocheir sinensis is an important aquaculture animal in China. In order to compare the effects of feeding chilled fish and feed on the flavor of Chinese mitten crab, this experiment compared the volatile flavor substances, sensory evaluation and the differences of amino acids (AA), fatty acids (FA) and nucleotides. As a result, the sweet taste, fresh taste and grass flavor of Chinese chelate crab in the feed group were significantly higher than those in the ice fish group (P<0.05). The fishy smell of the feed group was significantly lower than that of the ice fish group (P<0.05). Amino acids in feed group and chilled fish group were not significantly different. Only 5'-adenosyl monophosphate (AMP) was found to be significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05), and the AMP content in feed group was significantly higher than that in ice fish group. The fatty acid composition of feed group and chilled fish group varied greatly. compared with the chilled fish group, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in feed group decreased significantly (P<0.05), while high unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increased significantly (P<0.05). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to study volatile small molecules in muscle difference, compared with the ice fish group, the content of aldehydes in the feed group increased significantly (P<0.05), and the content of ketones and nitrogen compounds decreased significantly (P<0.05). The enzyme (lipoxygenase) that catalyzes the formation of aldehydes from polyunsaturated fatty acids was further analyzed. Compared with the ice fish group, the expression of LOX 5 genes and proteins and LOX enzyme activity in the feed group were significantly increased (P<0.05).

Keywords— Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, amino acid, fatty acid, flavor.

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Relationship between Profile and Food Consumption Pattern of Tribal Families of Palghar District

Abstract This paper examines the relationship between profile and food consumption pattern of the tribal families from Palghar district. The study was conducted at the Palghar district. Samples of 120 tribal families were considered as respondents for present study. The respondents were interviewed with the help of specially designed schedule. Collected data was classified, tabulated and analysed by using various statistical methods. The result of the study showed that the relationship between family education status and food consumption pattern, family size and food consumption pattern, annual income of the family and food consumption pattern, cropping pattern and food consumption pattern, resource availability and food consumption pattern was found to be ‘positive’ and ‘significant’. The relationship between major occupation and food consumption pattern, land holding and food consumption pattern, farming experience and food consumption pattern, social participation and food consumption pattern was found to be ‘non-significant’. The extension workers should consider these facts while planning and executing programmes for development of the tribal families living in Palghar district.

Keywords— Profile, Food consumption pattern, tribal families, Relationship.

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Aspects for Agricultural Water Management in Water Stress Conditions: Case Study of Konya Plain, Turkey

Abstract The major aim of the study was to propose sustainable agro-water management strategies, particularly for water poor-ecologies. In current work, information was obtained from worldwide previous findings of studies relevant to the water management. In order to maximize water productivity in those environments exposing climate changes following applicable suggestions were presented: changing crop pattern in accordance of available current water resources, increasing utilization areas in favor of modern irrigation systems, if possible converting of water delivery networks to pipe systems, improving share of low water consuming crops in current crop patterns, practicing deficit irrigation program, collecting water charges based on volumetric basis, more uses of rainwater harvesting systems, training of farmers about irrigated agriculture, and if possible transferring some water from neighbor basins to irrigation farms.

Keywords Climate Change, Crop Pattern, Irrigation, Water Management, Water Shortage.

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Preparation of Crop Calendar on Mangalbari Town under Matiali Block, Jalpaiguri District

Abstract The crop calendar in a single word is time-table providing periodical information of sowing, growing and harvesting of different crops in relation to the climatic conditions of a particular area in advance. It also enhances the crop productivity and determines the appropriate distribution of labor, application of manures in the field as well as the wholesome development of the agronomy of a specific area. The present work is an effort to highlight the present pattern of agricultural practice as well as to identify different types of crops are produced in the Mangalbari town of Jalpaiguri, West Bengal. The investigation also focuses on the assessment of crop combination, crop specialization & crop diversification in the study area to end with the preparation of crop calendar. The entire work concludes with précised suggestive measure for the development of agronomy in the area.

Keywords Crop Calendar, Crop Combination, Crop Specialization, Crop Diversification, Agronomy.

