Tuesday, 5 March 2019

Agriculture Journal: February 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-2, February 2019

Influence of silicon, nitrogen and molybdenum doses on the production of bean pods

Abstract The snap beans is greatly appreciated and consumed by Brazilians, and the snap beans commercial seeds are divided into indeterminate growth habit and determined. Farmers most often plant indeterminate growth habit bean-pod, so the fertilizer recommendations are for this habit. Due to the availability of determinate growth habit cultivars, it is necessary to study the nutrition area, because they have the shortest cycle, flowering and pod production in concentrated period, smaller spacing and planting densities with greater influence in the population by ha. The study aimed to evaluate the snap bean growth given in the search response with increased productivity positively due to the use of silicon as well as the rational use of Nitrogen and Molybdenum. The experiment was design on track and installed with subplots and two replications, using treatments with and without foliar application of 5% of eucalyptus ash, four nitrogen doses 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N / ha and four molybdenum doses in foliar application 0, 30, 60 and 90 g Mo / ha. Nitrogen and molybdenum treatments responded with a yield and quality increase, allowing adjusting of quadratic equations regression and to recommend if the farmer does not use molybdenum, the nitrogen dose of 79.2 kg in coverage application. For molybdenum and nitrogen, according to the results obtained, the doses of 35g Mo / ha and 130 kg N / ha in coverage are recommended in coverage application. The silicon, applied through eucalyptus ash, did not respond in production.

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Physico-chemical Analysis of the MEHDIA Estuary (GHARB –MOROCCO)

AbstractIn Morocco, superficial flows are dependent on rainfall and exhibit high spatial variability. In general, the water resources available to Morocco are limited and subject to extreme cyclical variations. Similarly, the qualitative situation of the waters is far from satisfactory. Indeed, population growth accompanied by rapid urbanization that causes many disturbances to natural environments. Industrialization, the irrational use of fertilizers and pesticides and the lack of awareness of the population towards the protection of the environment, lead as much to an imbalance of the ecosystem and generate polluting elements that can affect the physico-chemical quality biological and aquatic environments, but also alter the uses of water; water collection, swimming ... etc. The sub-basin of OuedSebou drains the Mehdia region and is particularly affected by the problem of continuous development of the agricultural sector. Indeed, the discharges of water-gardens, pesticides and fertilizers drained by rainwater and irrigation and dirt environment, in addition to the domestic discharges generated by the small town Mehdia and the city of Kenitra are dumped directly into the OuedSebou. The present research on the Mehdia region is aimed at the prospection of the hydrobiology of the waters of the Sebouwadi. The study will be based on physicochemical analysis of the mouth of Mehdia and the determination of seasonal fluctuations of these parameters between the low water period and the flood period.

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Impact of Land Fragmentation on Technical Efficiency: The Case of Maize Farmers in the Transitional Zone Of Ghana

AbstractThis paper seeks to study the impact of land fragmentation on technical efficiency of 461 maize farmers selected through the multi-stage sampling technique from the transitional zone of Ghana. The study used the stochastic production frontier model to analysis data from 2017/2018 farming season. The findings showed that, most of the farmers were in their youthful age with few of them over the age of 60 therefore, an average age of 44.8. The study revealed that; quantity of labour used , quantity of seed used, and farm size are the factors that determine the technical efficiency of farmers in the study area since it has a significant relationship with technical efficiency. On the other hand, land fragmentation and distance between farms was identified to be the only significant source of technical inefficiency of maize farmers in the study area. It is suggested that resource allocation and land policies should target the improvement of production efficiency of maize farmers in the study area.

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Agriculture Journal: January 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-1, January 2019

Productive behavior of cultivars and banana genotype originating from 'Prata Anã', Irrigated and non irrigated in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetative and productive behavior of banana cultivars Prata Catarina and PrataGorutuba, from clonal selection in cultivars of Prata-Anã and BRS Maravilha and PA 94-01, obtained through crosses of the genotype SH 31-42 with Prat-Anã and Prata Catarina, respectively. The experiment was conducted in Bambuí under drip irrigation and in Iaci, without irrigation. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used for each cultivar and plots with ten plants, spacing 3.0 x 2.8 m (1190 plants / hectare). The vegetative behavior was evaluated through the plant height (m) at the time of the bunch issue and the production cycle, that is, the period between planting and harvesting of the mother, daughter and granddaughter plants. The productive behavior was evaluated by bunch weight (kg) and fruit (g) and number of fruits per bunch and yield (kg / ha / year). The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tuckey Test at 5% probability. The 'BRS Maravilha' showed the highest height of the plant, both in Bambuí and in Ijaci. The other cultivars did not differ in height. PA 94-01 was earlier in both locations, with a production cycle about one month less than the other cultivars. The cultivar BRS Maravilha and PA 94-01 surpassed the others by weight of the bunch and the fruits, number of fruits per bunch and yield in the two localities, and in Bambuí was significantly higher than in Ijaci, thus showing the expressive effect of irrigation. The PA 94-01, due to its good productivity, fruit size, appearance, taste and precocity can become a better option for the producers compared to the other cultivars.

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Towards Attainment of Sustainable Rural Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction among Rural Farmers: Whither Farm Waste Utilization?

