Thursday, 13 September 2018

Agriculture Journal: August 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-8, august 2018

Purification and properties of polygalacturonase associated with the infection process of Colletotrichum truncatum CP2 in chilli

AbstractIn this study, polygalacturonase enzyme produced by Colletotrichum truncatum CP2 was partially purified by aqueous two-phase system and the properties of this enzyme was characterized. The highest yield (57.4%) and purification fold (5.1) was obtained using 22% PEG 6,000/15% sodium citrate comprising crude load of 16% (w/w) at pH 7.0 with addition of 1.0% (w/w) sodium chloride. The partially purified PG remained active over a wide range of pH (2.5-6.0) and the optimum activity was obtained at pH 5.0. Incubation of the partially purified PG at 40 and 50 °C for 30 min caused the activity of PG to decrease up to 20% and 40%, respectively. However, no significant changes in the activity when the enzymes were incubated up to 4 h at 40 and 50 °C. The results from this study suggested that ATPS comprising of PEG and sodium citrate could be potentially used as an alternative method for purification of PG.

Keywords Chilli, Colletotrichum truncatum, polygalacturonase, aqueous two-phase system.

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Study of Macroinvertebrates Assemblage as an Indication of a Tropical Freshwater Lagoon Water Quality: Ono Lagoon (Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa)

Abstract This study aimed to assess the water quality of Ono lagoon using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. The Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) scoring system and the Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) were used to assess the ecosystem health of water. Samples were monthly collected from September 2015 to August 2016. A total of 12145 macroinvertebrates belonging to 47 families, 17 orders, 5 classes and 3 phyla were identified. Macroinvertebrates were mainly composed of Arthropoda, Mollusca and Annelida. The most abundant taxa was Insecta (83.14%) followed by Gastropoda (6.65%) and whereas the least abundant taxa were Achaeta (6.19%), Crustacea (2.39%) and Arachnida (1.62%). The BMWP score was 140, indicating that water was neither very clean nor significantly altered aquatic habitat. According to the PTI, the water was moderately polluted based on the number of moderately pollution-sensitive organisms (52.96%) and the number of aquatic organisms which are fairly and very sensitive to pollution (34.6%). These results showed that biological quality of Ono lagoon can be considered as acceptable.

Keywords BMWP scoring system, Macroinvertebrates, Ono Lagoon, Pollution Tolerance Index, Water quality.

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Hydroponic hop crop (Humulus lupulus L.) under greenhouse conditions in Mexico City.

Abstract H. lupulus is a dioecious plant member of the Cannabaceae family whose female flowers are used in the brewing industry. The value of female plants lies in the lupulin glands that contain resins and essential oils required for the flavor and aroma of beer. Hop crop growths between 35 ° and 55 ° latitude north and south, however, it has been possible to cultivate where conditions does not resemble those observed in the mentioned latitudes. Even more, hop has been hydroponic cultivated in traditional crop areas. Hydroponics provides controlled conditions, isolation and all needed nutrients in an aqueous solution. The aim of this work was to establish a hydroponic hop culture in greenhouse conditions, using a modified Hoagland nutrient solution. An average daily growth rate of 1.17 cm was obtained by rhizome plants and of 1.38 cm for those from freshly germinated seedlings, and an average overall height of 218 cm, an adequate growth when compared to the background of this crop. The data obtained show that hydroponics hop crops can be settle in areas with different conditions from those of the traditional cultivation zone.

Keywords Brewing industry, hop, hydroponics, rhizome, seedling.

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Determining the best Lentil (Lens culinaris) and Mustard (Brassica campestris) Intercrop Combination to Improve Biomass Yield and Economic Returns on the Yield in Southern Region of Bangladesh

Abstract An intercropping experiment on mustard with lentil was conducted during rabi season of 2013-14 and 2014-15 at the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Rahmatpur, Barisal to find out suitable intercrop combination for higher profitability and economic return. Sole lentil (100%), sole mustard (100%) and five intercrop combinations {one row of lentil and one row of mustard (1:1), one row of mustard in between two rows of lentil (2:1), one row of mustard in between three rows of lentil (3:1), one row of mustard in between four rows of lentil (4:1) and two rows of mustard in between four rows of lentil (4:2)} were evaluated in the present study. Significantly the highest lentil (1.91 t/ha) and mustard yield (1.48 t/ha) were obtained from their respective sole crops. Lentil yield was reduced (17-34%) due to intercropping, but it was compensated by the mustard yield. Moreover, land equivalent ratios (LER) of the intercrop treatments were higher than those of sole crops. The highest (2.29t/ha) lentil equivalent yield (LEY) was obtained from T5 treatment (One row of lentil + Three rows of mustard). This treatment also gave the highest LER (1.65), gross return (Tk 182400/ha), net return (Tk. 103200/ha) and benefit cost ratio (2.29).

Keywords— Corroboration, Lentil (Lens culinaris), Mustard (Brassica campestris), Intercropping and Equivalent yield.

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Tracking of Diversity among a Wide Local Collection of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Landraces in Bangladesh

Abstract Genetic diversity of twenty bitter gourd genotypes based on ten characters was measured through multivariate analysis. The 20 genotypes fell into five distant clusters. The cluster IV comprised the maximum number (6) of genotypes followed by same in cluster II and cluster III (5). The cluster I and V comprised 3 and 1genotypes respectively. The highest inter-cluster distance (64.53) was observed between the cluster III and V. The lowest inter-cluster distance (7.05) was observed between the cluster II and III. The inter-cluster distances were larger than the intra-cluster distances. The intra-cluster distance in the entire five clusters was more or less low indicating that the genotypes within the same cluster were closely related. Fruit diameter and fruits per plant were the important component characters having higher contribution to the genetic divergence. Path co-efficient analysis revealed that branch per vine, fruits length, and fruit diameter had positive direct effect on fruit yield. Wide genetic diversity was observed in 20 genotypes of bitter gourd, which were grouped into five clusters. The genotypes of clusters III were more diverse from the genotypes of cluster V.Fruit diameter and fruits per plant were found responsible for the maximum diversity. Hybridization between the genotypes of cluster III and cluster V will manifest the wide genetic variability. Considering group distance and the agronomic performance, the inter genotypic crosses between G16 and G1; G16 and G17; G16 and G10; G16 and G4; G16 and G13 might be suitable choice for future hybridization programme.

Keywords Diversity, Path co-efficient, Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.), Landraces, Agronomic performance and Hybridization.

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Floristic Structure of Yukarisevindikli Natural Pasture in Tekirdag, Turkey

Abstract This research was conducted in Yukarisevindikli village natural pasture in Tekirdag province at Trakya (Thrace) region in Turkey. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between plant species composition and different management techniques of Yukarisevindikli natural pasture. Measurements on pasture were made at 3 different management system (grazed, abondened, mowed) units. Some ecological indicators were investigated such as frequency families, lifeforms, life spam and phytogeographical regions. The most widely spread species on grazed and abondened units were scented grass (Chrysopogon gryllus). Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens were determined common in mowed pasture units. Hemicryptophytes were dominant in the investigated area, followed by therophytes, chamaphytes and geophytes.

Keywords Pasture, biodiversity, land use, vegetation.

