Thursday, 31 May 2018

Agriculture Journal: May 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-5, May 2018

Study of the impact of Oum Azza landfill leachates on the environment of Rabat - Morocco

Abstract The problem of solid household waste has arisen with great sharpness in recent decades. In particular, the management of leachates and the neutralization of their environmental impacts. The need for Morocco to meet the environmental challenge and put itself in logic of sustainable development has led to an awareness of this issue and the promulgation of the new law 28-00 on waste management and their elimination.

The objective of this research work is the characterization of the organic and mineral load of leachate from the Oum Azza landfill and the evaluation of its environmental impacts on the city of Rabat. For this a campaign of 24 samples was undertaken in 2011.

The physicochemical characterization of leachates has revealed that these liquid discharges are:

  • Very high in organic matter with mean MES = 470mg / L; Average BOD5 = 5522 mg of O2 / L and COD = 12626 mg / L;
  • Very charged in mineral matter expressed in terms of electrical Conductivity (mean = 33969 μs / cm);
  • Have an average temperature of 24.5 ° C and a pH of 8;
  • A chloride concentration of 4289 mg / L;
  • Average sodium levels in the order of 3049 mg / L;
  • Average total nitrogen levels of 4090 mg / L and ammonia in the order of 3207 mg / L;
  • Average level of phosphates of the order of 35 mg / L;
  • Average sulphates levels of 35 mg / L.

The Rabat landfill represents a real nuisance for health and the environment because of the toxic characteristics of pollutants and bad odors. It is therefore essential to treat these liquid discharges and install a WWTP to mitigate the environmental impact of leachate.

Keywords Oum Azza discharge, leachates, physicochemistry, Pollution, Impacts, Odors, Rabat, Morocco.

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Analysis of enterprise relationships in food industry cluster based on niche theory

Abstract In recent years, the Chinese government and local governments in China at all levels actively promote the construction of food industry cluster Demonstration Park. Many problems accompanied with the continuous development of industrial clusters, such as the proliferation of homogeneous enterprises and products, the lack of organic links and symbiosis relationship among enterprises, resource depletion and environmental degradation, triggering niche overlap and vicious competition. All these phenomenon leads to industry cluster an acute shortage power of competitive and innovation. In this paper, we take the livestock and poultry industry cluster as the research object, use niche theory to analyze enterprise niche inclusion, overlap and separation relationships. As well as through the neutral theory in the equilibrium state to explain the cluster of enterprises in the competition, cooperation and symbiotic relationship.

Keywords Niche Theory, Food Industry Cluster, Neutral Theory, Competition, Cooperation.

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Improved grey clustering method in risk zonation of mountain flash flood disaster

Abstract Flash floods are considered one of the worst weather-related natural disasters. Flash floods are dangerous because they are sudden and highly unpredictable. Identification of the locations of high-risk areas has a major effect on the improvement of flash flood disaster control and prevention. Earlier work conducted on flood disaster risk zonation was commonly based on Digital Elevation Mode (DEM) data and statistical yearbook data and used an index, such as rainfall, topography, slope, or river distribution, with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to determine the weighting. In this method, the final regional risk map was created by using ArcGIS map algebra superposition. In the present study, an improved gray clustering method is put forward to improve the comprehensive evaluation of the risk of mountain flash flood disasters by constructing the exponential whitening function and by using the information entropy weight method, which produces results that are more accurate and more reliable than those of the traditional method. This improved method can make full use of the limited information available, improving not only the resolution but also the influence of the subjective method, and produces more objective and accurate evaluation results. We obtain the risk degree by combining the information entropy weight and improved whitening function approaches in a gray clustering methodology. Additionally, a method is applied to develop models for mapping the risk grade in zones of 1436 towns and counties in Hubei Province with remotely sensed (RS) data and the ArcGIS platform. The results show that the improved approach is useful for rapidly assessing flash flood hazard and vulnerability and for completing risk assessments in mountain areas.

Keywords improved gray clustering method, whitening function, information entropy, flood disaster risk, evaluation, zonation.

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Soil Erosion Risk Assessment Using GIS Based USLE Model for Soil and Water Conservation Planning in Somodo Watershed, South West Ethiopia

Abstract Soil erosion is natural phenomena and is modified by biophysical environment comprising soil, climate, terrain, ground cover and their interactions. Due to different factors, it is difficult to make watershed management successful in all areas at one time. Because of this, prioritization of sub watershed is very important for soil conservation planning and implementation. In Somodo watershed more than five years different soil and water conservation technologies were implemented and satisfactory result was not recorded. In this aspect, it is important to consider further watershed management planning., This study therefore investigated soil erosion risk assessment using GIS and USLE model for soil and water conservation in Somodo watershed southwestern Ethiopia with the aim of estimating soil erosion rate and identify soil erosion hot pot areas through prioritization of sub watershed in Somodo watershed by the help of GIS based USLE model. Both primary and secondary data sources were used for model input. These data were computed at a grid level with 30*30m resolution and then overlaid to generate mean annual soil loss by the help of raster calculator in Arc GIS tool. Results of the study showed that, the mean annual soil loss of the watershed was 18.69 ton ha-1 year-1 ranging from 0 to 131.21. More than 75% of the watershed have soil loss greater than 20 ton ha-1 year-1 and only 25% of the area have soil loss less than 10 ton ha-1 year-1.On the bases of mean annual soil loss SW-4, SW-6 and SW-7 were under slight (0-10 ton ha-1 year-1) erosion severity level, while the remaining SW-2, SW-3 and SW-8 were under moderate (10-20 ton ha-1 year-1) level. And SW-1 was in high (20-30 ton ha-1 year-1) erosion severity level, where as SW-5 and SW-9 were found in very high (>30 ton ha-1 year-1) erosion severity level. Since large area of the watershed has soil loss more than tolerable level (11 ton ha-1 year-1) attention should be given to identify erosion hot spot areas to minimize the on-site and off-site problems. Therefore, the study suggested that for effective watershed management and soil conservation planning, these sub-watershed priorities should be used in the watershed.

Keywords Soil loss, GIS, USLE, Hot spot and prioritization.

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Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil and Cytotoxic Activity of Ducrosia asadi Alva. from Iran

Abstract Hydro distillated oil of the aerial parts of Ducrosia assadi Alva. (Umbelliferae ) , has been analyzed by GC/MS with two different capillary columns, HP-5MS and HP-Wax. Thirty-four compounds were identified, 94.3% of the total oils. The concentration of citronellol, chrysanthenyl acetate, decanoic acid, decanol and linalool was high in analysis of the oil with both columns . Cytotoxic activity studied on two human cancer cell lines (LS180 and MCF-7) represented moderate cytotoxic activity.

Keywords Ducrosia assadi, Umbelliferae, essential oil, citronellol, Chrysanthenyl acetate.