AbstractThe study investigated potential of farm wastes’ utilization for attaining sustainable livelihoods and reducing poverty among rural dwellers in Osun state, Nigeria. Specifically, socioeconomic attributes of the respondents were described and significant determinants of farm waste utilization identified. Primary data were collected using interview schedule collected from 364 respondents sampled for the study through multi stage procedure. Frequency counts, percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to describe data collected. Rational choice theory and theory of planned behaviour were used to provide theoretical underpinning for the study. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify significant determinants of farm waste utilization. Result showed that cassava and yam peels, maize stalks and cobs, cowpea husk, palm kernel shell, empty palm fruit bunch, cocoa pods, poultry droppings, sheep and goat faeces were amongst farm wastes with economic potentials in the study area. Result of regression analysis showed that income (t = 2.401), perception about farm waste items (t = 4.458), perceived behavioral control (t = 2.534) and attitude towards farm waste utilization (t = 2.732) positively and significantly contributed to extent of farm waste utilization, while total farm size (t = 1.988) and years spent on formal education (t = 2.024) positively and significantly contributed to extent of farm waste utilization at p ≤ 0.05. However, information sources (t = -2.732) and knowledge about farm waste utilization potentials (t = -2.314) significantly but negatively influenced farm waste utilization p ≤ 0.05, respectively. It was concluded that varieties of farm waste items with good economic potentials for utilization abound in the study area. In order to empower rural dwellers economically thereby enhancing their livelihoods and ameliorating their poverty condition, paying attention to the significant determinants of waste utilization identified is recommended.

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Application of bioflocculant-producing bacteria, heterotrophic nitrogen-removal bacteria, poly-phosphate bacteria and water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for wastewater treatment of My Tho rice-noodle factories, Tien Giang province, Vietnam

Abstract Rice-noodle wastewater represents a serious problem regarding environmental degradation and human health protection. The aim of the study was to create the application of bioflocculant-producing bacteria, heterotrophic nitrogen-removal bacteria, poly-phosphate bacteria and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for wastewater treatment of My Tho rice noodle factories, Tien Giang province, Vietnam in order to get an insight into number of entities that discharge polluted water into environment. An experiment was carried out with containers having different capacities from 100-mL, 1-L, 10-L, 100-L and 1000-L and 3 replications to select best strains of bioflocculant-producing bacteria, heterotrophic nitrogen bacteria, poly-P bacteria and water-hyacinth for removing toxic element to wastewater before releasing to river/canal. Application of two bioflocculant-producing bacterial strains PO.01.C and PRO.03.B (protein and polysaccharide) into rice-noodle wastewater, aeration in 3 hours, held on 21 hours, supernatant moved to other container, adding heterotrophic nitrogen removal bacterial strain and poly-P. strain 064.B, aeration 8 hr/24hr during 7 days and wastewaters were transferred other containers containing water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in 2 days, the results recorded that pH of wastewater increased from 4.68 to 6.13, TSS and BOD5 concentration of wastewater reduced from 369 and 1200 mg/L to 17 and 23 mg/L, respectively. TKN and TP decreased from 45 and 6.3 mg/L to 7.57 and 4.56 mg/L, respectively. All targets reached to 40/2011 standard / Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment of Vietnam.

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Effect of Compost, NPK and Plant Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Growth and Yield of Three Vegetables cultivated on Arenosols

Abstract Three field studies were conducted to determine the effects of compost, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and NPK on growth and yield of three vegetables. Two PGPR strains (Nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Phosphate-solubilizing Bacillus subtilis) supplemented into compost and bacterial liquid were added into compost during vegetable cultivation, chemical fertilizer (100 N – 80 P2O5 – 40 K2O) and control (non inoculation). The study revealed that compost inoculated with PGPRs can replace 50% chemical fertilizer in three vegetables cultivation, farmers but also saved 50 N – 40 P2O5 – 20 K2O not only minimized environmental pollution.

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Resistance in Plants, Concepts and Mechanisms

Abstract In contrast to most animals, plants are sessile organisms that they have not a circulatory system. So they have an innate immune system in each cell. In fact interaction between plants and their pathogens is based on systemic signaling capability from infection sites. In plant pathogen interaction sometimes pathogens produce elicitor and sometimes produce effector. On this basis, resistance in plants is divided to host and non host. On the other hand the plant responses depend not only on the recognition mechanisms but also very much on the biology of the interactions and genetic characteristics of plants and their pathogens. Gene – for – gene and the matching allel are two basic models for explanting of genetic basis of interaction between plants and their pathogens.

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Agriculture Journal: December 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-12, December 2018

Physicochemical Characterization of African Aubergine Solanum Aethiopicum Anguivi (Solanaceae) from Northern Cote d’Ivoire

Abstract Solanum aethiopicum anguivi (Solanaceae) is a common vegetable widely used for food by population in Korhogo, northern Côte d'Ivoire. But this aubergine is not yet soundly utilized. The current study focuses the physico-chemical traits of this aubergine to fit more valorization. From the investigation, the aubergine showed higher moisture (90.73% to 92.71%). Oppositely, lower contents are recorded for crude proteins (1.44% to 1.64%), fats (0.12% to 0.16%), total carbohydrates (5.38% to 6.71%), and so for caloric energy value (28. 36 Kcal/100 g to 34.84 Kcal/100g). Besides, the aubergine is provided with significant fiber content (2.43% to 3.31%) and displayed antioxidants components such as vitamin C (6.25 mg/100 g to 6.74 mg/100g) and polyphenols (55.94 mg/100 g to 66.34 mg/100g). It also presents 0.36% to 0.76% of ash mainly constituted of potassium (4.52% to 5.42% DM), phosphorus (0.82% to 0.97% DM) and other oligoelements as iron (1.42 to 4.81 ppm), manganese (2. 06 to 2.33 ppm), zinc (0.22 to 0.32 ppm), and copper (0.01 to 0.02 ppm). Still, this vegetable records phytate (20.91 to 22.44 mg/100 g) and oxalate (28.69 to 38.83 mg/100 g) as main antinutrients components. Processed before consumption, Solanum aethiopicum anguivi constitutes a significant source of food fibre, natural antioxidant, and mineral elements for local population.