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Agriculture Journal: July 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-7, july 2018

Potential of Mealybugs Infestation, Planococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in an Agroforestry System in Coffee Crops

AbstractThe association of tree species to coffee plantations is a common practice in coffee crops, and studies must be performed to establish the effects of these associations. Pests such as the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso), and the pacificus mealybug, Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), can host in several plants and should be studied in relation to this integration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of associated trees to be a source of infestation for coffee crops. The treatments consisted of acrocarpus (Acrocarpus fraxinifolius), African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis), teak plants (Tectona grandis) and macadamia (Macadamia sp.), as well as the coffee tree Coffea Arabica cv. Mundo Novo. Food preference was studied in laboratory through the test of free choice. Mortality, development and reproduction were also evaluated on each host. Attractiveness of these plants towards the coffee tree was tested by means of an olfactometer, whereby the scale insects were exposed for 15 minutes to the odors of these plants. Both scales settled in all tested plants but the trees did not appear to be suitable hosts. High mortality was found on trees. These scales showed no olfactory preference between the coffee tree and the other tested species and teak leaves had even a repellent effect. It is concluded that acrocarpus, mahogany, macadamia and teak are not potential sources of infestation of mealybugs to the coffee tree, and by consequence they do not represent a threat to the crop.

KeywordsPlanococcus citri, Planococcus minor, Biology, Food Preference, Olfatometry.

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Water productivity and yield of Paddy Rice cultivation under AWD irrigation management in Pingtung, southern Taiwan

AbstractDecreasing water input while maintaining grain yield remains a challenge for World to produce rice sustainably. In recent years, the Alternate wetting and Drying Irrigation(AWD)has been developed toward Asian’ farmers. However, the gap observed is the low assessment of its performances, particularly in Taiwan.

The aim of this study is to determine whether AWDI management could maintain grain yield with reduced water input.

AWD approach experiment field was conducted in National Pingtung University, in Southern Taiwan. A two leaves old rice seedling, TAINAN11 was arranged in a randomized complete block design with five water treatments: AWD2cm, AWD3cm, AWD3cm/w, AWD4cm and AWD5cm with respectively 2cm and 3 cm water depth monitoring by soil hairline cracks; 3cm, 4 cm, and 5cm weekly irrigation. The irrigation regimes were done by AWD technics. The plant water status was assessed through soil water content. Crop growth, grain yield, and water productivity were measured.

The results showed that grain yields under AWD3cm, AWD2cm and AWD3cm/w presented the high yield and irrigation water productivity about 0.211, 0.208 and 0.205 respectively. The AWD4cm and AWD5cm despite the high-water depth presented low yield with respectively 3081 Kg/ha and 2604 Kg/ha.

The results confirmed also that AWD3cm and more precisely AWD3cm/w could obtain comparable grain yield close to farmers practices with fewer irrigations. These findings suggested that AWD with 3 cm water depth (AWD3cm and AWD3cm/w) could be used for water-saving while maintaining grain yield in paddy rice production.

Keywords—Grain yield, Water productivity, Alternate Wetting and Drying, AWD.

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Influence of Baobab Leaf Enrichment on the Physicochemical, Sensory and Nutritional Characteristics of Plantain/Cashew kernels Composite Flours

Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the nutritional value and sensory acceptance of Baobab leaf enriched plantain- cashew kernel meal. Composite flours formulated from plantain and cashew almond were enriched with baobab leaf powder at substitution levels of 10%, 15% and 20%. The biochemical composition, minerals, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, sensory properties and nutritional parameters of the enriched composite flours were measured. The addition of baobab leaf powder evidenced significant (p <0.05) increase in protein, fiber, vitamin C, main mineral elements, total polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity; but dropped the lipids and carbohydrates contents. With sensory evaluation, cashew-almond-based composite meal formulas substituted for 10% by baobab leaf powder showed a similar overall sensory acceptance to non-enriched cashew-nut kernels. In addition, the ingestion of these meal formulas by the young rats was favorable to their growth. Thus, diets incorporating 10% baobab leaves are more suitable for consumption and growth of young rats.

Keywords Flour, plantain-cashew nut, enrichment, Baobab, leaves.

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Nutritional and Physiological Effects of Gradual Fish Replacement by Volvariella volvacea Powder in Growing Rats

Abstract This work aimed to evaluate the effect of substitution of fish proteins by powder of Volvariella volvacea, an edible mushroom of Côte d'Ivoire, in the growing rats. The gradual substitution of fish proteins by mushroom proteins leads to a decrease in the growth performance of rats. With 75 % and 100 % mushroom in diets, body weight gain, food efficiency and protein efficiency ratio are negative. These diets do not affect the average weight of some organs (heart, liver and spleen), except for the kidney average weight that increases as mushroom levels increase in diets. Likewise, the average weight of abdominal fat decreases and disappears as the mushroom incorporation rate increases. The incorporation of mushroom powder into the control diet provokes changes in the mean value of some serum metabolites and electrolytes. The popular belief that states that mushrooms proteins can substitute meat proteins is not valid. Mushrooms can be proposed as dietetic regime for obese people.

Keywords Rats, Volvariella volvacea, growth, metabolites.

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Effects of supplementation on the mycelial ergosterol content of Agaricus bisporus grown on media formulated with olive oil subproducts.

Abstract Supplementation is one of the most relevant procedures for mushroom growth modulation. Little is known about the influence of supplementation on the concentrations of metabolites with potential health benefits. Experiments on compost require long cultivation times. Similar composition has been detected in fruiting bodies and mycelia. Therefore, the mycelial composition can be assumed to be similar to that of the fruiting bodies. This study examines the effect of supplementing a minimal defined growth medium with components derived from olive oil industry subproducts on A. bisporus mycelial composition, primarily ergosterol, when grown on minimal defined liquid and solid media in an attempt to obtain a higher concentration of ergosterol (pro-vitamin D2).

bisporus supplemented with alperujo meal (ALPM) and olive leaf meal (OLM) led to higher ergosterol content than that of the fungi grown in non-supplemented media (5.64±0.47, 6.60±0.86 and 4.08±0.53 mg/g p.s. in MDLm and 5.36±0.39, 6.79±0.41 and 4.22±0.43 mg/g p.s. in MDSm). Western blotting was used to validate the cultivation results. Three proteins (ERG2, ERG6, and EGR11) involved in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway were significantly upregulated, indicating the importance of supplementation to ergosterol biosynthesis.

This report represents the first comprehensive study on the protein expression profiling of supplementation studies directed to improve metabolites with potential health benefits in A. bisporus. It provides new insights and a better understanding of the development of cultivation processes directed to increase ergosterol biosynthesis. These results could be used to obtain mycelia with higher vitamin D2 content after irradiation with UVB light.

Keywords Agaricus bisporus, cultivation medium supplementation, ergosterol, olive leaf meal, two-phase pomace.

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Agriculture Journal: June 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-6, june 2018

Analysis of Determinant Factors to Loan Repayment among Rice Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria

Abstract Analysis of loan repayment among rice farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria was studied using one hundred and eighty respondents. These respondents were selected using multi stage sampling procedure and purposive selection procedure. The objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the broiler farmers, identify the various broiler management practices the farmers put their credit into, assess the determinant factors influencin loan repayments among the farmers and identify the constraints to loan repayment by the farmers in the study area. Structured questionnaire was used to collect information for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive such as frequency distribution table and percentage responses, inferential statistics such as Logit model and factor analysis. The results of the study indicated that the sampled farmers were youthful, females, married, and had large household size and farming experience of above 11 years. Also, microfinance and commercial banks were the major sources of credit to the farmers. In addition, the major uses the credit was put into by the farmers were in purchasing feeds and buying of drugs and vaccines. The determinant factors to rice farmers’ loan repayment ability were household size, extension services, membership of organization, farming experience, educational level and off-farm income. The constraints to the farmers’ ability to repay their loan were high interest rate, low productivity, high collateral, poor loan assessment and changes in bank policy changes. The need to enhance the farmers’ access to training, off- farm income and the need to give rebate to farmers that repay their loans at appropriate time were recommended.