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Agriculture Journal: November 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-11, November 2020

Inoculation of (Prosopis Laevigata) by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Different Doses of Organic Matter in Two Types of Soil

AbstractThe mesquite tree (Prosopis laevigata), besides its conventional uses, has a high potential to recover agricultural areas with salinity problems. It improves the physical and chemical properties of the soil, and in the rehabilitation of degraded arid and semi-arid zones, or those tending to desertification.The aim of this research was to test the effect of organic fertilization and inoculation with Glomus sp. on mesquite trees. We did the experiment under greenhouse conditions. The effect of applying Glomus sp. and organic matter in different doses during the growth of shoots and roots was evaluated in 13 agronomic variables in mesquite seedlings grown in Lithosols and Xerosols soils. We used a complete randomized block design with three replications. After 180 days, we analyzed the data using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) version 9.2. We observed a positive and significant effect on the growth of the agronomic variables studied under greenhouse conditions, and inoculation with Glomus sp. The organic matter factor presented significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). We determined that the ideal dose was 55 g per experimental unit. According to the soil used, positive effects (p ≤ 0.05) were observed for 50% of the agronomic variables in the Xerosols soil with relation to the Lithosols soil. We concluded that the inoculation of Prosopis laevigata with Glomus sp., and adding organic matter favors the growth of both the shots and the roots of the plant.

Keywords— Earthworms, Glomus sp., Lithosols soil, mesquite tree, vermicompost, Xerosols soil.

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Cattle Ticks and Risk Factors Related to Tick Infestation of Livestock in Periurban Farms in Southern Cote D'ivoire

Abstract Tick-borne diseases are a global public health problem, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where most of the disease is caused by malaria and many other diseases of viral, parasitic or bacterial origin. This study aimed to identify the bovine tick’s species in cattle farms and to determine possible risk factors related to tick infestation in Abidjan district and Azaguié commune. Thus, in July 2019, thirteen (13) herds distributed in these localities were visited for tick sampling and to conduct epidemiological investigations. At each visit, ticks were harvested from 15 cattle per herd. All the farms visited were infested with ticks. 96.92% of sampled animals had ticks. A total of 1796 ticks were collected of which 89.42% (1606) were adults, 10.41% (187) were pupae and 0.17% (3) was larvae. Two species of ticks have been identified, Amblyomma variegatum with 25% of the population and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with 75%. 96% of the cattle were infested by ticks of the species R. (B.) microplus and 56% of the cattle were infested by ticks of the species A. variegatum. The co-infestation of cattle by the two identified species was 53%. The distribution of the sexes showed that in the species A. variegatum, males were more numerous (13.44% for males and 8.76% for females). However in the species R. (B.) microplus, females were more numerous (5.08% for males and 62.3% for females).The analysis of risk factors associated with tick infestation in cattle has shown that factors such as Undefined parks, Type of pasture, Training in the use of acaricides and Presence of wild animals contribute to major ectoparasite infestations in cattle. Tick samples collected from peri-urban farms in the district of Abidjan and the locality of Azaguié as part of this study, indicate that the relatively recent introduction of the species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus presents a threat to animal and human health.

Keywords— Ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Risk factors, Côte d’Ivoire.

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Rubber Tree Cultivation and Improvement: Biological Aspects and the Risk of Inbreeding Depression

Abstract Rubber trees (Hevea spp.) are among the essential plants cultivated and have contributed to Malaysia’s economy growth for many decades. Latex harvested from rubber trees is an irreplaceable raw material and accounts for a wide range of uses in tires, tubes, footwear, rubber gloves, and other rubber-based products. There were many attempts to produce ideal rubber tree for increasing latex yield production through the improvement programmes since 1950s. However, the risk of inbreeding depression and the planting materials produced from the chosen parents that are closely related in the improvement programmes is fairly high. Inbreeding depression caused discouraging effects such as uneven bark surface, leaf disease infection, easily damaged by wind blows and eventually reducing the production of latex yield overall. This review highlights the important of biological aspects for latex production in rubber tree and seeing minimizing the risk of inbreeding depression with the necessity of broader genetic base in the rubber tree cultivation and improvement programmes.

Keywords— Inbreeding depression, genetic base, rubber.