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Fraxinus Angustifolia for Planting in Sardinia (Italy) A Case Study of Innovative Agroforestry System

Abstract The case study reports about the development of a 18 years old Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. tree plantation located in a representative test site for climate, soil and land use characters, of the agricultural planes of southern Sardinia, Italy. The favourable results about diameter at breast height (DBH) and other tree variables together with high potentiality for many ecosystem services too can identify this Fraxinus angustifolia tree plantation case study as an innovative agroforestry system.

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Study of Physiochemical and Properties of CNSL based Termiticides

Abstract Cashew nut shell liquid based termiticides using neem seed oil, karanj seed oil and bhilawan shell liquid, were developed and the effect of formulations on acid value, Iodine value, saponification value and unsaponifiable matter of CNSL termiticides was studied. It was observed that CNSL based termiticides were oil based therefore the acid value, Iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, flash point, fire point, refractive index, specific gravity, viscosity and colour properties of CNSL, Neem seed oil, Karanj seed oil and Bhilawan shell liquid were reflected in the termiticide formulations with respect to the temperature.

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Enhancement of β-1,3 Glucanase Production from Penicillium oxalicum T3.3

Abstract β-1,3 glucanases are semi-constitutive hydrolytic enzymes that can degrade glucan molecules embedded in the cell wall components of cereals and some species of fungi resulted in production of D-glucose. This enzyme has a great potential and interest in biotechnology, agricultural and also industrial field. However, there is little reports on the production of β-1,3 glucanase by Penicillium oxalicum. Therefore, the cultural conditions which stimulate in vitro production of β-1,3 glucanase enzyme by P. oxalicum T3.3 and characterization of β-1,3 glucanase enzyme activity were determined.Various parameters such as different types of carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH medium, agitation speed and surfactants were investigated. The optimization was carried out by varying and optimizing one variable at a time. The highest production of β-1,3 glucanase activity of 84.73 U/mL was obtained using seaweed Undaria pinnatifida as substrate at concentration of 1% (w/v), peptone and yeast extract as nitrogen source at 0.3% and 0.2% respectively, initial medium pH 5, agitation speed at 200 rpm and with addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate as surfactant. Under these conditions, β-1,3 glucanase activity increased by 38.6%. Enzyme characterization was also performed which indicated that this enzyme is thermostable and showed optimum activity at 50°C, pH 5 and can retained its activity around 80% up to 4 h at this condition.The optimization of β-1,3 glucanase production by P.oxalicum required adjustment of different types of carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH medium, agitation speed and surfactants. This enzyme characterization has revealed its great potential towards detergent, beer and food fermentation industries whose manufacturing conditions are largely acidic.

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Synergistic Effects of Diazotrophic Phosphate Solubilizing Azotobacter chroococcum and AM Fungus Glomus mosseae on Yield Improvement in Finger Millet (Eleusine Coracana (L.) Gaertn.)

AbstractField experiments were conducted to study the response of finger millet Eleusine Coracana (L.) Gaertn. to combined inoculation with the P-solubilizing diazotrophic Azotobacter chroococcum (DT) isolated from the rhizosphere of finger millet and the P-mobilizing Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae under graded levels of N & P fertilizers (100, 75 and 50 percent).The inoculated seedlings were transplanted to the laid out plots (RCBD) with red sandy loam soil having medium levels of NPK and OC. The combined inoculation resulted in significant increase in yield over all the other treatments with 31.00, 27.99 and 18.10 percent grain yield and 36.69, 33.55 and 15.01 percent straw yield respectively in presence of 100, 75 and 50 percent N and P fertilizers in comparison with uninoculated control indicating efficient N supplementation and P- solubilization by A. chroococcum and P-mobilization by the AM fungus. The results indicated that 25-50 percent of N and P fertilizers can be curtailed in presence of combined inoculants, saving money without decrease in the yield performance of finger millet. The combination of these inoculants can be included as one of the important agronomic inputs in finger millet cultivation both under subsistence and affluent farming systems.

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Agriculture Journal: November 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-11, November 2018

Yield and yield attributes in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) somaclones for quality seed production