Keywords Analysis, Loan, Repayment, Broiler, Farmers, Enugu State, Nigeria.

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Analysis of the Environmental Effect of Pig Production in Okigwe Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

Abstract The research was aimed at accessing environmental effect of pig production in Okigwe local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to describe the socio economic characteristics of the respondents; identify the environmental effect of pig farming on the environs; identify the method of pig management and waste disposal methods among the respondents, determine the factors affecting the choice of waste disposal methods by respondents; and identify the constraints to wastes managements pig production in the study area. A total of 60 farmers were selected using purposive and multi stage random sampling techniques. The data were collected using questionnaire and secondary source. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical such as percentage and frequency distribution table for objectives i, ii and iv. The objective iii was captured using multi nominal logit model. The results showed that most of the respondents were aged, males, educated and had large household size. More so, on the method of pig management, intensive method was the most popular. Additionally, open lagoon, dumping in the farm and store in the bag were the major methods for waste disposal in pig production. In addition, the result of the multinomial regression model on the choice of methods of wastes disposal showed that age of the respondents, farming experience and membership of cooperative organization were positive and significant. The major constraints to wastes management in pig production in the study area were poor access to credit, poor road network, water problem and high costs of labour. There is need to ensure farmers’ access to credit, good road net work and water availability.

KeywordsAnalysis, Environmental effect, Pig production, Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria.

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Effect of Operation Variables of Potato Digger with Double Chain Conveyors on Crop Handling and Machine Performance

Abstract The experiments were conducted at Al- Gimma Agricultural Scheme in the Tragma area- Shendi locality, River Nile State during April – 2017, to study the effect of some operational factors related to harvesting machine such as tractor forward speed (4.4, 5.6 and 6.7km/hr, harvesting depth (16, 18 and 21cm) and the conveyer inclination (15° and 20°) on some of potato crop handling such as lifting potatoes, cut of potatoes, Bruised and Total bruised (Damage) index potato and some of machine performance such as travel reduction (wheel slippage), effective field capacity and fuel consumption. The results showed that, there were significant influences of forward speed, harvesting depth and conveyer inclination on tubers lifting, cut of potatoes while the effect of different forward speed showed no significant effect on potatoes damage, further no significant on the percentage of scuffed damage tubers, peeler damage tubers, severe damage tubers, total damage index as effecting by conveyer inclination. As the digging depth of digger increased from 16 to 18, the lifting potatoes increased from 93.42 to 94.42%, while decreased from 94.42% to 87.72% when the digging depth decreased from 21cm to 18cm. Significant and consistent increase in tubers lifting percentage was recorded due to increase in conveyer inclination. Less percentage of scuffed, peeler, severe damage tubers and total damage index of 0.2%, 0.0%, 1.6% and 21.9, respectively were recorded at speed of 6.7km/hr, while the highest percentage of scuffed, peeler and severe damage tubers of 2.1%, 0.3% and 2.7% respectively were recorded at Speed of 4.3km/hr.

Statistical analysis (P<0.05) showed that increasing the forward speed, increased effective field capacity and fuel consumption significantly while there was no significance effect on wheel slippage. Furthermore, increasing the digging depth increased the wheel slippage and fuel consumption significantly where the effective field capacity significantly decreased. The conveyer inclination showed no significant effect on machine performance.

Keywords potato digger machine, lifting potatoes, cut of potatoes, bruised potato, and Total Damage index and machine performance.

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Predicting of Field Working Days of Planting and Harvesting Operations for Sorghum Crops Damazeen Area (Sudan)

Abstract Prediction model was developed to predict suitable field workdays for planting and harvesting operations in South Central Sudan (Damazeen). Predictions were made from a computer model which simulates daily soil moisture in the top 30 cm of soil depth using 11 years of daily meteorological records. The model was tested and validated by comparing its output with the observed workdays during the 2004 farming season on Clay soil types. Results show that there was good agreement between the observed and predicted values using established tractability criteria. A study was conducted to determine the appropriate number of working days in mechanized planting and semi-mechanized harvesting of Sorghum in Damazeen, Sudan in 2010. The number of working days for mechanized planting was estimated about 20 days, and for harvesting was about 23 days with 99% confidence. The allowed limit of soil moisture in clay-loam texture, for having the capability of running field operations was determined to be 14.5% of the weight. In this limit, soil has acceptability of 6.34 mm of water (rainfall) for sowing and 10.62 mm for harvesting at the depth of operation in each turn of rainfall or irrigation. At sowing and harvesting times, 19.3% and 7.5% of the rainfall is converted to runoff. Therefore, the maximum allowable rainfall in a situation that doesn’t change the soil condition from the proper situation for mechanized sowing and harvesting operation is 7.6 and 11.41 mm, respectively, in each rainfall turn. For the drainage of excess moisture after rainfall, in sowing and harvesting operations, five and seven days are required, respectively.

Keywords simulation model, drainage, proper working days, runoff, soil profile tractability.

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Use of Triple Bagging Systems and Lippia Multilora Leaves for the Protein-Energy Quality Preservation of Cowpea Seeds (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

Abstract Cowpea is a food legume highly appreciated in the traditional diet of the populations in Ivory Coast. It is confronted with storage and / or preservation problems which prevent his production in large quantity. This experiment carried out in Ivory Coast, made it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the triple bagging systems combined or not with the use of Lippia multiflora leaves on maintaining the cowpea seeds protein-energy quality during preservation. Thus, a 6x6 factorial design was considered to evaluate the cowpea seeds protein-energy quality. The first factor consisted to six types of packaging namely: one control with polypropylene bag (TST), one triple bagging batch (composed of 2 internal layers in independent high density polyethylene 80 mm thick and a woven bag polypropylene) without biopesticide (H0), and four batches (H1, H2, H3 and H4) containing respectively (0.7%; 2.5; 4.3%; and 5%) biopesticide. And second factor storage time, it included six periods of observation (0; 1; 2; 4.5; 7 and 8 months). Results showed significant influence of the interaction between types of treatments and storage time upon protein-energy quality of cowpea. Indeed, the polypropylene control was destocked at 4.5 months and very significant changes were recorded in the protein-energy quality of the cowpea seeds. Also, in the triple bagging systems without biopesticide significant changes were observed to seven months of storage in the contents of moisture (10.03% to 12.55%); ash (2.73% to 2.40%); fiber (5.15% to 4.37%); lipids (1.86% to 1.40%); proteins (22.75% to 15.21%); starch (53.80% to 42.27%); total carbohydrates (62.62% to 68.44%); total sugars (15.89% to 8.15%); reducing sugars (3.12% to 2.20%) and energy value (358% to 347.20%). However, cowpea seeds stored in triple bagging systems with biopesticide retain protein energy characteristic better for eight months period. The average values of analysis tests remained around: 12.06% humidity; 2.60% ash; 4.98% fiber; 18.50% proteins; 1.73% lipids; 52.13% starch; 65.13% total carbohydrates; 14.10% total sugars; 3.00% reducing sugars and finally 350.05% energy value. The results of the multivariate analysis indicate that the 0.7% biopesticide concentration is effective and maintains the protein-energy quality of the cowpea seeds for up to 8 months.

Keywords Cowpea, preservation, triples bagging, biopesticide, protein energy characteristics.