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Effect of salinity on the physiological and biochemical responses of neem

Abstract— The present study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth, physiological and biochemical changes of neem under different salinity levels (4, 8, 10 and 12 dS/m) which have multipurpose use in agroforestry. Growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrate, proline and total phenol were investigated 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after treatment imposition. The results revealed that salinity caused significant differences in all the growth parameters and the maximum reduction were observed when plants were exposed to high salinity (12 dS/m) level and minimum were in control treatments. It was found that total dry matter and relative water content were reduced 72% and 40% in 12 dS/m compared to control plants at 120 DATI, respectively. By increasing saliniy 0 to 12 dS/m, the chlorophyll (the photosynthetic pigment) and carbohydrate (the photosynthetic product) content decreased, but increased the level of proline (an amino acid) and total phenol content (an antioxidant) in different days. The highest accumulation of free proline and total phenol content was recorded in 10 dS/m treatment and it was 77% and 59% greater than control plant, respectively. These findings suggest that though growth and biochemical parameters of neem were affected by salt stress, but all the plants survived in different salinity levels. Among all different salinity levels, neem can performed better up to 10 dS/m salinity level could be due to better antioxidant system of neem to cope up with oxidative damage to stressed plants.

Keywords Chlorophyll, growth, medicinal plant, neem, salinity.

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Impact of Biofertilizers on Crop Seeds

Abstract A laboratory experiments were conducted during the year of 2012-2014 at Annamalai University of cuddalore district under irrigated conditions to formulate site –specific nutrient management and efficiency of treatments known by comparing with rice, sunflower and black gram seeds. And the treatments includes control, 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1% vermicompost, 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1% phosphobacteria, 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1% azospirillum. And the above treatments are applied to all the three seeds ie, rice, sunflower, black gram. The numbers of seeds used for the experiment are 50 seeds of paddy, 20 seeds of black gram and 10 seeds of sunflower. Highest values for plant biomass root and shoot length was noticed in 10 % all the treatments.

Keywords Sunflower, Nutrient management, plant biomass, root and shoot length.

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Chloroplasts and Mitochondria: Similarities and Differences

Abstract Eukaryotic cells contain two organelles originally derived from endosymbiotic bacteria: mitochondria and plastids (only plants). In eukaryotes, (owner mitochondria and chloroplast) ATP synthase complex is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, and thylakoids membrane of chloroplast. ATP synthesis utilization and provision of both ADP and Pi need to be fine – tuned for optimal ATP synthase activity. Mitochondria and chloroplast have their DNA. The vast majority of mitochondrial and plastid proteins are encoded in the nucleus, synthesized by cytosolic ribosomes and subsequently imported into the organelles via active protein transport systems.

Keywords— ATP synthesis, Chlororplast, Mitochondria, Protein targeting.

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Metabolomics Analysis on Antifungal Activities Produced by Penicillium oxalicum T3.3 Grown on Different Types of Carbon Sources

AbstractIn-vitro antagonist tests such as disc diffusion and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) were conducted against C. gloeosporioides. 1H-NMR coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to identify possible compounds produced. Glucose crude extract exhibited the highest percent inhibition of radial growth (PIRG) with 75% and the lowest MIC value with 78 µg mL-1. For metabolomics, different metabolites produced were clustered according to the carbon sources used and gave a representative impression of the metabolites produced by P. oxalicum T3.3. The study has shown the potential of using a combination of 1H-NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis and their correlation with MIC in differentiating the effect of carbon sources used based on the identification of possible metabolites contributing to their differences. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both antimicrobial activities against plant pathogen and elucidation of the metabolite compounds produced by P. oxalicum T3.3.

KeywordsColletotrichum gloeosporioides, metabolomics, Partial Least Square (PLS), Penicillium oxalicum.

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Pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) reduced the flower abscission in Phaleonopsis cut orchid

AbstractPhaleonopsis cut orchids were pretreated for 6 hours at 25 °C with or without 1-MCP. Treated cut orchids were exposed to 800 ppm of 1- methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). Then, all cut flowers were treated with ethylene for 15 hours and after that were held in flask containing flower food individually at 25 °C to follow abscission. It was observed that, 20–30% of the floral buds and flowers abscised within 4 days in untreated sample. However, in treated sample, the 1-MCP pretreatment reduced the bud and petal abscission and the cut orchids were still maintained acceptable until day 7 before starting to abscise between 10-14 days of storage period. Result also showed that the ethylene production was inhibited and ACC oxidase activity was decreased in samples treated with 1-MCP. Thus, 1-MCP pretreatments prolong the shelf life of cut orchids from 4 days in control up to 10 days in treated samples, both displayed in 25 °C.

Keywordsornamental, ACC oxidase activity, ethylene production, quality, shelf life.

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Monday, 14 May 2018

Agriculture Journal: April 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-4, April 2018

Phytosanitary Products Action to Control Leaf Miner, Rust and their Influence on Coffee Vigor and Productivity

Abstract The Coffee Leaf Miner - CLM and coffee rust are the main pests and coffee diseases, respectively. One of the rust and CLM handling ways is the preventive use of active ingredients of joint action (fungicide + insecticide) via soil. These products are generally evaluated for their efficiency in the chemical control of pests and diseases; however some of these products may promote a tonic effect by improving plant vigor. Thus, the objective in this work was to verify the influence of the phytosanitary products application on the rust and leaf miner control, on the coffee trees development and production. The assay was installed in Random Block Design - RBD, with twelve treatments T1 - Premier Plus, T2 - Premier Plus and Actara, T3 - Verdadero, T4 - Verdadero and Actara, T5 - Actara, T6 - Actara (Nov/Feb), T7 - Altacor, T8 - Altacor and Actara, T9 - Impact, T10 - Opera, T11- Control and T12 - Practical and three replicates in a Catuaí IAC-144 crop. Number of nodes per branch, productivity, incidence of rust and CLM were evaluated. There was no difference in the coffee trees growth submitted to the application of different phytosanitary products for the control of rust and leaf miner. The application of Thiamethoxan + Cyproconazole in november with a complementary application of Thiamethoxan in february were more efficient for the coffee leaf miner control and provided greater vigor and productivity to the coffee tree.

Keywords Hemileiavastatrix, Leucopteracoffeela, tonic effect.

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Influence of Sulfur and Boron on the growth and yield of Broccoli

Abstract Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of sulfur (S) and boron (B) on yield and yield component of broccoli. Sulfur was applied @ 0 (control), 20 and 40 kg ha-1 as elemental sulfur while B was applied at the rate 0, 1 and 1.5 kg ha-1 as borax along with a basal dose of N,P and K @ 120, 90 and 60 kg ha-1. All the fertilizers were applied at the time of sowing. The experimental design used was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The data on plant height, number of leaves, flower diameter, head yield and biological mass were recorded along with S and B concentration in soil after crop harvesting. The result revealed that yield and yield parameter increased with increasing levels of S and B with higher head yield, flower diameter and plant height were observed when 40 kg ha-1 S and 1.5 kg ha-1 B were applied. It was further noted that head yield and head diameter were non-significant when averaged across the B treatment between 20 and 40 kg ha-1 applied S but significant from control. Similarly, when the yield parameters were average across the S treatment, there was a significant and linear increase with higher B level. Soil analysis showed that both B an S concentration in soil increased by increasing level of applied S and B. So the optimum level of S and B for broccoli was 40 and 1.5 kg ha-1respectively for higher yield of broccoli.