Abstract The experiment was taken up to elicit the information on the performance of different ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) somaclones for yield and quality for quality seed production. Ten somaclones of ginger were evaluated in RBD with three replications during 2015-18 at College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur district, Kerala. The growth performance of ten somaclones indicated significant variation at all the stages of crop growth. Among the somaclones, SE 86102 (16.00 days) and SE 8626 (16.33 days) registered least number of days for sprouting. Among the vegetative characters studied, the maximum plant height (107.38 cm) was recorded by the somaclone SE 86102 which was significantly superior to other somaclones and check varieties. Somaclone CHP 118 recorded maximum number of tillers (20.33), number of leaves per shoot (28.67) and total number of leaves per shoot (117.33). The highest leaf area was recorded by C 8632 with a value of 62.12 cm2. Among the rhizome characters recorded, the somaclone CHP 118 gave highest number of primary rhizomes (4.83) which was on par with SE 8626 (4.33) and C 8632 (4.08). The highest number of secondary rhizome was recorded by CHP 118 (10.33) which was on par with SE 8626 (10.06) and C 8632 (10.01). Weight of mother rhizome was the highest in the somaclone SE 8642 (11.00 g) and CHP 118 (10.67 g). Similarly, weight of primary rhizome was highest in SE 8642 (15.73 g), SE 8626 (15.07 g) and CHP 118 (14.80 g). Weight of secondary rhizome was highest in SE 8626 (13.20 g) and SE 8642 (12.33 g). The highest fresh rhizome yield per plant was recorded by somaclone CHP 118 (274.13 g), SE 8626 (266.67 g), C 8632 (259.67 g) and SE 8642 (251.67 g) at full maturity. The highest yield per plot was recorded by somaclone CHP 118 (8.77 kg), SE 86 26 (8.54 kg), C 8632 (8.31 kg) and SE 8642 (8.06 kg). The fresh rhizome yield per hectare was was maximum in CHP 118 (35.08 t), SE 86 26 (34.16 t), C 8632 (33.24 t) and SE 8642 (32.24 t). It is concluded that somaclones were highly variable in their performance, yield and yield attributes. Four somaclones viz., CHP 118, SE 8626, C 8632 and SE 8642 were identified as high yielders from their outstanding performance throughout their growth period with highest yield in CHP 118. This can be due to more number of tillers, leaves per shoot and rhizomes and also weight of primary, secondary and mother rhizomes.

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Investigation of disposal processes by manufacturing companies in Gaborone

Abstract Industrial processes create variety of solid and liquid wastes; which may contain pollutants that have potential harm to humans, animals and the environment. Hence the challenge for disposal of waste for industries cannot be ignored. In these studies, a survey was conducted in the capital city of Botswana; Gaborone to investigate waste management practices for selected manufacturing companies. The findings indicate that companies disposed waste in different ways; 50% out-sourced waste collection services, while 8.3% disposed to waste treatment plants, 33.3% in sewage lines and the other 8.3% in the open flat land. Only 33.3% uses ponds to deal with its effluent and consequently recycle it. Of the companies surveyed, 33.3% of the companies indicated that they have hazardous wastes. Preliminary investigations on contaminates that find their way into the city’s sewage system shows that, Pb concentrations did not exceed maximum allowable concentrations of 5.0 mg/L, whereas Cd and Cr concentrations exceeded the maximum allowable concentration of 0.01 mg/l and 0.1 mg/l in irrigation water respectively.

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Desalination Property of Various Calcined Layered Double Hydroxides from Seawater

Abstract Now, approximately 20% of farmland in the world becomes salt damage soil with unsuitable properties for agriculture. In general, salt was removed from soil by flushing out with rain water due to the improvement of soil permeability using gypsum and so on. However, there are arid and semi-arid areas with an insufficient supply amount of rain water to remove salts from soil. In this study, a novel method to capture salt in soil using various calcined layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as a desalination agent was attempted to estimate desalination property from seawater. 4 kinds of LDH with the different M2+/M3+ ratios are prepared using 2 kinds of Mg2+ and Ca2+ as M2+ and 2 kinds of Al3+ and Fe3+ as M3+. The desalination ability of these calcined LDHs was investigated using seawater. As a result, the decrease of salinity was confirmed using all samples. Among these samples, the calcined Mg-Al LDH with Mg/Al = 3.45 and Ca-Fe LDH with Ca/Fe = 2.35 indicated the highest desalination property, due to the decrease of Cl- and SO42- from seawater, by reconstruction reaction. Ca-Fe LDH was calcined at various temperatures and the desalination ability at different calcined temperatures was also evaluated. It was found that the desalination ability of calcined LDH depends on the calcination temperatures and Ca-Fe LDH calcined at 500℃ indicated the highest desalination ability.

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Cost effective production of Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai and their application against Spodoptera litura

Abstract Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was prevalent in many species of aquatic plants grown in Green Farms. This study was carried out to understand the production of Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (Bta) using cost effective method to manage the pest biologically. Bta is being widely used in pest control programs. However, the production of this Bta is expensive due to the high cost of the production medium. In this study, an attempt has made to develop a cost-effective medium, based on a locally available raw materials namely coconut water which is available in plenty as waste product from coconut oil industry, coconut poonac, rice bran and coir dust. A standard conventional Luria Bertani medium was included in the assay for comparison. Media were assessed for the growth, sporulation and production of insecticidal properties of Bta. Coconut poonac extract and coconut water media produced higher spores than compare with conventional LB medium. Maximum spore count of 25.0×1013 spores/mL was obtained with a 72 h old culture of this bacterium grown in coconut poonac extract. Larvicidal activity (LC50) of 8 ×106 spores/mL (coconut poonac extract) against early second-instar larvae of S.litura were obtained. This is almost similar to that obtained with LB (9 × 106 spores/mL) medium. Hence, coconut based culture medium is economical for the production of Bta and compared favorably with the standard. Cost-effective analyses have revealed that production of Bta from test media is highly economical. The cost of production of Bta with local media was significantly reduced by 88-293 fold. The use of nonconventional sources has yielded a new knowledge in this area as the process development aspects of small scale production have been neglected as an area of research. These studies are very important from the point of media optimization for economic production of Bta based agents in pest management programs.