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Environmental study of the role of anthropogenic factors on the possible pollution of coastal marine waters in Dakhla Bay – Morocco

Abstract The sites used for breeding and the beaches are ranked in descending order of health in 4 categories A, B, C and D according to the estimate of the microbiological quality and evaluation of the chemical contamination (circular 15.08.12 d 'August 2012). After classification, the target areas are subject to regular health surveillance, intended to verify the durability of the characteristics that have based their classification and to detect possible episodes of contamination. This monitoring covers the measurement of microbiological, chemical (heavy metal) and marine biotoxin parameters in bivalve molluscs, as well as phytoplankton pests in seawater.

The Main objective of the present survey is to make a diagnosis of the state of health of the principal beaches of the region of Dakhla Oued Eddahaba bay in years 2015, 2016 and 2017. Our sampling focused on 4 beaches: Foum Lbouir, El Moussafir, Lakeira, and Tourist Area. Bacteriological analyzes were conducted to identify the microorganisms that are indicative of faecal pollution including faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci and Escherichia coli and their enumeration by the filter membrane method on nutrient media Tergitol7 Agar, Litsky, Slanetz & Bartley.

In addition to microbiological monitoring of seawaters, the air temperature was measured "in situ" using a mercury thermometer, the temperature of the water using a pH meter, the tide (high or low) and finally the estimate of the number of bathers.

The Main results obtained made it possible to classify the four beaches in 3 categories according to the Moroccan standard for monitoring bathing water quality NM 03.7.200. The beaches of the Al Moussafir and Tourist PK25 are classified A. The beaches of Foum Lebouir with medium quality waters is classified A or B. Only the beach of Lakheira is very polluted and classified in category C.

Keywords Coast, Beaches, Swimming, Pollution, Microbiology, Coliforms, Streptococci, Dakhla, Morocco.

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Evaluation of the CropSyst Model on Soybean (Glycine max L.) in the Tropics

Abstract South Sulawesi is one of the soybean producer provinces in Indonesia. As in other tropical areas, South Sulawesi season comprises is dry and rainy seasons, so modeling of crops such as CropSyst can be very helpful in predicting planting time, providing irrigation, and applying the right fertilizer to get maximum soybean productivity. To apply the CropSyst model in the tropics such as South Sulawesi, calibration and validation of several plant parameters are required. Further calibration and validation results need to be tested to see the accuracy of predicting models. The results of soybean evaluation in South Sulawesi showed that RMSE (0.09 and 0.11), MBE (-0.01 and 0.11), MAE (0.08 and 0.11), and d (0.92 and 0.81) had values showing that CropSyst model accurately to predict grain yield of soybean in South Sulawesi.

Keywords soybean, CropSyst, calibration, validation, evaluation.

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Hydrogeochemical of Oued Ouerrha and Oued Sra, Taounate (Rif, Morocco)

AbstractThe superficial waters of Taounate district are particularly affected by the pollution problem that threatens their physicochemical quality. The city of Taounate, because of its growing demography, these superficial watercourses are currently threatened by wastewaters discharges. In order to establish a diagnosis of their state of pollution, water samples were taken at two stations on OuedOuerrha and two others on its tributary OuedSra, to make a comparison between these two watercourses.

The physicochemical characterization of downstream stations, especially in OuedSra, shows high levels in terms of BOD5 (180 mg/L), COD (288 mg/L), and MES (152 mg/L), with a pH of 8,00 and a decrease in dissolved oxygen levels (4,8 mg/L) due essentially to urban discharges from the city of Taounate.

Otherwise, the influences of liquid discharges would certainly lead to the degradation of the quality of these waters. This situation may be aggravated by climate change, whose consequences could have adverse effects on the potential of water resources, both in terms of quantity and quality.

KeywordsMorocco, OuedOuerrha, OuedSra, Taounate, Wastewater.

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Detection of Paramyxovirus, Reovirus and Adenovirus Infection in King Snakes (Lampropeltis triangulum spp.) by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Histopathology Techniques.

Abstract Viruses diverse occur worldwide in reptilian. Paramyxoviruses that infect reptiles belong to Paramyxoviridae family and Ferlavirus genus and are one of the major agents responsible for causing pneumonia in snakes. Reptilian adenovirus has already been documented in various species of snakes, associated with liver, gastrointestinal, respiratory and central nervous system disease. Reptilian orthoreovirus has been demonstrated in several species of reptiles associated with sudden death, central nervous system disorders, skin lesions and pneumonia. In this study 3 kingsnakes (Lampropeltis triangulum spp), from a breeding in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, presented a variable clinical picture and death. Feces and organ fragments were processed by the transmission electron microcopy (negative staining) and histopathology (H & E) techniques. By the negative staining, paramyxovirus-like particles, pleomorphic roughly spherical or filamentous, ranging in diameter from 100 to 500 nm, containing internal "herring-borne" nucleocapsid and an outer envelope covered by spikes, were visualized in all samples of the feces and fragments of organs examined. In samples of the small intestine, stomach, pancreas and spleen fragments, adenovirus-like particles, isometric, nonenveloped, containing icosahedral symmetry capsid, measuring 70-90 nm in diameter, were visualized. Reovirus-like particles, isometric, nonenveloped, spherical, characterized as "complete" or "empty", measuring between 65 and 70 nm in diameter, were also visualized in samples of the feces and small intestine. By the H & E, they were observed in the spleen numerous heterophiles, hypoplastic lymphoid follicles and hyperplastic red pulp. The lung presented hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the alveolar walls, alveoli with cellular debris and mucus; numerous heterophiles and monolymphocytic inflammatory cells. The liver had a marked macro and microgoticular steatosis, with a multifocal presence of nodules in the parenchyma. Monolymphocytic hepatitis and large nuclear basophilic inclusion bodies were also observed in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and occasionally in endothelial cells. The large intestine presented monolymphocytic enteritis with hyperplasia of enteric lymph nodes and marked proliferation of eosinophils. Some areas showed flattened villi. The skin presented areas with hyperkeratosis, foci with ballooniform degeneration and presence of eosinophilic inclusion corpuscles. In these areas a large number of eosinophils were observed. The kidneys presented monolymphocytic glomerulonephritis. The evaluation of the techniques employed allowed the rapid diagnosis of the viruses in the snakes.

Keywords Transmission electron microscopy, Histopathology, Snakes, Viruses.

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Typology of Constraints and Recommended Solutions for the Agroforestry in the Cascades Region of Burkina Faso

Abstract The tree-crop and / or animal association is a source of many ecological and socio-economic benefits, but it’s facing various constraints. The main objective of this work is to identify constraints and solutions to improve the agroforestry level in the Cascades region. Specifically, it aims to identify the units of management; list the agroforestry techniques used; identify the levels and types of constraints and recommended solutions. Interviews were conducted with the supervisors of agroforestry activities from technical public offices, researchers, partners and producers from 10 villages selected according to their specificities. They focused on agroforestry practices, constraints and solutions in the management of tree-crop fields, riverbanks, nurseries, plantations and direct seedings with forest tree seeds. A typology of the constraints was made and consisted in listing them, classifying them in different types and levels. These results highlighted six kinds of units on which eight agroforestry practices were found; 41 constraints were listed, classified in three (03) levels then in 10 types. Finally, 14 solutions are recommended by the interviewed actors to remove these constraints. A synergy of actions between the actors will allow better development of agroforestry in this region.

Keywords Agroforestry, Parklands, Constraints, Solutions, Cascades Region.