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Malting Sludges as Soil Amendment

Abstract Residual sludge that results from the treatment of malt house effluents produced during the malting of barley in malt house (Argentina) was evaluated to determine its fertilising potential and capability for improving soil as a way to reuse or recycle this material. The Cabildo soil (Southwest of Buenos Aires Province), of the typic Argiustoll subgroup had a sandy clay-loam texture and was tested in this field experiments. This soil plots (4 m2) were amended with equivalent malting sludges doses of 5, 15, and 25 Mg/ha. When biosolids, like malting sludges, are incorporated as an amendment, many micronutrients are provided. Chemical properties of the soil, particularly the pH, EC (Electrical Conductivity) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), were improved. Dactylis glomerata L. were utilised as growing crop (forage) in this field test, productivity ( Dry matter) and quality (protein %) gave results following 0,205 kg/m2 and 11.94 % at control in comparison with 0,4 kg/m2 and 15.15 % of amended soil. Calcium concentration in grasses was significantly different for control (4651 mg/kg-1) in comparison with high sludge dose (8907 mg/kg-1), the same trend was found with micronutrients like Copper and Molybdenum. This result from field test indicate that this residual sludge constitutes a suitable amendment for agricultural soils, increasing quality and productivity of Dactylis glomerata L and improving several soil properties.

Keywords— Malting Sludge, Soil Amendment, Forage.

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In-Vitro Studies of Different Culture Media and Biocontrol Agents on Growth and Sporulation of Alternaria Alternata (Fr.) Keissler an Incitant of Broad bean (Vicia Faba L.) Leaf Blight Disease

Abstract Studies on different culture media and biocontrol agents on growth and sporulation of Alternaria alternata (fr.) keissler causal organism of Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaf blight disease was conducted in vitro. Six culture media was tested for growth and sporulation of A. Alternata. It was found in that in liquid broth media, Potato dextrose broth (607 mg, dry weight of mycelium) and in solid media, maximum linear growth recorded in Potato dextrose agar (90 mm) with maximum number of spores 6.2 x 103 spores/ml. The antagonistic studies of 5 fungal biocontrol agents in dual culture technique found that all biocontrol agents statistically produced a significant antagonistic effect on linear growth and sporulation of A. Alternata. Maximum linear growth inhibition of Alternaria alternata was found in Trichoderma harzianum (17.5mm) with 89.6% inhibition and at par with Trichoderma viride (19.5mm) with 84.4% inhibition followed by T. hamatum (22.3 mm) with 74.1% inhibition and Gliocladium virens (21.0 mm) with 70.6% and minimum significant inhibition effect in T. koningii (22.8 mm) with per cent inhibition of 67.2 over the check. Highest spore inhibition of was found in T. harzianum (89.6%) and T. viride (84.4%) followed by T. hamatum (74.1%) and G. virens (70.6%) while minimum inhibition was found in T. koningii (67.25). It was further observed that T. harzianum could overgrown the growth of pathogenic fungus within 2 days and for T. viride within 3 days where as T. hamatum and G. virens took 5 days.

Keywords— Alternaria alternata, blight disease, broth media, solid media, efficacy, linear growth, sporulation, mycelium, biocontrol agents.

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The Impact of Population Growth on Natural Forests in Rwanda

Abstract Deforestation is a growing problem in many parts of the tropical world and one of the affected countries is Rwanda. The general objective of this study is to assess the effect of population growth on natural forest resource in Rwanda in general. Thus, this research focused on assessing the impact of population growth on natural forest of Rwanda. It critically examines how the population growth can impact natural forest. To achieve the set objectives, a cross sectional research design was combined with qualitative and quantitative approach. We collected secondary data from National Statistics Institute of Rwanda (NSIR), Ministry of Environment (MOE), Rwanda Environmental Management Authority (REMA), etc. The study adopted descriptive approaches in processing data. The findings show that above 45.27% of natural forests have been lost from 1984 to 2015 due to the high rate of population growth in Rwanda. As a recommendation, faced with a dense and rapidly increasing population on a fragile land resource, Rwanda must take steps towards transforming the economy and eliminating poverty through a Green Growth program. Family planning must be also adopted in reducing the impact of population growth on natural forestry preservation.

Keywords— Population Growth, Natural forests, Deforestation.

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Factors Influencing Adoption of New Irrigation Technologies on Farms in Morocco: Application of Logit Model

Abstract The objective of this article is to identify the determinants of the adoption of new irrigation technologies in Moroccan agriculture. The research is carried out on a sample of 82 farmers from the Souss-Massa region (Morocco). The results from the estimation of a binary logit model show that the variables: Age, level of education, non-farm income, perceived utility, possession of a computer, farm size, access to credit, ease of use, influence the probability of adoption of new irrigation technologies among farmers. The theoretical and managerial implications of this research are discussed.