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Regional Distribution of Fusarium verticillioides in Mexico and Its Implications in Animal, Human Nutrition and Health

Abstract This study was designed to investigate the presence of Fusarium species in Mexican corn. Maize samples from 26 States were analyzed. Corn kernels were cultivated following a sequence of cultivation methods until obtaining spores which were transferred to carnation leaf agar medium. Taxonomic identification of fungi was carried out by microscopic examination. To evaluate the in vitro production of fumonisin B1, it was experimentally induced in un-contaminated maize. The quantitative determination of fumonisin B1 in the maize samples was performed by thin layer chromatography. Quality control and sensitivity were established using a standard solution of commercial origin whose purity was corroborated by both thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography.

Thirty-eight strains were isolated; 29 corresponded to Fusarium verticillioides and 9 to Fusarium subglutinans. Strains of Fusarium verticillioides exhibited a variable behavior in fumonisin B1 production. 4 strains produced fumonisin B1 in a range of 3.12 to 6.57 ppm.

In conclusion, two species of Fusarium; Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium subglutinans were found in maize from 26 States of Mexico, their distribution is regionalized. Strains found in five States produced fumonisin B1 in concentrations that can be considered clinically relevant.

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Agriculture Journal: October 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-10, October 2018

Treatment of landfill leachate through struvite precipitation and nitrogen removal bacteria and poly-phosphate bacteria (in-pots experiment)

Abstract Landfill leacheate is a type of wastewater which contains large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, therefore it needed to be treated before releasing to directly to the environment. The combination between struvite precipitation and nitrogen removal and poly-P bacteria into wastewater for landfill leachate treatment has been found to be a cost-effective practive, a viable technology in terms of environmental protection and sustainability, especially in the developing-countries. For optimum struvite crystallization from landfill leachate, the Mg:PO4 molar ratio as (1.2:1) was used, the pH of reaction was adjusted to 9 and the sample was stirred continously during 40 minutes. The supernatant sample was then added 1% nitrogen removal bacteria (Pseudomonas stutzeri D3b strain) and 1% poly-P bacteria (Kurthia sp. TGT1013L strain), 5 g glucose/L and aeration 12/24h during 3 days, ammonium concentration reduced significantly from 1076 mg/L to 1.5 mg/L and orthophosphate concentration decreased noticeably from 24.91 mg/L to 7.6 mg/L.

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Effects of Preservation using Response Surface Methodology on Fresh-cut Taro

Abstract In order to evaluate the effect of preservation on fresh-cut taro, the edible coatings preservatives were connected with Konjac glucan-mannan (KGM), potassium sorbate, chitosan, by determining changes of weight loss rate, browning degree (BD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), the preservative effect on fresh-cut taro were studied. The optimal composite of Konjac glucan-mannan (KGM), potassium sorbate, chitosan was analyzed by single factor test and Box-Behnken response surface method. The results showed the optimal concentration were KGM 6g/L, potassium sorbate 4g/L and chitosan 8g/L. Verified test showed that composite coating could reduce the weight loss rate, browning, PPO and POD activity of fresh-cut taro.

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Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase Immobilized on Zeolites for Pesticides Degradation

Abstract In this study, a non commercial PTE was covalently immobilized on the NaX zeolite crystals and its ability to biodegrade the paraoxon to a less harmful compound was investigated. The immobilization method did not change the enzyme catalytic performance. In fact, the specific activity was the same of the free one. Besides, the process improved the stability of the enzyme.

The obtained results are interesting because of usually the immobilization process increases the enzyme stability but causes a reduction of its catalytic activity. Therefore, this pioneer study of the immobilization of the PTE on zeolite particles seems to be an environmental-friendly solution to the problem of pesticides pollution.

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Sustainable Strategy of Charcoal (Panglong Arang) Management in the Bengkalis Regency

Abstract

Background and Purpose: Charcoal is a residue that occurs from the results of decomposition of wood due to heat when most of the chemical components are carbon. One method of making wood charcoal is to use a stove. Charcoal is an important factor in determining the sustainability of the lives of surrounding communities that have long been running. Therefore the purpose of this study is to create a strategy based on the SWOT analysis to see if the charcoal business using mangrove forests can proceed or not.

Materials and Methods: Analysis of sustainable development strategies using SWOT Analysis which is one of the analyses used to formulate a strategy in an area of ​​development. This analysis consists of 4 basic elements, namely strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. These four elements come from two main factors: internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats). While the stages in the SWOT analysis.

Results: Analysis of public perception of the existence of charcoal trading business in the Bengkalis District gave a “Good response” with a score of 2.66. These results illustrate that the existence of a charcoal trading business does not provide a bad impact as long as it is in a location around a mangrove forest. The results obtained in the SWOT matrix diagram are in the fourth quadrant; show that the priority of the strategy is the Strength (S) and Threats (T) strategies. The components in these two strategies need to get more emphasis and attention so that the existence of a charcoal trading business can be sustainable.

Conclusion: The public perception of the charcoal long-standing regulation in the” Bengkalis Regency” is in the “Good category” which is a prerequisite in the development of continuous charcoal. The strategy for sustainable charcoal development is in quadrant IV, namely the S-T strategy.