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Thursday, 31 May 2018

Agriculture Journal: May 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-5, May 2018

Study of the impact of Oum Azza landfill leachates on the environment of Rabat - Morocco

Abstract The problem of solid household waste has arisen with great sharpness in recent decades. In particular, the management of leachates and the neutralization of their environmental impacts. The need for Morocco to meet the environmental challenge and put itself in logic of sustainable development has led to an awareness of this issue and the promulgation of the new law 28-00 on waste management and their elimination.

The objective of this research work is the characterization of the organic and mineral load of leachate from the Oum Azza landfill and the evaluation of its environmental impacts on the city of Rabat. For this a campaign of 24 samples was undertaken in 2011.

The physicochemical characterization of leachates has revealed that these liquid discharges are:

  • Very high in organic matter with mean MES = 470mg / L; Average BOD5 = 5522 mg of O2 / L and COD = 12626 mg / L;
  • Very charged in mineral matter expressed in terms of electrical Conductivity (mean = 33969 μs / cm);
  • Have an average temperature of 24.5 ° C and a pH of 8;
  • A chloride concentration of 4289 mg / L;
  • Average sodium levels in the order of 3049 mg / L;
  • Average total nitrogen levels of 4090 mg / L and ammonia in the order of 3207 mg / L;
  • Average level of phosphates of the order of 35 mg / L;
  • Average sulphates levels of 35 mg / L.

The Rabat landfill represents a real nuisance for health and the environment because of the toxic characteristics of pollutants and bad odors. It is therefore essential to treat these liquid discharges and install a WWTP to mitigate the environmental impact of leachate.

Keywords Oum Azza discharge, leachates, physicochemistry, Pollution, Impacts, Odors, Rabat, Morocco.

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Analysis of enterprise relationships in food industry cluster based on niche theory

Abstract In recent years, the Chinese government and local governments in China at all levels actively promote the construction of food industry cluster Demonstration Park. Many problems accompanied with the continuous development of industrial clusters, such as the proliferation of homogeneous enterprises and products, the lack of organic links and symbiosis relationship among enterprises, resource depletion and environmental degradation, triggering niche overlap and vicious competition. All these phenomenon leads to industry cluster an acute shortage power of competitive and innovation. In this paper, we take the livestock and poultry industry cluster as the research object, use niche theory to analyze enterprise niche inclusion, overlap and separation relationships. As well as through the neutral theory in the equilibrium state to explain the cluster of enterprises in the competition, cooperation and symbiotic relationship.

Keywords Niche Theory, Food Industry Cluster, Neutral Theory, Competition, Cooperation.

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Improved grey clustering method in risk zonation of mountain flash flood disaster

Abstract Flash floods are considered one of the worst weather-related natural disasters. Flash floods are dangerous because they are sudden and highly unpredictable. Identification of the locations of high-risk areas has a major effect on the improvement of flash flood disaster control and prevention. Earlier work conducted on flood disaster risk zonation was commonly based on Digital Elevation Mode (DEM) data and statistical yearbook data and used an index, such as rainfall, topography, slope, or river distribution, with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to determine the weighting. In this method, the final regional risk map was created by using ArcGIS map algebra superposition. In the present study, an improved gray clustering method is put forward to improve the comprehensive evaluation of the risk of mountain flash flood disasters by constructing the exponential whitening function and by using the information entropy weight method, which produces results that are more accurate and more reliable than those of the traditional method. This improved method can make full use of the limited information available, improving not only the resolution but also the influence of the subjective method, and produces more objective and accurate evaluation results. We obtain the risk degree by combining the information entropy weight and improved whitening function approaches in a gray clustering methodology. Additionally, a method is applied to develop models for mapping the risk grade in zones of 1436 towns and counties in Hubei Province with remotely sensed (RS) data and the ArcGIS platform. The results show that the improved approach is useful for rapidly assessing flash flood hazard and vulnerability and for completing risk assessments in mountain areas.

Keywords improved gray clustering method, whitening function, information entropy, flood disaster risk, evaluation, zonation.

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Soil Erosion Risk Assessment Using GIS Based USLE Model for Soil and Water Conservation Planning in Somodo Watershed, South West Ethiopia

Abstract Soil erosion is natural phenomena and is modified by biophysical environment comprising soil, climate, terrain, ground cover and their interactions. Due to different factors, it is difficult to make watershed management successful in all areas at one time. Because of this, prioritization of sub watershed is very important for soil conservation planning and implementation. In Somodo watershed more than five years different soil and water conservation technologies were implemented and satisfactory result was not recorded. In this aspect, it is important to consider further watershed management planning., This study therefore investigated soil erosion risk assessment using GIS and USLE model for soil and water conservation in Somodo watershed southwestern Ethiopia with the aim of estimating soil erosion rate and identify soil erosion hot pot areas through prioritization of sub watershed in Somodo watershed by the help of GIS based USLE model. Both primary and secondary data sources were used for model input. These data were computed at a grid level with 30*30m resolution and then overlaid to generate mean annual soil loss by the help of raster calculator in Arc GIS tool. Results of the study showed that, the mean annual soil loss of the watershed was 18.69 ton ha-1 year-1 ranging from 0 to 131.21. More than 75% of the watershed have soil loss greater than 20 ton ha-1 year-1 and only 25% of the area have soil loss less than 10 ton ha-1 year-1.On the bases of mean annual soil loss SW-4, SW-6 and SW-7 were under slight (0-10 ton ha-1 year-1) erosion severity level, while the remaining SW-2, SW-3 and SW-8 were under moderate (10-20 ton ha-1 year-1) level. And SW-1 was in high (20-30 ton ha-1 year-1) erosion severity level, where as SW-5 and SW-9 were found in very high (>30 ton ha-1 year-1) erosion severity level. Since large area of the watershed has soil loss more than tolerable level (11 ton ha-1 year-1) attention should be given to identify erosion hot spot areas to minimize the on-site and off-site problems. Therefore, the study suggested that for effective watershed management and soil conservation planning, these sub-watershed priorities should be used in the watershed.

Keywords Soil loss, GIS, USLE, Hot spot and prioritization.

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Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil and Cytotoxic Activity of Ducrosia asadi Alva. from Iran

Abstract Hydro distillated oil of the aerial parts of Ducrosia assadi Alva. (Umbelliferae ) , has been analyzed by GC/MS with two different capillary columns, HP-5MS and HP-Wax. Thirty-four compounds were identified, 94.3% of the total oils. The concentration of citronellol, chrysanthenyl acetate, decanoic acid, decanol and linalool was high in analysis of the oil with both columns . Cytotoxic activity studied on two human cancer cell lines (LS180 and MCF-7) represented moderate cytotoxic activity.

Keywords Ducrosia assadi, Umbelliferae, essential oil, citronellol, Chrysanthenyl acetate.

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Effect of salinity on the physiological and biochemical responses of neem

Abstract— The present study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth, physiological and biochemical changes of neem under different salinity levels (4, 8, 10 and 12 dS/m) which have multipurpose use in agroforestry. Growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrate, proline and total phenol were investigated 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after treatment imposition. The results revealed that salinity caused significant differences in all the growth parameters and the maximum reduction were observed when plants were exposed to high salinity (12 dS/m) level and minimum were in control treatments. It was found that total dry matter and relative water content were reduced 72% and 40% in 12 dS/m compared to control plants at 120 DATI, respectively. By increasing saliniy 0 to 12 dS/m, the chlorophyll (the photosynthetic pigment) and carbohydrate (the photosynthetic product) content decreased, but increased the level of proline (an amino acid) and total phenol content (an antioxidant) in different days. The highest accumulation of free proline and total phenol content was recorded in 10 dS/m treatment and it was 77% and 59% greater than control plant, respectively. These findings suggest that though growth and biochemical parameters of neem were affected by salt stress, but all the plants survived in different salinity levels. Among all different salinity levels, neem can performed better up to 10 dS/m salinity level could be due to better antioxidant system of neem to cope up with oxidative damage to stressed plants.