Keywords Boron, broccoli, growth and yield, Sulfur.

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About non – coding RNAs

Abstract The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein. Recently, a large number of RNAs have been identified in animal and plants that have little or no protein – coding potential. Such RNA molecules have been discovered by the extensive applications of high – throughput sequencing technology. Non – coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which comprise a significant output of the genomes of prokaryotes and especially eukaryotes, are increasingly implicated in the molecular mechanisms that are being used for responding to biotic and abiotic stresses that occurred in living things life. The ncRNAs are a heterogeneous group of RNA molecules, which can be classified in different ways according to their location, length, and biological functions. In this review a brief description about non – coding RNAs will be brought especially in plants.

Keywords Gene regulation, Non – coding RNAs, Plants.

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Agronomical efficiency of two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties against different level of Nitrogen fertilizer in Subtropical region of Pakistan

Abstract A field study was carried out to at Agriculture Research Institute, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, to investigate the effect of various nitrogen levels on growth and yield contributing traits of two wheat varieties. Wheat varieties Benazir and TJ-83 were evaluated against four nitrogen levels (0, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1).The results revealed that the effect of nitrogen levels as well as varieties differed significantly for all the growth and yield contributing traits and N @ 150 kg ha-1 resulted in maximum values for plant height (87.66 cm), number of tillers m-2 (265.17), spike length (13.05 cm), number of spikelets spike-1 (22.02), number of grain spike-1 (68.21), seed index (48.80 g) and grain yield (4320 kg ha-1). In varieties, Benazir showed its superiority over its companion variety with 82.91 cm plant height, 224.17 tillers m-2, 10.52 cm spike length, 18.21 spikelets spike-1, 53.00 grains spike-1, 45.29 g seed index and 3649.50 kg ha-1 grain yield. The commercial variety TJ-83 ranked 2nd with 78.33 cm plant height, 207.75 tillers m-2, 11.42 cm spike length, 19.82 spikelets spike-1, 57.31 grains spike-1, 40.98 g seed index and 3143.20 kg ha-1 grain yield. It was observed that treatment interaction N @150 kg × variety Benazir proved to be effective treatment and variety combination for achieving higher wheat yields; while, variety Benazir showed its genetic superiority yielding higher than its companion variety TJ-83.

Keywords Growth parameters, grain yield, Nitrogen, wheat.

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Zeolite membranes to immobilize Catalase

Abstract Processes based on immobilized enzymes have been studied extensively in the last few decades and today are also applied to the safeguard of environmental parameters. In this work, zeolite composite flat membranes with different chemical composition, transition metal, and microporous structures were prepared using in situ and secondary growth crystallization synthesis methods in/on stainless steel porous disks. All zeolite materials were been used in catalase adsorption to analyze the zeolite behavior andthe effect of chemical composition and structure on interaction with the enzyme. This study shows that the electrostatic type of interaction seems to be of the utmost importance in influencing immobilization, while the zeolite Brönsted acidity of the support is the subordinate parameter, which differentiates the adsorption performances of different zeolite structures (that distinct for chemical composition of the framework). Moreover, it permits to conclude that transition metal-containing membranes adsorb a higher percentage of the enzyme with respect to no-exchanged membranes and that, for all materials synthesized, the amount of catalase adsorbed onto the zeolite crystals and membranes increases with the temperature.

Keywords Catalase immobilization, Environmental application, Hydrothermal synthesis, Zeolite membranes.

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Market of bananas in the city of Lavras-Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 2002 to 2017

Abstract The banana market has grown considerably in recent years due to the increase in the supply of this fruit, both in quantity, quality and punctuality of the daily / weekly offer in the gondolas of hortifrúti retail establishments. Also, trade has grown due to increased consumer demand for this product, because of the change in people's behavior for better quality foods, such as bananas. This work was carried out in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2002 to 2017, making monthly collections in hortifrúti retail establishments, using spreadsheets to record the quantities sold, gondola losses with information from the sector managers and per capita consumption made through the ratio of the quantity sold and the number of inhabitants of the city at each stage of the research, in order to know the size of the banana market in this city.

Keywords Banana, Per capita consumption, Marketplace, Losses.

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A mitochondrial DNA SNP is maternally inherited in hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) and segregates varieties of the renowned Brewer’s Gold female lineage from the others

Abstract The integration of molecular biology concepts and techniques in cultivated plant breeding programs allows defining more accurately the parents involved in crosses. The analysis of the DNA polymorphism in existing hop cultivars or wild types selected to generate new potent varieties is commonly used. Ribosomal DNA RFLP was the first to be studied in the middle of the 1990’s and differentiated at least European from North American cultivated hops. The EcoRI rDNA RFLP has been established here for a selection of 31 H. lupulus plants, 17 of which are cultivars and the remaining 14 include wild types and other genotypes used for breeding. The sequence of the Magnum variety rDNA EcoRI fragment (4,957 bp) covering the intergenic spacer and corresponding to its North American heritage has been determined. As mitochondria are known to play a role in the biosynthesis of the valuable plant secondary metabolites, specially those based on isopentenyl pyrophosphate, the search for mtDNA polymorphism allowing a possible distinction among hops was engaged. After having established the 14,472 bp sequence of mtDNA encompassing the ATP synthase alpha subunit (509 aa), a 560 bp region 5’ upstream of this gene allowed to identify a single nucleotide polymorphism. This SNP appeared to be maternally inherited in the lineage of Brewer’s Gold, often used in crosses for its bittering properties. This work may stimulate researchers to explore further on the role of mitochondria in the biosynthesis of metabolites, mainly but not only isoprenoids, that make Humulus lupulus so interesting.

Keywords Cannabaceae, Cannabis sativa, Medicinal plant, Mitochondria, Terpenes.

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In vitro Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Some New Fungicides in the Control of Rhizoctonia solani in Tobacco Seedlings

Abstract The damping off disease of tobacco seedlings caused by the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani causes a huge damage. The limited numbers of products are used in protection from the disease, but lately new fungicides appeared on the market.

The aim of these investigations was to determine the effectiveness of new fungicides in control of this pathogen, compared with commonly used. The tests were carried out in conditions in vitro, with 8 fungicides. Two fungicides were evaluated in 2 or 3 concentrations.

All tested fungicides showed extremely high effectiveness in the control of this pathogenic fungus –the percentage of inhibition of radial growth ranges from 80, 45 to 100%.