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In-Vitro Management of Erwinia carotovora the Causal Organism of Potato Soft Rot Disease

AbstractIn vitro efficacy six chemical substance were evaluated against Erwinia carotovora the causal organism of potato soft rot disease. E. carotovora was isolated from diseased potato tubers by dilution plate technique and different biochemical and pathogenicity test were performed to confirm the bacterial species. Six chemicals viz. Copper Oxychloride @ 0.2%, Mancozeb @ 0.2%, Boric acid @ 0.1%, Kasugamycin @ 0.02%, Carbendazim @ 0.3% and Sodium Hypochlorite @ 0.2% were tested against E. carotovora subsp. carotovora by well diffusion method. For each treatment there were four replications and tested chemical volume was 100 µl. Data were recorded up to five days of incubation. Maximum zone of inhibition (mm) was obtained after 48 hours of incubation with Copper Oxychloride (30.35 mm), followed by Mancozeb (20.15 mm), Boric acid (19.15 mm) and Kasugamycin (16.28mm). Copper Oxychloride produced the maximum growth inhibition (33.72%) of the pathogen, on the other hand Sodium Hypochlorite (2.68%) did not efficiently inhibit the growth of E. carotovora. Copper Oxychloride proved to be the best chemical followed by Mancozeb under in-vitro management against E. carotovora subsp. carotovora.

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Constraints, mitigations, and opportunities for sustainable development of rice-based system in Laos

Abstract Rice production in Xieng Ngeun District (XND), Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) faces several challenges that have resulted in a decline in rice production and a, therefore, food insecurity in the country. Smallholder farmers in XND, Luang Prabang in the Northern part of Lao are the most affected resulting in poor households and economies. Therefore, this study aims first to identify the key constraints affecting rice production systems; secondly to review the opportunities that exist in the rice production systems and lastly, to discuss opportunities that exist if the constraints are mitigated that can boost sustainable development of rice-based systems (SDRBS). A structured questionnaire was administered to village headmen, community members, and farmers in the nine selected villages with a total sample size of 374 farmers. Farmers' strength for rice is that they have agricultural land, on average 3 hectares per family. Apart from rice production, the majority of farmers have diversified into maize, Job's tears, vegetable cultivation and livestock keeping. The key strength of the respondent was the availability of land as most of them had more than 3ha of agricultural land. The diversification into the production of other crops is an important constraint to rice production. Labour was also an important constraint to rice production as most families have more than six children; thus, one member has to stay behind to take care of the children. The opportunities to improve rice production is mainly in the adoption of modern farming approaches using improved rice varieties, fertilizer application, use of herbicides for weed control and pesticides for insects and disease control. The farmers do not use pesticides to control insect pest and disease, and thus perennially faced challenges in rice production due to pest and diseases outbreaks. Moreover, there was a low rice productivity since majority of the the farmers did not use fertilizers in their fields, with a paltry 0.8% of the farmers recording positive response to fertilizer use. Despite this, most of the farmers (78.3%) indicated that they do not use herbicides for weed control. Market accessibility was a major concern to the farmers due to poor road infrastructure, hence resulting in delayed farm operations and produce spoilage. The farmers should be encouraged to adopt modern farming practices such use of pesticides to insect and disease management, weed control using herbicides for weed control, and fertilizer applications for improved soil fertility and yield. Moreover, there exist additional opportunities to improve rice productivity through adoption of improved rice cultivars, farm mechanizations, provision of extension services and improved market accessibility.

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Survivability of P. oxalicum T3.3 bioformulation on carrier materials and storage temperature

AbstractGood bioformulation play crucial roles in the successfully of commercialize biological control products. The development of bioformulation is necessary to improve product stability, delivery and bioactivity. The aim of this study is to assess the shelf life of P. oxalicum T3.3 conidia in the different ratio(1:1,1:2,2:1) of Biochar:Biocompost (BcBp) and Peat:Vermiculite (PtVm) and temperature (4ºC and room temperature) for 6 months. The results showed that P. oxalicum T3.3 was able to sustain highest viable cell (CFU) at 4ºC storage temperature. BcBp and PtVm have the highest cell viability at ratio 2:1 and 1:1, respectively. Both BcBp and PtVm showed potential carriers for the development of biofungicide for agriculture purposes.

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Aflatoxin B1 Exposure Induced Obesity/Breast Cancer Based in Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status

Abstract

Background: Obesity (Ob) linked to Breast Cancer (BC) has reached epidemic proportions worldwide (WW) including Indonesia, Brazil, Bangladesh and also developed countries. To assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of central Ob and BC WW, are commonly linked with geography (wet and warm climate), race, immigrant, but not SES.

Problem: Low and middle-SES are associated with lower outcome affect late diagnosis, late hospitalization and treatment, but not with p53 mutation caused by AFB1 exposure.

Objectives: Low and middle-SES and neighborhood are linked to AFB1 exposure as the cause of Ob/BC prevalence.

Method: PRISMA design of Systematic Review using Science Direct and EBSCO data based with keywords Ob/BC AND SES. A Bayesian network of Ob (BMI, WC, WHR) and SES (neighborhood) are used. Mainly high AFB1 high guideline AFB1 exposures are recorded.

Result: One flowchart detected 152 references and one table or 30 references which included 153,099 subjects at least supported SES/AFB1-associated Ob/BC prevalence or almost related.

Conclusion: Low and middle-SES represent AFB1 exposure as the cause of Ob/BC beyond geography, race and ethnic.

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Agriculture Journal: September 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-9, September 2018

Differential effects of glyphosate on germination and chlorophyll in Zea Mays plants

Abstract We studied the glyphosate effect on the germination and chlorophyll content of two corn varieties. The first variety is local "beldi" not improved and the second is a variety selected and imported. Our analysis showed that the imported variety is more tolerant than local. The latter would have been affected by the direct effects of glyphosate by oxidative stress manifesting itself by a strong inhibition of germination and an increased degradation of chlorophyll. However, the imported variety behaved as capable of degrading glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid resulting in improved herbicide resistance.