Keywords Chlorophyll, growth, medicinal plant, neem, salinity.

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Impact of Biofertilizers on Crop Seeds

Abstract A laboratory experiments were conducted during the year of 2012-2014 at Annamalai University of cuddalore district under irrigated conditions to formulate site –specific nutrient management and efficiency of treatments known by comparing with rice, sunflower and black gram seeds. And the treatments includes control, 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1% vermicompost, 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1% phosphobacteria, 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1% azospirillum. And the above treatments are applied to all the three seeds ie, rice, sunflower, black gram. The numbers of seeds used for the experiment are 50 seeds of paddy, 20 seeds of black gram and 10 seeds of sunflower. Highest values for plant biomass root and shoot length was noticed in 10 % all the treatments.

Keywords Sunflower, Nutrient management, plant biomass, root and shoot length.

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Chloroplasts and Mitochondria: Similarities and Differences

Abstract Eukaryotic cells contain two organelles originally derived from endosymbiotic bacteria: mitochondria and plastids (only plants). In eukaryotes, (owner mitochondria and chloroplast) ATP synthase complex is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, and thylakoids membrane of chloroplast. ATP synthesis utilization and provision of both ADP and Pi need to be fine – tuned for optimal ATP synthase activity. Mitochondria and chloroplast have their DNA. The vast majority of mitochondrial and plastid proteins are encoded in the nucleus, synthesized by cytosolic ribosomes and subsequently imported into the organelles via active protein transport systems.

Keywords— ATP synthesis, Chlororplast, Mitochondria, Protein targeting.

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Metabolomics Analysis on Antifungal Activities Produced by Penicillium oxalicum T3.3 Grown on Different Types of Carbon Sources

AbstractIn-vitro antagonist tests such as disc diffusion and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) were conducted against C. gloeosporioides. 1H-NMR coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to identify possible compounds produced. Glucose crude extract exhibited the highest percent inhibition of radial growth (PIRG) with 75% and the lowest MIC value with 78 µg mL-1. For metabolomics, different metabolites produced were clustered according to the carbon sources used and gave a representative impression of the metabolites produced by P. oxalicum T3.3. The study has shown the potential of using a combination of 1H-NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis and their correlation with MIC in differentiating the effect of carbon sources used based on the identification of possible metabolites contributing to their differences. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both antimicrobial activities against plant pathogen and elucidation of the metabolite compounds produced by P. oxalicum T3.3.

KeywordsColletotrichum gloeosporioides, metabolomics, Partial Least Square (PLS), Penicillium oxalicum.

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Pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) reduced the flower abscission in Phaleonopsis cut orchid

AbstractPhaleonopsis cut orchids were pretreated for 6 hours at 25 °C with or without 1-MCP. Treated cut orchids were exposed to 800 ppm of 1- methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). Then, all cut flowers were treated with ethylene for 15 hours and after that were held in flask containing flower food individually at 25 °C to follow abscission. It was observed that, 20–30% of the floral buds and flowers abscised within 4 days in untreated sample. However, in treated sample, the 1-MCP pretreatment reduced the bud and petal abscission and the cut orchids were still maintained acceptable until day 7 before starting to abscise between 10-14 days of storage period. Result also showed that the ethylene production was inhibited and ACC oxidase activity was decreased in samples treated with 1-MCP. Thus, 1-MCP pretreatments prolong the shelf life of cut orchids from 4 days in control up to 10 days in treated samples, both displayed in 25 °C.

Keywordsornamental, ACC oxidase activity, ethylene production, quality, shelf life.

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Monday, 14 May 2018

Agriculture Journal: April 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-4, April 2018

Phytosanitary Products Action to Control Leaf Miner, Rust and their Influence on Coffee Vigor and Productivity

Abstract The Coffee Leaf Miner - CLM and coffee rust are the main pests and coffee diseases, respectively. One of the rust and CLM handling ways is the preventive use of active ingredients of joint action (fungicide + insecticide) via soil. These products are generally evaluated for their efficiency in the chemical control of pests and diseases; however some of these products may promote a tonic effect by improving plant vigor. Thus, the objective in this work was to verify the influence of the phytosanitary products application on the rust and leaf miner control, on the coffee trees development and production. The assay was installed in Random Block Design - RBD, with twelve treatments T1 - Premier Plus, T2 - Premier Plus and Actara, T3 - Verdadero, T4 - Verdadero and Actara, T5 - Actara, T6 - Actara (Nov/Feb), T7 - Altacor, T8 - Altacor and Actara, T9 - Impact, T10 - Opera, T11- Control and T12 - Practical and three replicates in a Catuaí IAC-144 crop. Number of nodes per branch, productivity, incidence of rust and CLM were evaluated. There was no difference in the coffee trees growth submitted to the application of different phytosanitary products for the control of rust and leaf miner. The application of Thiamethoxan + Cyproconazole in november with a complementary application of Thiamethoxan in february were more efficient for the coffee leaf miner control and provided greater vigor and productivity to the coffee tree.

Keywords Hemileiavastatrix, Leucopteracoffeela, tonic effect.

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Influence of Sulfur and Boron on the growth and yield of Broccoli

Abstract Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of sulfur (S) and boron (B) on yield and yield component of broccoli. Sulfur was applied @ 0 (control), 20 and 40 kg ha-1 as elemental sulfur while B was applied at the rate 0, 1 and 1.5 kg ha-1 as borax along with a basal dose of N,P and K @ 120, 90 and 60 kg ha-1. All the fertilizers were applied at the time of sowing. The experimental design used was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The data on plant height, number of leaves, flower diameter, head yield and biological mass were recorded along with S and B concentration in soil after crop harvesting. The result revealed that yield and yield parameter increased with increasing levels of S and B with higher head yield, flower diameter and plant height were observed when 40 kg ha-1 S and 1.5 kg ha-1 B were applied. It was further noted that head yield and head diameter were non-significant when averaged across the B treatment between 20 and 40 kg ha-1 applied S but significant from control. Similarly, when the yield parameters were average across the S treatment, there was a significant and linear increase with higher B level. Soil analysis showed that both B an S concentration in soil increased by increasing level of applied S and B. So the optimum level of S and B for broccoli was 40 and 1.5 kg ha-1respectively for higher yield of broccoli.

Keywords Boron, broccoli, growth and yield, Sulfur.

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About non – coding RNAs

Abstract The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein. Recently, a large number of RNAs have been identified in animal and plants that have little or no protein – coding potential. Such RNA molecules have been discovered by the extensive applications of high – throughput sequencing technology. Non – coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which comprise a significant output of the genomes of prokaryotes and especially eukaryotes, are increasingly implicated in the molecular mechanisms that are being used for responding to biotic and abiotic stresses that occurred in living things life. The ncRNAs are a heterogeneous group of RNA molecules, which can be classified in different ways according to their location, length, and biological functions. In this review a brief description about non – coding RNAs will be brought especially in plants.

Keywords Gene regulation, Non – coding RNAs, Plants.