Keywords Precision agriculture, technology adoption, irrigation, logit model, Souss-Massa region.

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Evaluation of the Development of Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) in Two Soil Types with Interaction of Bacterial Cells and Vermicompost

Abstract— In this study, we tested the growth of two varieties of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) cultivated in two types of soils and the effects of the inoculation of seeds with cells of bacterial strains and vermicompost. (H. sabdariffa) are a member of the Malvaceae family and an important plant because its calyxes are used to produce beverages, prepare food, in the textile industry, cosmetology, perfumery, medicine, etc.

This research was carried out at the Postgraduate College, Montecillo Campus, Mexico. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with a factorial arrangement (4x3x2): four levels of organic matter factor, three levels of bacterial strains factor, and two levels of soil factor with three repetitions. The variables tested were: germination percentage (GP), plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), the number of leaves (NL), foliar area (FA cm2), radical volume (RV cm3), dry aerial part biomass weight (DAPBW), dry root biomass weight (DRBW), dry calyx biomass weight (DCBW) and chlorophyll content (CC). The effects of soil and bacterial strains showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) on the agronomic characteristics of (H. sabdariffa) plants. The organic matter factor only presented significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the germination percentage and growth variables of the vegetative phase.

To increase crop production, the use of wastewater and microorganisms is proposed. Vermicompost exploded the percentage of germination, height, the number of leaves and stem diameter during the first weeks of growth, presenting important results in Creole variety (farmers’ local variety). By inoculating seeds with cells of bacterial strains, A9m and A7 helped significantly to stimulate plant growth, finding a better response in A9m strain. The effects of soil factor showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in soil irrigated with residual water over agronomic characteristics satisfying the nutritional requirements of the crop.

Keywords— Germination percentage, Malvaceae, Soil microorganisms, Organic matter, Wastewater.

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Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil of Industrial Area, Dewas, Madhya Pradesh, India

Abstract A study has been conducted to assess the heavy metal contamination in soil of Dewas industrial area of Madhya Pradesh, India. Total eight locations and one control location were selected in Dewas industrial area for soil quality monitoring w.r.t. heavy metals. The nine soil samples were monitored for heavy metals such as Chromium (Cr), Manganese(Mn), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Cobalt (Co) analysis during different four quarters from April 2019 to March 2020. The heavy metal contamination with w.r.t. Contamination Index (CI), Pollution Load Index (PLI) study in selected locations in Dewas industrial area has been done. Over all Pollution Load Index of soil was found greater than 1 which shows polluted soil w.r.t. heavy metals at all selected monitoring locations in Dewas industrial area of Madhya Pradesh, India during this study.

Keywords— Industrial Area, Soil, Heavy Metals, Contamination Index (CI), Pollution Load Index (PLI).

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Bacteriological Characteristics of Spring Water in Ambo Town, West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

Abstract Present study was carried out to assess the quality of spring waters in terms of microbiological and chemical characters from Ambo. The results of the study revealed that chemical parameters such as pH (6.36-7.94),TDS(407-1041mg/L), DO(1.5-5.85mg/L),TS (1170-495mg/L), total alkalinity (313-1277mg/L), total hardness (38-1274 mg/L),COD (70.5-9mg/L)in the “Hora” water were higher than the maximum permissible levels of WHO standards for drinking waters. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts tested were found to be as0.977×104 cfu/ml for SFWS, 2.35 ×104cuf/ml for CDSTRM,1.14×104cfu/ml for HB,0.553×104 cfu/ml for HD and2.72×104for Huluka streams samples. The “Hora” water contained different coli forms when tested by most probable number (MPN) method found to be in the order of 0.66 × 102 cfu/ml for SFWS, 39 x 102 cfu/ml for CDSTRM, 0×102 for HB, 0×102forHDand28×102cfu/ml for Huluka stream. The water samples from the different “Hora” water sources showed significant variations with respect to bacteriological and chemical characteristics during study period. Statistical analysis showed significant difference (p <0.05) in the distribution of total coli form, and aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria at various sampling locations. The study concluded poor water quality in terms of bacteriological and chemical characteristics of “Hora”water sources as all the parameters were well above WHO prescribed standards.

Keywords Ambo town, bacteriological & chemical characteristics, Hora spring water, Huluka river, water quality, WHO standards.

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