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The Effects of Rural Labour Migration Process on Occupational Distribution, Family Facilities and Livelihoods

Abstract Migration of human beings is a phenomenon which has historical roots and wider implications. Migrations have economic genesis but resulting socio-political cultural ramifications. In economic parlance, migration is perceived as when a person is engaged or likely to engage in a remunerative activity in a place of which he is not a native or national. The migrants send remittances to their relatives in the rural areas and these remittance-receiving households use the remittances for various purposes. With this background keeping in mind the present study was conducted with some objectives, such as, to recognize the changing pattern of occupational scenario of the study area; to identify the changes of family facilities before and after migration and to compare the income differences before and after migration. The study was conducted on 100 numbers of respondents in three villages named Chengerkuthi Khalisamari, Jatamari, and Choto Khalisamari under Khalisamari Gram Panchayat of Coochbehar district of West Bengal. The statistical method used for analysis and interpretation of raw data were mean, frequency percentage and paired ‘t’ test. It is noticeable due to high remunerative and regularity of income, the youth and middle aged group are more attracted for migration. The study also reveals migration process transformed the occupational distribution of the respondents massively. The income variation factor before and after migration are also in favour of migration. It is evident that after migration the family daily life standard changed towards a positive direction. The number of cell phone users and bank account holder also increased.

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Cost and Return Analysis of Local Chicken Marketing in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

Abstract The study examined the cost and return of local chicken marketing in Mubi north local government area of Adamawa state. Data were collected from 120 respondents with aid of structured questionnaire using purposive and random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics, net income analysis, marketing efficiency (ME) were the analytical tools employed. The result revealed that local chicken marketing in the study area is mostly undertaken by the male gender (85%) who were in their active age between the age of 30-60 years. Majority of them had one form of formal education or the other and have marketing experience of more than five years. On the profitability of the enterprise a total variable cost ₦7887.00 was estimated using 2014 price of input and output. Cost of transportation accounting for 72.84%. The total revenue from the enterprise was estimated ₦13, 100 given the net income of ₦5213 an indication that the enterprise is profitable. A high marketing efficiency of 160% was computed an indication that the profit maximization motive of local chicken marketing is assured. It is recommended that the marketers should be motivated and encouraged with soft loans so as to expand their production.

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Evaluation of the contribution of forest rangelands in the forage balance in the western part of the Central Middle Atlas: Case of the forests of Azrou, Jbel Aoua South and Sidi M'guild

Abstract Range management in Morocco is based on traditional practices where the land is used by a community for grazing by sheep. In the Atlas Mountains rangelands and forest lands are extensively used by grazing animals and even if the vegetation is abundant the cover is ongoing degradation especially in summer. The forest as a rich ecosystem where the plant community is constituted by Quercus and Cedrus sp. where overgrazing has an negative impact on the vegetation inducing degradation. The bred of sheep is Timahdit a bred which is adapted to the high mountain cold of the winter. The range is overgrazed by sheep and undergoes profound mutation with major degradation due to higher pressure by the increasing number of animals of the community which have the right to use the herbaceous cover. This study have the objective to determine the contribution of the range to meet the needs of the animals in the occidental region of the atlas mountains and determine the difference between the potential of the range and the need of the grazing sheep. The results showed that the herbaceous cover is over used by high numbers of animals. So a more rational use of the range is necessary to stop the degradation and sustain the production potential of the forest. The participatory method which includes the population in the decision making will allow better use of the range and sustain the resources and the forest by stopping degradation and a rational use of the range.

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Thursday, 13 September 2018

Agriculture Journal: August 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-8, august 2018

Purification and properties of polygalacturonase associated with the infection process of Colletotrichum truncatum CP2 in chilli

AbstractIn this study, polygalacturonase enzyme produced by Colletotrichum truncatum CP2 was partially purified by aqueous two-phase system and the properties of this enzyme was characterized. The highest yield (57.4%) and purification fold (5.1) was obtained using 22% PEG 6,000/15% sodium citrate comprising crude load of 16% (w/w) at pH 7.0 with addition of 1.0% (w/w) sodium chloride. The partially purified PG remained active over a wide range of pH (2.5-6.0) and the optimum activity was obtained at pH 5.0. Incubation of the partially purified PG at 40 and 50 °C for 30 min caused the activity of PG to decrease up to 20% and 40%, respectively. However, no significant changes in the activity when the enzymes were incubated up to 4 h at 40 and 50 °C. The results from this study suggested that ATPS comprising of PEG and sodium citrate could be potentially used as an alternative method for purification of PG.

Keywords Chilli, Colletotrichum truncatum, polygalacturonase, aqueous two-phase system.

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Study of Macroinvertebrates Assemblage as an Indication of a Tropical Freshwater Lagoon Water Quality: Ono Lagoon (Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa)

Abstract This study aimed to assess the water quality of Ono lagoon using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. The Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) scoring system and the Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) were used to assess the ecosystem health of water. Samples were monthly collected from September 2015 to August 2016. A total of 12145 macroinvertebrates belonging to 47 families, 17 orders, 5 classes and 3 phyla were identified. Macroinvertebrates were mainly composed of Arthropoda, Mollusca and Annelida. The most abundant taxa was Insecta (83.14%) followed by Gastropoda (6.65%) and whereas the least abundant taxa were Achaeta (6.19%), Crustacea (2.39%) and Arachnida (1.62%). The BMWP score was 140, indicating that water was neither very clean nor significantly altered aquatic habitat. According to the PTI, the water was moderately polluted based on the number of moderately pollution-sensitive organisms (52.96%) and the number of aquatic organisms which are fairly and very sensitive to pollution (34.6%). These results showed that biological quality of Ono lagoon can be considered as acceptable.