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Agronomical efficiency of two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties against different level of Nitrogen fertilizer in Subtropical region of Pakistan

Abstract A field study was carried out to at Agriculture Research Institute, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, to investigate the effect of various nitrogen levels on growth and yield contributing traits of two wheat varieties. Wheat varieties Benazir and TJ-83 were evaluated against four nitrogen levels (0, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1).The results revealed that the effect of nitrogen levels as well as varieties differed significantly for all the growth and yield contributing traits and N @ 150 kg ha-1 resulted in maximum values for plant height (87.66 cm), number of tillers m-2 (265.17), spike length (13.05 cm), number of spikelets spike-1 (22.02), number of grain spike-1 (68.21), seed index (48.80 g) and grain yield (4320 kg ha-1). In varieties, Benazir showed its superiority over its companion variety with 82.91 cm plant height, 224.17 tillers m-2, 10.52 cm spike length, 18.21 spikelets spike-1, 53.00 grains spike-1, 45.29 g seed index and 3649.50 kg ha-1 grain yield. The commercial variety TJ-83 ranked 2nd with 78.33 cm plant height, 207.75 tillers m-2, 11.42 cm spike length, 19.82 spikelets spike-1, 57.31 grains spike-1, 40.98 g seed index and 3143.20 kg ha-1 grain yield. It was observed that treatment interaction N @150 kg × variety Benazir proved to be effective treatment and variety combination for achieving higher wheat yields; while, variety Benazir showed its genetic superiority yielding higher than its companion variety TJ-83.

Keywords Growth parameters, grain yield, Nitrogen, wheat.

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Zeolite membranes to immobilize Catalase

Abstract Processes based on immobilized enzymes have been studied extensively in the last few decades and today are also applied to the safeguard of environmental parameters. In this work, zeolite composite flat membranes with different chemical composition, transition metal, and microporous structures were prepared using in situ and secondary growth crystallization synthesis methods in/on stainless steel porous disks. All zeolite materials were been used in catalase adsorption to analyze the zeolite behavior andthe effect of chemical composition and structure on interaction with the enzyme. This study shows that the electrostatic type of interaction seems to be of the utmost importance in influencing immobilization, while the zeolite Brönsted acidity of the support is the subordinate parameter, which differentiates the adsorption performances of different zeolite structures (that distinct for chemical composition of the framework). Moreover, it permits to conclude that transition metal-containing membranes adsorb a higher percentage of the enzyme with respect to no-exchanged membranes and that, for all materials synthesized, the amount of catalase adsorbed onto the zeolite crystals and membranes increases with the temperature.

Keywords Catalase immobilization, Environmental application, Hydrothermal synthesis, Zeolite membranes.

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Market of bananas in the city of Lavras-Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 2002 to 2017

Abstract The banana market has grown considerably in recent years due to the increase in the supply of this fruit, both in quantity, quality and punctuality of the daily / weekly offer in the gondolas of hortifrúti retail establishments. Also, trade has grown due to increased consumer demand for this product, because of the change in people's behavior for better quality foods, such as bananas. This work was carried out in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2002 to 2017, making monthly collections in hortifrúti retail establishments, using spreadsheets to record the quantities sold, gondola losses with information from the sector managers and per capita consumption made through the ratio of the quantity sold and the number of inhabitants of the city at each stage of the research, in order to know the size of the banana market in this city.

Keywords Banana, Per capita consumption, Marketplace, Losses.

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A mitochondrial DNA SNP is maternally inherited in hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) and segregates varieties of the renowned Brewer’s Gold female lineage from the others

Abstract The integration of molecular biology concepts and techniques in cultivated plant breeding programs allows defining more accurately the parents involved in crosses. The analysis of the DNA polymorphism in existing hop cultivars or wild types selected to generate new potent varieties is commonly used. Ribosomal DNA RFLP was the first to be studied in the middle of the 1990’s and differentiated at least European from North American cultivated hops. The EcoRI rDNA RFLP has been established here for a selection of 31 H. lupulus plants, 17 of which are cultivars and the remaining 14 include wild types and other genotypes used for breeding. The sequence of the Magnum variety rDNA EcoRI fragment (4,957 bp) covering the intergenic spacer and corresponding to its North American heritage has been determined. As mitochondria are known to play a role in the biosynthesis of the valuable plant secondary metabolites, specially those based on isopentenyl pyrophosphate, the search for mtDNA polymorphism allowing a possible distinction among hops was engaged. After having established the 14,472 bp sequence of mtDNA encompassing the ATP synthase alpha subunit (509 aa), a 560 bp region 5’ upstream of this gene allowed to identify a single nucleotide polymorphism. This SNP appeared to be maternally inherited in the lineage of Brewer’s Gold, often used in crosses for its bittering properties. This work may stimulate researchers to explore further on the role of mitochondria in the biosynthesis of metabolites, mainly but not only isoprenoids, that make Humulus lupulus so interesting.

Keywords Cannabaceae, Cannabis sativa, Medicinal plant, Mitochondria, Terpenes.

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In vitro Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Some New Fungicides in the Control of Rhizoctonia solani in Tobacco Seedlings

Abstract The damping off disease of tobacco seedlings caused by the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani causes a huge damage. The limited numbers of products are used in protection from the disease, but lately new fungicides appeared on the market.

The aim of these investigations was to determine the effectiveness of new fungicides in control of this pathogen, compared with commonly used. The tests were carried out in conditions in vitro, with 8 fungicides. Two fungicides were evaluated in 2 or 3 concentrations.

All tested fungicides showed extremely high effectiveness in the control of this pathogenic fungus –the percentage of inhibition of radial growth ranges from 80, 45 to 100%.

The preparate Orvego (300 g / l ametoctradin + 225 g / l dimetomorph) is exception –it showed 48.05%.

The best effectiveness showed contact fungicides Manfil 80WP (800 g/kg mancozeb) and Enervin WG (120 g/kg ametotradin +440 g/kg metiram) as well as systemic Signum 33 WG (267 g/kg boscalid +67g/kg pyraclostrobin) and Quadris 25 SC (250 g/l azoxystrobin)with100%inhibition of pathogenʼs development.

Fungicides with such high effectiveness in control of R.solani will ensure their use in protection of tobacco seedling from the damping off disease.

Keywords active ingredient, disease, pathogen, radial development, reduction.

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Sustainability in Potato Production, According to Crop -Livestock Integration System Approach

Abstract: In the southern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, there is predominance of small farms that cultivate potato and exploit and dairy farming in family business form. These firms are important for the economic activity in the region, although most pasture areas are degraded. In Potato cultivation the intensive use of the area predominates with more than one crop per year, with absence of: technology, conservation and environmental techniques and crop rotation. This predatory system has led to the degradation of soils and natural resources. The purpose of this paper was to propose and disseminate techniques for crop managing and, mainly, the adoption of the crop-livestock integration system with potato as the main crop, providing for family business rationality and sustainable exploitation of its property. These practices can improve the income producers, and ensure the permanence in their properties. The research was carried out in three municipalities in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais, prioritizing the sequence of rotational occupation and planting time of the potato: a) potato (planting in October), maize + Brachiaria grass (direct grazing and silage), millet (grazing); b) potato (February planting), oats (cutting and grazing), corn (grain); c) potato (October planting), maize; occupational sequence of crop rotation performed respectively in three municipalities. After the crops in succession, the potato planting is again restarted. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the crop-livestock integration system adds positive effects of potato production to those of livestock production, with a great synergistic effect benefiting all these operations.

Keywords: Sustainability, Potato, Crop-Livestock Integration System Integration.