The preparate Orvego (300 g / l ametoctradin + 225 g / l dimetomorph) is exception –it showed 48.05%.

The best effectiveness showed contact fungicides Manfil 80WP (800 g/kg mancozeb) and Enervin WG (120 g/kg ametotradin +440 g/kg metiram) as well as systemic Signum 33 WG (267 g/kg boscalid +67g/kg pyraclostrobin) and Quadris 25 SC (250 g/l azoxystrobin)with100%inhibition of pathogenʼs development.

Fungicides with such high effectiveness in control of R.solani will ensure their use in protection of tobacco seedling from the damping off disease.

Keywords active ingredient, disease, pathogen, radial development, reduction.

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Sustainability in Potato Production, According to Crop -Livestock Integration System Approach

Abstract: In the southern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, there is predominance of small farms that cultivate potato and exploit and dairy farming in family business form. These firms are important for the economic activity in the region, although most pasture areas are degraded. In Potato cultivation the intensive use of the area predominates with more than one crop per year, with absence of: technology, conservation and environmental techniques and crop rotation. This predatory system has led to the degradation of soils and natural resources. The purpose of this paper was to propose and disseminate techniques for crop managing and, mainly, the adoption of the crop-livestock integration system with potato as the main crop, providing for family business rationality and sustainable exploitation of its property. These practices can improve the income producers, and ensure the permanence in their properties. The research was carried out in three municipalities in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais, prioritizing the sequence of rotational occupation and planting time of the potato: a) potato (planting in October), maize + Brachiaria grass (direct grazing and silage), millet (grazing); b) potato (February planting), oats (cutting and grazing), corn (grain); c) potato (October planting), maize; occupational sequence of crop rotation performed respectively in three municipalities. After the crops in succession, the potato planting is again restarted. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the crop-livestock integration system adds positive effects of potato production to those of livestock production, with a great synergistic effect benefiting all these operations.

Keywords: Sustainability, Potato, Crop-Livestock Integration System Integration.

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Marketing Function Development of Kopi Ser in Badung Regency

Abstract UUP Kopi SER experience difficulties to implemented government policy about marketing process Kopi SER product to customer. A low rank of financial capital, an unoptimalize production tools usage and incapable to fulfill customer needs become a dominant inhibitors factors in marketing process of Kopi SER products. These are indicates that UUP Kopi Ser has serious problems, even lead to a crisis so it’s needed some action to recover their business continuity.

Aim for this research is to make a marketing function model in business process of Kopi SER in Badung Regency, Bali Province. Methodology used in this research are to used UUP performance analysis, continued with stakeholders analysis, obstacles, needs/requirement, and the program objectives of UUP Kopi Ser marketing development using Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM), as a foothold to produce marketing function model in Kopi SER business process.

The research result is UUP Kopi SER performance overall is still not optimal, so needs to be improved performances. Department of Agriculture, low rank of capital financial, a clear memorandum of understanding (MoU) about price, quantity, quality and continuity, an improved of instructor capability in marketing function, and an improved marketing function in order to promote the brand image are the dominant sub-element that can influence UUP Kopi SER continuity and tenacity. Institutionally, UUP Kopi SER role should get support and strong protection from the local government, especially from Department of Agriculture, Department of Industry and Commerce and also Financial Institution as drivers. UUP Kopi SER marketing model function in business process revealed that company marketing, marketing strategy, product manajemen, product marketing and field marketing are still to developed even more.

Keywords UUP Kopi SER, marketing function model, Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM).

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Study on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Value Added Banana Products

Abstract The present study evaluated physico-chemical and sensorial qualities of value added banana products. Unripe fruits of Cavendish variety were processed for making banana flour. Value added products like dough, chapatti and banana kheer were prepared from banana flour. Rice and basin flour were also used in chappati. Unripe banana fruit, banana flour and their products were analysed for pH, titratable acidity, moisture (%), TSS (Brix) and vitamin C. The results showed that the maximum pH (7.68) and TSS (26.30 brix) recorded from the kheer, However, Ash (0.86%) and vitamin C (18.3mg/100gm) were observed highest in chapatti prepared from banana and rice flours as compared to chappati prepared from banana flour only (12.54). Unripe banana fruits had maximum percentage of moisture (72.08%) in comparison to banana products. The minimum pH (6.79) and titratable acidity (0.02) were observed from the unripe banana fruits. While, banana flour had minimum moisture (7.49%). Minimum TSS (5.30) were recorded in chappati prepared from mixture of banana-rice flour and banana-basin flour. The results shows that processing of banana for value added products alter the physico-chemical qualities of banana.

Keywords Banana flour, chapati, milk, rice flour,Physico-chemical.

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Physico-Chemical, Functional and Sensory Properties of Composite Bread prepared from Wheat and defatted Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Kernel Flour

Abstract This study is part of the valuation of the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.). For this purpose, defatted cashew kernel flour (powder) has been incorporated into wheat flour for the production of breads. Composite flours containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of delipidated cashew kernel were analyzed for their physico-chemical and functional properties as well as the resulting loaves, for their sensory quality. The results showed that the substitution of wheat flour with cashew nuts flour increases the protein, fat, ash, fiber, energy and mineral content of wheat / cashew nut composites flours. However, this incorporation has resulted in a decrease in carbohydrate content. The study of the functional properties of composite flours showed that the substitution resulted in a significant increase (p <0.05) of the water absorption capacity (CAE) and oil (CAH) while the density decreased. Sensory tests indicated that there is a significant difference (p <0.05) between control bread and all composite breads. However, it is suggested that cashew kernel flour could be suitably incorporated into wheat flour up to a rate of 20%.

Keywords Cashew nut, wheat flour, composite bread, sensory quality, substitution.

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Induction of Systemic acquired resistance in Mungbean against Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Begomovirus by the exogenous application of Salicylic acid and Benzothiadiazole.

Abstract The diseases caused by bipartite Begomoviruses have emerged as overwhelming problem in various cropping systems of Pakistan. The study was conducted to evaluate the potential of induced resistance in mungbean to Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) disease. In this work, resistance to MYMV infection was induced in mungbean plants by activating the Salicylic acid (SA) pathway using SA and Benzothiadiazole (BTH) as treatments. The resistance was characterized by evaluating symptom appearance and virus titter through ELISA. Elicitors i.e., SA and BTH were applied at different concentrations to enhance the innate resistance of mungbean by the induction of defense related compounds. All treatments were helpful in reducing plant infection but the most effective treatment was the combination of SA@5mM and BTH@150mg/L as compared to virus inoculated control. Three weeks analysis showed peak accumulation of defense related enzymatic antioxidants and phenols in the mungbean leaves treated with SA and BTH. Higher enzymatic activity was observed in elicitor treated plants followed by inoculation with MYMV. As the resistance increased due to the application of SA & BTH the enzymatic activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were also increased during second week after application of elicitors. This study revealed that SA and BTH are potential source for management of MYMV by enhancing the level of protection through induction of systemic acquired resistance.