Keywords BMWP scoring system, Macroinvertebrates, Ono Lagoon, Pollution Tolerance Index, Water quality.

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Hydroponic hop crop (Humulus lupulus L.) under greenhouse conditions in Mexico City.

Abstract H. lupulus is a dioecious plant member of the Cannabaceae family whose female flowers are used in the brewing industry. The value of female plants lies in the lupulin glands that contain resins and essential oils required for the flavor and aroma of beer. Hop crop growths between 35 ° and 55 ° latitude north and south, however, it has been possible to cultivate where conditions does not resemble those observed in the mentioned latitudes. Even more, hop has been hydroponic cultivated in traditional crop areas. Hydroponics provides controlled conditions, isolation and all needed nutrients in an aqueous solution. The aim of this work was to establish a hydroponic hop culture in greenhouse conditions, using a modified Hoagland nutrient solution. An average daily growth rate of 1.17 cm was obtained by rhizome plants and of 1.38 cm for those from freshly germinated seedlings, and an average overall height of 218 cm, an adequate growth when compared to the background of this crop. The data obtained show that hydroponics hop crops can be settle in areas with different conditions from those of the traditional cultivation zone.

Keywords Brewing industry, hop, hydroponics, rhizome, seedling.

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Determining the best Lentil (Lens culinaris) and Mustard (Brassica campestris) Intercrop Combination to Improve Biomass Yield and Economic Returns on the Yield in Southern Region of Bangladesh

Abstract An intercropping experiment on mustard with lentil was conducted during rabi season of 2013-14 and 2014-15 at the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Rahmatpur, Barisal to find out suitable intercrop combination for higher profitability and economic return. Sole lentil (100%), sole mustard (100%) and five intercrop combinations {one row of lentil and one row of mustard (1:1), one row of mustard in between two rows of lentil (2:1), one row of mustard in between three rows of lentil (3:1), one row of mustard in between four rows of lentil (4:1) and two rows of mustard in between four rows of lentil (4:2)} were evaluated in the present study. Significantly the highest lentil (1.91 t/ha) and mustard yield (1.48 t/ha) were obtained from their respective sole crops. Lentil yield was reduced (17-34%) due to intercropping, but it was compensated by the mustard yield. Moreover, land equivalent ratios (LER) of the intercrop treatments were higher than those of sole crops. The highest (2.29t/ha) lentil equivalent yield (LEY) was obtained from T5 treatment (One row of lentil + Three rows of mustard). This treatment also gave the highest LER (1.65), gross return (Tk 182400/ha), net return (Tk. 103200/ha) and benefit cost ratio (2.29).

Keywords— Corroboration, Lentil (Lens culinaris), Mustard (Brassica campestris), Intercropping and Equivalent yield.

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Tracking of Diversity among a Wide Local Collection of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Landraces in Bangladesh

Abstract Genetic diversity of twenty bitter gourd genotypes based on ten characters was measured through multivariate analysis. The 20 genotypes fell into five distant clusters. The cluster IV comprised the maximum number (6) of genotypes followed by same in cluster II and cluster III (5). The cluster I and V comprised 3 and 1genotypes respectively. The highest inter-cluster distance (64.53) was observed between the cluster III and V. The lowest inter-cluster distance (7.05) was observed between the cluster II and III. The inter-cluster distances were larger than the intra-cluster distances. The intra-cluster distance in the entire five clusters was more or less low indicating that the genotypes within the same cluster were closely related. Fruit diameter and fruits per plant were the important component characters having higher contribution to the genetic divergence. Path co-efficient analysis revealed that branch per vine, fruits length, and fruit diameter had positive direct effect on fruit yield. Wide genetic diversity was observed in 20 genotypes of bitter gourd, which were grouped into five clusters. The genotypes of clusters III were more diverse from the genotypes of cluster V.Fruit diameter and fruits per plant were found responsible for the maximum diversity. Hybridization between the genotypes of cluster III and cluster V will manifest the wide genetic variability. Considering group distance and the agronomic performance, the inter genotypic crosses between G16 and G1; G16 and G17; G16 and G10; G16 and G4; G16 and G13 might be suitable choice for future hybridization programme.

Keywords Diversity, Path co-efficient, Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.), Landraces, Agronomic performance and Hybridization.

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Floristic Structure of Yukarisevindikli Natural Pasture in Tekirdag, Turkey

Abstract This research was conducted in Yukarisevindikli village natural pasture in Tekirdag province at Trakya (Thrace) region in Turkey. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between plant species composition and different management techniques of Yukarisevindikli natural pasture. Measurements on pasture were made at 3 different management system (grazed, abondened, mowed) units. Some ecological indicators were investigated such as frequency families, lifeforms, life spam and phytogeographical regions. The most widely spread species on grazed and abondened units were scented grass (Chrysopogon gryllus). Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens were determined common in mowed pasture units. Hemicryptophytes were dominant in the investigated area, followed by therophytes, chamaphytes and geophytes.

Keywords Pasture, biodiversity, land use, vegetation.

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