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Marketing Function Development of Kopi Ser in Badung Regency

Abstract UUP Kopi SER experience difficulties to implemented government policy about marketing process Kopi SER product to customer. A low rank of financial capital, an unoptimalize production tools usage and incapable to fulfill customer needs become a dominant inhibitors factors in marketing process of Kopi SER products. These are indicates that UUP Kopi Ser has serious problems, even lead to a crisis so it’s needed some action to recover their business continuity.

Aim for this research is to make a marketing function model in business process of Kopi SER in Badung Regency, Bali Province. Methodology used in this research are to used UUP performance analysis, continued with stakeholders analysis, obstacles, needs/requirement, and the program objectives of UUP Kopi Ser marketing development using Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM), as a foothold to produce marketing function model in Kopi SER business process.

The research result is UUP Kopi SER performance overall is still not optimal, so needs to be improved performances. Department of Agriculture, low rank of capital financial, a clear memorandum of understanding (MoU) about price, quantity, quality and continuity, an improved of instructor capability in marketing function, and an improved marketing function in order to promote the brand image are the dominant sub-element that can influence UUP Kopi SER continuity and tenacity. Institutionally, UUP Kopi SER role should get support and strong protection from the local government, especially from Department of Agriculture, Department of Industry and Commerce and also Financial Institution as drivers. UUP Kopi SER marketing model function in business process revealed that company marketing, marketing strategy, product manajemen, product marketing and field marketing are still to developed even more.

Keywords UUP Kopi SER, marketing function model, Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM).

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Study on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Value Added Banana Products

Abstract The present study evaluated physico-chemical and sensorial qualities of value added banana products. Unripe fruits of Cavendish variety were processed for making banana flour. Value added products like dough, chapatti and banana kheer were prepared from banana flour. Rice and basin flour were also used in chappati. Unripe banana fruit, banana flour and their products were analysed for pH, titratable acidity, moisture (%), TSS (Brix) and vitamin C. The results showed that the maximum pH (7.68) and TSS (26.30 brix) recorded from the kheer, However, Ash (0.86%) and vitamin C (18.3mg/100gm) were observed highest in chapatti prepared from banana and rice flours as compared to chappati prepared from banana flour only (12.54). Unripe banana fruits had maximum percentage of moisture (72.08%) in comparison to banana products. The minimum pH (6.79) and titratable acidity (0.02) were observed from the unripe banana fruits. While, banana flour had minimum moisture (7.49%). Minimum TSS (5.30) were recorded in chappati prepared from mixture of banana-rice flour and banana-basin flour. The results shows that processing of banana for value added products alter the physico-chemical qualities of banana.

Keywords Banana flour, chapati, milk, rice flour,Physico-chemical.

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Physico-Chemical, Functional and Sensory Properties of Composite Bread prepared from Wheat and defatted Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Kernel Flour

Abstract This study is part of the valuation of the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.). For this purpose, defatted cashew kernel flour (powder) has been incorporated into wheat flour for the production of breads. Composite flours containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of delipidated cashew kernel were analyzed for their physico-chemical and functional properties as well as the resulting loaves, for their sensory quality. The results showed that the substitution of wheat flour with cashew nuts flour increases the protein, fat, ash, fiber, energy and mineral content of wheat / cashew nut composites flours. However, this incorporation has resulted in a decrease in carbohydrate content. The study of the functional properties of composite flours showed that the substitution resulted in a significant increase (p <0.05) of the water absorption capacity (CAE) and oil (CAH) while the density decreased. Sensory tests indicated that there is a significant difference (p <0.05) between control bread and all composite breads. However, it is suggested that cashew kernel flour could be suitably incorporated into wheat flour up to a rate of 20%.

Keywords Cashew nut, wheat flour, composite bread, sensory quality, substitution.

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Induction of Systemic acquired resistance in Mungbean against Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Begomovirus by the exogenous application of Salicylic acid and Benzothiadiazole.

Abstract The diseases caused by bipartite Begomoviruses have emerged as overwhelming problem in various cropping systems of Pakistan. The study was conducted to evaluate the potential of induced resistance in mungbean to Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) disease. In this work, resistance to MYMV infection was induced in mungbean plants by activating the Salicylic acid (SA) pathway using SA and Benzothiadiazole (BTH) as treatments. The resistance was characterized by evaluating symptom appearance and virus titter through ELISA. Elicitors i.e., SA and BTH were applied at different concentrations to enhance the innate resistance of mungbean by the induction of defense related compounds. All treatments were helpful in reducing plant infection but the most effective treatment was the combination of SA@5mM and BTH@150mg/L as compared to virus inoculated control. Three weeks analysis showed peak accumulation of defense related enzymatic antioxidants and phenols in the mungbean leaves treated with SA and BTH. Higher enzymatic activity was observed in elicitor treated plants followed by inoculation with MYMV. As the resistance increased due to the application of SA & BTH the enzymatic activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were also increased during second week after application of elicitors. This study revealed that SA and BTH are potential source for management of MYMV by enhancing the level of protection through induction of systemic acquired resistance.

Keywords Induced resistance, Vigna radiata, enzymatic antioxidants, PAL, SOD, and POD.

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Comparative study of Banana figs prepared from two different varieties

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the sensory and physicochemical properties of banana products .The tests were undertaken to ascertain the suitability of the solutions for preservation of sweet bananas as added-value foods and to reduce post-harvest losses. Prepared banana figs of both varieties were presented to a panel of judges for evaluation of organoleptic attributed. The maximum total soluble solids (22.84 and 12.30), Titratable acidity (0.0148 and 0.0403), non reducing sugar (11.250), Ash (1.1144 and 1.9346) were showed by variety giant in banana fig, whereas, the variety dwarf showed maximum pH, Vitamin C content, total sugar and reducing sugar. On other hand the maximum (24.48°Brix) total soluble solids was observed in banana figs prepared after 90 days. The maximum total sugar (20.36%), non-reducing sugar (14.08%) Ash (1.12%) were showed by the banana figs prepared after 90 days. Sensory evaluations of banana figs revealed that they exhibited significant difference in the score of all attributes among the two with exception of consistency .The results showed that the 90 days produced good results for frying and drying of banana figs.

Keywords Banana figs, varieties, physiochemical properties, Sensory evaluations.

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Antifungal activity of plant extracts and Silver nano particles against Citrus brown spot pathogen (Alternaria citri).

Abstract Citrus Brown spot caused by Alternaria citri. Different control strategies should be used for management of disease and for increasing potential yield of citrus. Hence in-vitro potential of Plant extract and Silver Nano particles were evaluated for control of Brown spot pathogen in Citrus mangroves of Pakistan. Four different plant extracts garlic, neem, mint and basil leaves extracts were used at concentration of 20%. 40% and 60 %. Their effect on radial mycelial growth was checked with reference to untreated or control petri plate. It was observed that almost all concentrations of plant extracts significantly reduce radial mycelia growth as compared to control. In all treatments of plant extracts it was observed that 60% concentration of neem extracts is effective with radial mycelia growth of 3.96 cm over control petri plate which is 7.73cm, garlic extract@ 60% gave least fungal mycelia growth 5.5cm followed by mint leaves @60% gave 3.16 cm radial growth and Basil leaves extract @60% reduces fungal mycelia growth upto 3.93 cm as compared to control petri plate. Nano particles were used for invitro control of brown spot pathogen .Ten different concentration of nanonparticles were used as 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 ppm. The result of study revealed that by increasing concentration of nano particles inhibit mycelial growth of pathogen more significantly and 100 ppm concentration of Silver nano particles reduce fungal mycelia growth upto 2.63cm as compared to untreated petri plate fungal growth 7.23cm.

Keywords Alternaria citri, green fungicides, nano particles, plant extracts.

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