Keywords Induced resistance, Vigna radiata, enzymatic antioxidants, PAL, SOD, and POD.

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Comparative study of Banana figs prepared from two different varieties

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the sensory and physicochemical properties of banana products .The tests were undertaken to ascertain the suitability of the solutions for preservation of sweet bananas as added-value foods and to reduce post-harvest losses. Prepared banana figs of both varieties were presented to a panel of judges for evaluation of organoleptic attributed. The maximum total soluble solids (22.84 and 12.30), Titratable acidity (0.0148 and 0.0403), non reducing sugar (11.250), Ash (1.1144 and 1.9346) were showed by variety giant in banana fig, whereas, the variety dwarf showed maximum pH, Vitamin C content, total sugar and reducing sugar. On other hand the maximum (24.48°Brix) total soluble solids was observed in banana figs prepared after 90 days. The maximum total sugar (20.36%), non-reducing sugar (14.08%) Ash (1.12%) were showed by the banana figs prepared after 90 days. Sensory evaluations of banana figs revealed that they exhibited significant difference in the score of all attributes among the two with exception of consistency .The results showed that the 90 days produced good results for frying and drying of banana figs.

Keywords Banana figs, varieties, physiochemical properties, Sensory evaluations.

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Antifungal activity of plant extracts and Silver nano particles against Citrus brown spot pathogen (Alternaria citri).

Abstract Citrus Brown spot caused by Alternaria citri. Different control strategies should be used for management of disease and for increasing potential yield of citrus. Hence in-vitro potential of Plant extract and Silver Nano particles were evaluated for control of Brown spot pathogen in Citrus mangroves of Pakistan. Four different plant extracts garlic, neem, mint and basil leaves extracts were used at concentration of 20%. 40% and 60 %. Their effect on radial mycelial growth was checked with reference to untreated or control petri plate. It was observed that almost all concentrations of plant extracts significantly reduce radial mycelia growth as compared to control. In all treatments of plant extracts it was observed that 60% concentration of neem extracts is effective with radial mycelia growth of 3.96 cm over control petri plate which is 7.73cm, garlic extract@ 60% gave least fungal mycelia growth 5.5cm followed by mint leaves @60% gave 3.16 cm radial growth and Basil leaves extract @60% reduces fungal mycelia growth upto 3.93 cm as compared to control petri plate. Nano particles were used for invitro control of brown spot pathogen .Ten different concentration of nanonparticles were used as 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 ppm. The result of study revealed that by increasing concentration of nano particles inhibit mycelial growth of pathogen more significantly and 100 ppm concentration of Silver nano particles reduce fungal mycelia growth upto 2.63cm as compared to untreated petri plate fungal growth 7.23cm.

Keywords Alternaria citri, green fungicides, nano particles, plant extracts.

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Thursday, 5 April 2018

Agriculture Journal: March 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-3, March 2018

Antifungal activity of banana rachis leachate on some fungi responsible for banana (Musa acuminata Colla) post-harvest diseases

Abstract Post-harvest diseases are a major problem for banana yield. Despite treatments with chemical fungicides, a persistence of diseases is noticed. This study aims at proposing a biological control method against banana post-harvest diseases by using banana rachis leachate. The effect of leachate has been tested in vitro on mycelial growth, conidial germination and in vivo on pathogenic fungi virulence. All leachate concentrations (5, 15 and 20%) tested showed antifungal activity on the tested fungi. However, the 20% concentration was more effective with complete inhibition of mycelial growth and conidial germination of all fungi. No symptoms of crown rot and anthracnose were observed after treatment of bananas with leachate. However, with azoxystrobin, the prevalence of crown rot and anthracnose was 60% and 30%, respectively. Banana rachis leachate recorded highly significant reduction of banana finger rot prevalence compared to azoxystrobin. Banana rachis leachate have strong antifungal properties that may be useful to control banana post-harvest disease as a safe alternative option to chemical fungicides

Keywords banana; post-harvest diseases; banana rachis leachate, antifungal activity.

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Bacteriological Assessment of Lettuce Vended in Benin City Edo State, Nigeria

Abstract The microbiological content of Lettuce (a vegetable), commonly vended in the Benin metropolis of Edo state were evaluated. Five vending locations were chosen for the study. Whole and soft rot samples were purchased and analysed for microbiological composition. Results showed high counts in soft rot samples in lettuce. Nutrient agar plated lettuce samples had bacterial counts in the range of 2.0x 103 to 4.7x107. Pseudomonas species was the dominant species found in lettuce samples. Bacillus species was isolated from one location in the lettuce samples. Mac Conkey agar plated lettuce plated had bacterial counts in the range of 2.3 x 103 to 5.7x 107. Enterobacter species, E. coli, and Klebsiella species were the dominant species isolated. Though, Proteus species was isolated from lettuce samples obtained from location five only. The study observes that consuming soft rot samples could pose a risk of introducing pathogens to the consumer due to their high microbial counts and could be detrimental to the health of the consumer.

Keywords Bacteriological Assessment, Lettuce, Benin City, microbiological content.

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Bravecto (fluralaner) chewable tablets have been thoroughly evaluated in multiple countries and are approved as a safe and effective flea, tick and mite treatment for dogs

Abstract Bravecto (fluralaner) is thoroughly tested to international safety standards for veterinary drugs, meeting approval requirements for over 70 countries. This valuable antiparasite (fleas, ticks and mites) treatment contributes to the health of millions of dogs and promotes dog health worldwide by protecting them against dangerous parasite infestations that are known to lead to pathogen transmission, blood loss, local irritation, and skin allergies. In 2017, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) completed an in depth targeted review of all reported adverse events (ADE) related to various potential disorders and confirmed the positive benefit-risk profile of Bravecto. Official records that monitor adverse events are often available online and these reports can be easily misunderstood by people unfamiliar with the procedures and how to interpret monitoring information. For example, many people do not know that the FDA advises “For any given ADE report, there is no certainty that the reported drug caused the adverse event.” This means that the cause of a problem reported to this agency has not been determined, and this is typical of drug use reports. Multiple communications from individual dog and cat owners provided photographs showing how their pet has dramatically improved with the help of fluralaner treatment.

Keywords cat, dog, fluralaner, pharmacovigilance, safety.

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A new biosorbent with controlled grain (I). Efficient elimination of cationic dyes from textile dyeing wastewater

Abstract Environmental care is an increasing concern in our society, and therefore integrated, circular economy allowing to close the industrial cycle is an urging demand. This project employs a residue of the food industry to recover the wastewaters from the textile industry, allowing closing the loop in two different industrial processes. Orange peel is a very abundant residue in the food industry. By chemical modification of the orange peel, we aim to produce a biosorbent to be employed in the treatment of the textile industry wastewater containing cationic dyes. In this project, we evaluate the capacity of the treated orange peels as cationic interchanger with different dissolutions of copper (II). Finally, their capacities as biosorbents were evaluated with four cationic dyes, examining the influence of different parameters like: biosorbent concentration, contact time, temperature and pH of the medium. An adsorption between 51 and 92 % was reached with the first treatment and also the possibility of the biosorbent recovery.

Keywords basic dyes, biosorbent, biosorption, orange peel, wastewaters.

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Community composition and species diversity of fruit-eating-insects of Gymnacranthera paniculata, Macaranga aleuritoides and Mastixiodendron pachyclado in a Papua New Guinea Primary Forest

Abstract Community composition and species diversity of fruit-eating-insects were studied in a primary forest at Wanang, Madang, Papua New Guinea (PNG) using fruits regularly sampled and insects attacking them reared, preserved and identified. Sampling was done in different areas of the forest including low and high abundance of the host trees. Fruits of three predominant host trees, G. paniculata (Myristicaceae), M. aleuritoides (Euphorbiaceae) and M. pachyclados (Rubiaceae) were regularly collected and insects associated with them studied. The emergence from the fruits were 13 insect families and 16 species from G. paniculata, 17 insect families and 21 species from M. aleuritoides and 17 insect families and 25 species from M. pachyclados. Diversity assessment showed M. pachyclados was more diverse (H=2.0258) followed by G. paniculata (H=2.007). M. aleuritoides was the least diverse (H=1.443). A high percentage of scavengers and wood eaters were found in G. paniculata and M. aleuritoides. In M. pachyclados, more seed eaters, chewers and parasitoids were found instead. These results have implications for management of the community composition and diversity of the fruit-eating insects of the three host three species.

Keywords Community composition, species diversity, fruit-eating-insects, Papua New Guinea.

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Faunistic Analysis of Soil Mites in Coffee Plantation

Abstract ─ The soil-litter system is the natural habitat for a wide variety of organisms, microorganisms and invertebrates, with differences in size and metabolism, which are responsible for numerous functions. The soil mesofauna is composed of animals of body diameter between 100 μm and 2 mm, consisting of the groups Araneida, Acari, Collembola, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Protura, Diplura, Symphyla, Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta), Isoptera, Chilopoda, Diplopoda and Mollusca. These animals, extremely dependent on humidity, move in the pores of the soil and at the interface between the litter and the soil. The edaphic fauna, besides having a great functional diversity, presents a rich diversity of species. As a result, these organisms affect the physical, chemical and, consequently, the biological factors of the soil. Therefore, the edaphic fauna and its activities are of extreme importance so that the soil is fertile and can vigorously support the vegetation found there, being spontaneous or cultivated. The composition, distribution and density of the edaphic acarofauna varies according to the soil depth, mites size, location and the season of the year. Edaphic mites are generally found in greater quantities in the organic matter layer than in the soil mineral. The subclass Acari is divided in seven orders being the Mesostigmata, Trombidiformes, Endeostigmata and Sarcoptiformes those that frequently occur in the soil. In the order Sarcoptiformes the suborder Oribatida (formerly Cryptostigmata) is one of the more numerous groups of soil arthropods, both in number of species and specimens. Considering the above facts, it was the objective of this work to know the acarofauna of the soil in a coffee plantation and rank the taxa in a decreasing way, by the use of faunistic analysis. The soil samples were taken in coffee plantation in the Experimental Station of EPAMIG, in São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, Brazil, in two periods, end of dry and end of rainy season of the year 2013, and the extraction of edaphic mites of the soil mesofauna was done at the Laboratory of Acarology of EPAMIG Sul/EcoCentro, in Lavras, as well as other activities related to the study. The result show that edaphic mites of the cohort Astigmatina and suborder Oribatid are dominant in both periods studied, and can be worked to be an indicative of soil quality.

Keywords ─ Agricultural acarology, Coffea arabica, Edaphic mites, Soil mites, Soil mesofauna.

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Nondestructive testing of sliding bearings

Abstract— A validation of electro-physical probing method usage is given for a sliding bearings diagnostic at a boundary friction. Electric circuits and a way of sliding bearings diagnostic, where an analysis of a boundary lubricating layer (BLL) thickness control is carried out on contact resistance parameters indirectly. A sliding bearing lubricating state is defined on previously installed threshold values which achievement defines its running regime.

Keywords boundary lubrication layer, contact resistance, diagnostic, criteria, phenomenological model.

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Efficiency of Cooperative Societies in Credit Delivery to Agricultural Enterprises in Yakurr Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria

Abstract The study evaluates the efficiency of cooperative societies in credit delivery to agricultural enterprises in Yakurr Local Government Area, Cross River State. The specific objectives were to; describe the socio-economic profile of cooperatives societies, identify the sources of finance that are available and utilize for credit by cooperative societies, analyze the efficiency of cooperatives using the arrival rate of loan request and the service rate and identify the challenges militating against cooperatives as a means of providing credit facilities to farmers in the study area. random sampling method was used to select 30 Cooperative Societies in the Local Government Area. Data were obtained using well structured questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and queue theory. Results from the study showed that most of the cooperatives were formed in 2011 with 16-20 members at inception, which stood currently at 21-40 members. The benefits derived from the society ranges from, provision of input for production, accessibility of loan and marketing of products. The large proportion of the amount disbursed to member’s ranges from 11000 - 31000naira. The result revealed that the sources of finance available to members was mainly from members contributions .The result further showed that cooperatives were not effective and efficient in queue management because the average idle time (-0.26) and the average traffic intensity was more than one (1.26).

Also, findings showed that insufficient funds for disbursement(3.33), lack of qualified personnel (3.23), insincerity of members in credit management (3.16) and changes in government credit policies (3.16) were serious challenges that affected efficient delivery of credit by cooperative societies to agricultural enterprises in the study area, The study therefore recommended capacity building for cooperative members to enable them adequately source for funds and efficiently manage loan disbursement and repayment by members. Also, relevant government and nongovernmental financial institutions should be encouraged to channel credit facilities through cooperatives in other to build their financial base and make credit more accessible to agricultural enterprises.

Keywords Efficiency, credit delivery, cooperative societies.

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Comparative Effect of Potting Media on Sprouting and Seedling Growth of Grape Cuttings

Abstract A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of potting media on sprouting and seedling growth of grape cuttings. Three grape varieties viz. Red globe, Thomson seedless and Crimson seedless were planted in four different growth media: CS-Canal silt, CSFYM-Canal silt (75%) + FYM (25%), CSB-Canal silt (25%) + Bagasse (75%) and CSBCP-Canal silt (25%) + Bagasse (50%) + Coco peat (25%). The experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) along with three replications. The results revealed that almost all observed parameters were significantly influenced by the potting media. However, grape varieties and their interaction with the potting media exhibited non-significant effect for sprouting percentage and most of the seedling related attributes of growth. Minimum days to sprouting (6.78),highest sprouting percentage (84.44), maximum rooting percentage (84.44) and maximum chlorophyll content of leaves (56.23) were observed from the cuttings planted in CSBCP. However, maximum number of sprouts (5.55), number of leaves (13.77), fresh weight of leaves (2.27g), fresh weight of the roots (2.16 g), were observed from CSB. No grape seedling mortality was also observed CSB and CSBCP growth media. On the basis of varietal comparison, Thompson seedless exhibited the best results for number of leaves per cutting (11.50), fresh weight of the roots (1.64 g) and number of roots per cutting (29.17 g) as compared to rest of the grape varieties. The research establishes the potential for locals to use available materials in potting media preparation for healthier and stronger grape seedlings for subsequent improved grape plantation.

Keywords Chlorophyll content, growth of grapes cuttings. Potting, sprouting media.

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Saturday, 3 March 2018

Agriculture Journal: February 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-2, February 2018

Climate Risk Insurance for Resilience: A Systematic Review

Abstract This study developed and conducted a systematic mixed-methods grey literature methodology to characterise and identify climate risk insurance initiative in building resilience in developing countries. The study found that climate risk insurance can help developing countries build resilience against extreme weather events. However, there are barriers to the initiative. This is because of the issue of lack of climate data instruments. The collaboration between the public and private sectors is one way to overcome the challenges of implementing climate risk insurance. This systematic review methodology presents crucial insights on the state-of-the-art knowledge on climate risk insurance and resilience in developing countries.

Keywords Climate Change, Climate Risk Insurance, Developing countries, Systematic Review.

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Kinetics and Mathematical Modeling of Microwave Drying of Sri Lankan Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)

Abstract Drying characteristics of black pepper (Piper nigrum) was investigated in a microwave drying system. Drying experiments were carried out at three different microwave power levels, 180, 360 and 540 W and the moisture content was measured at different time intervals. Experimental results were fitted to seven thin layer drying models; Newton, Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Midilli et. al., Weibull and Kaleta et. al.. Statistical indicators; Coefficient of determination (R2), Root mean square error (RMSE) and reduced chi square values (c2) showed Midilli et. al., Weibull and Kaleta et. al. models give better fit to the experimental values. Drying rate constants and the equation constants were compared and analyzed. Similarities of the drying models were observed and discussed with respect to the equation parameters. The absence of the constant drying rate period in drying curves show the drying of black pepper lies totally in the falling rate period where the drying rate is controlled by the moisture diffusion. Maximum drying rates observed were 0.02, 0.05 and 0.08 kg moisture/kg of dry material/ min at 180, 360 and 540 W power levels. Results revealed drying rate constant and the effective moisture diffusivity values increases with the microwave power level. Drying rate constants were 0.03, 0.09 and 0.16 min-1 and the effective moisture diffusivity values were 2.43 x 10-10, 4.87 x 10-10, 1.42 x 10-9 m2/s for power levels of 180, 360 and 540 W respectively. The Activation energy of black pepper calculated based on the Arrhenius equation is 86.7 W/g.

Keywords Black pepper, Microwave drying, thin layer drying models, diffusivity.

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What do we know about adaptation to climate change in Africa? A review of grey literature

Abstract

Background: Africa is one of the regions that the impacts of climate change will be felt so much due to poor adaptive capacity and the reliance on agricultural production for human sustainability. While climate change is real in Africa, the continent has been building resilience through adaptation strategies.

Objective: To understand what adaptation strategies African countries have developed in response to and in anticipation of climate change.

Methods: The study reviews documents, reports and projects in the form of grey literature and content analysis was used to analyse these documents manually.

Results: Climate change has mostly affected the agricultural sector thereby reducing agricultural production. This has led to the introduction and implantation of adaptation policies and strategies on the African continent. However, there are barriers militating against adaptation measures.

Conclusion: In building resilience, some adaptation policies and strategies have been initiated mostly at the local levels with the financial support from donor agencies.

Keywords: Adaptation, Africa, Climate change, Grey literature.

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Poultry manure application and fallow improves peanut production in a sandy soil under continuous cultivation

Abstract To meet our food security demands, Papua New Guinea (PNG) needs to improve smallholder subsistence agriculture by promoting the production of cash crops that mature early and have a high market value. Peanut is a typical example of a cash crop which potentially has a high market value, but pod yields are low due to declinein soil quality. A field experiment was conducted under 4 different land use systems (LUS) to evaluate the effects of continuous peanut cultivation on peanut pod yield and on selected soil properties. Peanut pod yield declined significantly under the continuous peanut and peanut/corn rotation systems; while the poultry manure and land fallow systems significantly increased pod yield. Over the 3 cropping seasons, significant changes in organic carbon; extractable potassium and CEC in all cropping systems occurred, while changes in total N was significant in the peanut/corn rotation and poultry manure cropping systems only. No significant changes in bulk density; field capacity; electrical conductivity; soil pH and available phosphorus were observed in all the 4 LUS over the 3 cropping seasons. We suggest that adequate fallow periods of more than 1 year and poultry manures are applied to enhance soil quality and improve peanut productivity and/or sustain peanut production in marginal lands under continuous cultivation.

Keywords Continuous cultivation, land use systems, peanut pod yield, soil properties.

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Effect of Nitrobenzene granules and Seaweed extracts on biochemical contents of Arachis hypogaea callus culture.

Abstract The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of organic extracts (benzene, diethyl ether and water) of seaweeds (Halimeda gracilis, Ceramium rubrum and Cystophyllum muricatum) and nitrobenzene granuleson biochemical contents of Arachishypogea L. callusunder in vitro conditions. The callus of Arachishypogea L. was obtained from the leaf explants on MS medium containing 2, 4-D (1 mgL-1) and BAP (0.5 mg L-1). The mass multiplication of callus was achieved at 1mg L-1 of 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg L-1 of GA3. The calli were then treated with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg L-1) of seaweed extracts and Nitrobenzene granules. Total carbohydrate, total protein and total chlorophyll contents were analyzed at 5, 10 and 15 days intervals. The total carbohydrate content was high (3.7mg/100mg) in callus treated with Benzene extract of Ceramium rubrumat 1.5 mg L-1 on 15th day. The total protein content was increased (6.9mg/100 mg) in callus treated with Benzene extract of Cystophyllum muricatum at 0.5 mg L-1 on 5th day and the total chlorophyll content was lower (0.36mg/100mg) in Nitrobenzene granules at 0.5mg L-1 in 5th day when compare to control. The present study reveals the positive role of different extracts of seaweeds on increasing the biochemical contents of callus culture of A.hypogea. The extracts can be further evaluated for their role on enhanced regeneration of plants from callus culture.

Keywords Nitrobenzene, Seaweed extract, Arachis hypogaea, Halimeda gracilis, Ceramium rubrum and Cystophyllum muricatum.

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Process Optimization, Consumer testing and Shelf-life Determination of Canned “Halang-halang”: A Filipino Traditional Food

Abstract Halang-halang and tagutoare the Filipino names given to the hot and spicy pulutan (finger food) prepared from finely chopped across of young native chickens stewed in coconut milk with chopped chillies and spices. The basic formulation and process of halang-halang need to be assessed especially as canned product for longer shelf life and wider distribution. Thus, this research optimizes the formulation, processing conditions and determines shelf-life and proximate composition of canned halang-halang. Three identified factors were used in the optimization experiment following the Box-Benhken Design (BBD)with 15 treatments. Three levels of coconut milk (0, 20, 40%), sautéing time (0, 3, 6 minutes) and processing time (30, 40 and 50 minutes) were used. Different treatments were subjected to sensory evaluation, optimization and verification test. Response surface regression (RSREG) analysis was used to determine the optimum level of coconut milk, sautéing and processing time combinations. Optimum formulation was achieved at mid-level coconut milk (20%), longer (50 minutes) or shorter (30 minutes) processing time and at any sautéing time. Both coconut milk level and processing time significantly influenced the sensory qualities of the product, while sautéing time showed no significant effect in all response variables. Verification test confirms that optimum formulation is better in acceptability scores compared to treatment outside the optimum region. Both the developed “plain” and “hot” halang-halang formulations have high preference from young and adult consumers. After 15 months of storage, canned halang-halang products were still microbiologically acceptable showing a microbial count much lower than the safe level.

Keywords Traditional food, Box-Benhken Design, canning, proximate analysis, shelf-life determination.

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Photodynamic Effect. Experience of Application of Photosensibility Series for Monitoring Microbiological Water Pollution

Abstract The kinetics of the destruction of standard museum strains of microorganisms as a result of photodynamic action of red light and a number of non-toxic photosensitizers in the process of water conditioning has been studied experimentally. Prokaryotic cells of Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, eukaryotic cells of Candida albicans ATCC 24433 were used as the objects of the study. Eosin H, sodium fluorescein, methylene blue and riboflavin (vitamin B2) in concentrations of 10 mg/l served as photosensitizers. A photodynamic effect was established with respect to microorganism cells, leading to their death in the presence of photosensitizers and red light. It has been shown that riboflavin and fluorescein are the most effective for eukaryotes (on the example of Candida albicans ATCC 24433), which help to reduce the number of colonies of cells in 2 hours of observations by more than 3.0 and 11.0 times, respectively. It was found that the death of prokaryotic cells in the case of Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 is most effective in causing methylene blue, riboflavin (vitamin B2). For 2 hours of observations in their presence due to photodynamic action, microflora decreases in 36.0 and 90.0 times, respectively. The photodynamic effect of eosin against the microorganisms under study was the smallest, which is explained by the peculiarities of its chemical structure, including phenolic groups, which are known to exhibit an antioxidant effect. It is shown that fluorescein and methylene blue are most promising for effective lethal action against pathogenic microflora in pool water. Riboflavin is most effective for purification of drinking water used for cooking and drinking in public, including pre-school and school meals, which will allow not only to exclude the possibility of mass poisonings, but also to provide a daily intake of vitamin B2 with a glass of water.

Keywords photodynamic effect, methylene blue, riboflavin, fluorescein, red light, death of museum strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Candida albicans ATCC 24433.

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Screening of Maize Genotypes against Southern Leaf Blight (Bipolaris Maydis) during summer in Rampur, Chitwan

Abstract Screening of 20 maize genotypes against Southern Leaf Blight of maize (Bipolaris maydis (Nisik) Shoemaker) was carried out in RCBD in National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Nepal during June to September, 2015. The area of research field was 315 m2. Each genotype had two rows per plot of 7.5m2 with two replication. Disease incidence was taken for three times at 43, 53 and 63 DAS. Disease scoring was done as percentage of leaf area infected on individual plant at 7 days interval starting from 58 days after sowing for 5 times and disease severity and mean AUDPC was calculated. Also the yield was calculated. Shade house experiment was carried out in a Completely Randomized Design with 3 replication on 20 genotypes by artificial inoculation at 3-4 leaf stage with a pure culture suspension of Bipolaris maydis (4x104conidia per ml) .and disease incidence and survival days of plant were recorded. Among the genotypes disease severity varied in the field. Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes for Southern Leaf Blight severity, Area Under Disease Progress Curve and grain yield. Genotypes with mean AUDPC values from 200-250, 250-300 and above 300 were categorized as moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible. Disease severity was highest on genotype Rampur 24, 07 SADVI and lowest on BGBYPOP, RML-32/RM-17 and RAMS03F08. Highest maize yield (4.44 ton/ha) was recorded on RML-32/RML-17 and least (1.41 ton/ha) was obtained in ZM-627.In shade house, Rampur-24 followed by 07 SADVI, Rampur 27 died earlier and RML-32/RML-17 and BGBYPOP survived to the longest periods after inoculation. Disease Susceptibility pattern was similar in both field and shade house condition. The genotypes RML-32/RML-17, BGBYPOP, RAMS03F08 and TLBRS07F16 could be developed as resistant varieties to Southern Leaf Blight of maize and also as high yielders during summer under Chitwan and similar conditions.

Keywords AUDPC, Bipolaris maydis, disease scoring, inoculation, resistant.

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Evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in Sediments and Aquatic macrophytes in the River Nun, Amasoma Axises, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

Abstract The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in the bottom sediments and aquatic macrophytes of the River Nun at AmasomaAxises was investigated in December, 2017. This was done to establish the existing levels of TPH in the River in order to ascertain the degree of its threat to the environment. Benthic samples were collected close to the shore with the aid of a hand trowel and put in aluminum foils, while macrophyte samples were collected by hand pulling and transported in plastic bags for laboratory analysis. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using the Microsoft Excell® tool pack. Regression analysis was employed in order to determine the correlation between TPH in bottom sediments with that in plant tissues (leaf, stem and root). Analysis of variance was employed at the 95% confidence level to determine the degree of significance in interaction of TPH between sediments and macrophyte tissues and between macrophyte tissues (leaf, stem, and root). Duncan multiple range test was use to compare means. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated for TPH in order to estimate the absorption rate of TPH between sediments and plant tissues (leaf, stem and root). Results indicate that TPH were recorded in sediments and plant tissues. TPH concentrations were greater in plant tissues than in sediments. Concentration of TPH showed concentrations indicating that root> stem> leaf in most stations. The relationships between the TPH attributes indicated strong association between Leaves and stem (r2 = 0.92). Strong negative association was also observed between sediment and stem (r2 = -0.83) while sediment and leaves (r2 = -0.64) had moderate negative relationship. It can be concluded that the River Nun at AmasomaAxises is mildly polluted due to land based activities and therefore there is a need to enact water use regulatory ordinances to protect its ecology. Sediment organisms and plants are vital links to man in the food chain. This may portend danger in the future.

Keywords Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Sediments, Macrophytes, Nun River. Amasoma.

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