Thursday 30 September 2021

Agriculture Journal: September 2021

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-7, Issue-9, September 2021

Mass Production of Paecilomyces Lilacinus by using Different Cultivation Media as an Alternative of Incubator

Abstract Mass Production of Paecilomyces Lilacinus by using Different Cultivation Media as an Alternative of Incubator. Paecilomyces lilacinus is a common saprophytic, filamentous fungus. Morphological characters of Paecilomyces lilacinus were separate mycelium, hyaline, conidia white to pink colored and formation of phialides. The growth of Paecilomyces lilacinus carried out on SDA media at room temperature was better than incubator. Various solid substrates like Rice, Wheat bran, and Sorghum were evaluated for the mass multiplication of fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus. Added dextrose and antibiotics in solid media for mass multiplication at room temperature. Among all the substrate Wheat bran recorded the maximum spore count of 7. 1 10-8 spore/ml followed by Sorghum 5. 4 10-8 spore/ml and Rice 5. 1 10-8 spore/ml after 20 days. Also dry mycelia weight or biomass of fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus without an incubator was more than using an incubator.

Keywords— Paecilomyces lilacinus, filamentous fungus, phialides, biomass of fungus, incubator.

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Effect of time and proportion of leaf harvest on pest, forage and root yields of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) in the inland valley swamp and upland ecologies of Njala

Abstract Dearth of knowledge exists regarding the leaf harvest intensity and frequency thresholds that support optimum forage and fresh storage root yields in Sierra Leone. A study was carried out to assess the effects of leaf harvesting time and proportion on Cylas puncticollis infestation, growth and yield of sweet potato in the inland valley swamp and upland ecologies of Njala. Treatment combinations comprised of two varieties (“Kabia” and “Gbanie”), four leaf harvest regimes: 0, 30 60 and 90 days after planting (DAP); and four-leaf harvest intensities (0, 25, 50 and 100%). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data collected included Cylas puncticollis severity on vines and storage roots, root dimensions and numbers, fresh foliage and storage root yields. The results revealed that leaf harvesting twice at 25 and 50% contributed more to optimum forage and storage root yields and related attributes of sweet potatoes compared to other treatments. The present study suggests that good agronomic management of sweet potato that supports optimum forage and storage root yields should be selected to meet the dual purpose for which it is grown. These findings serve as good guide for incorporation of leaf harvesting time, proportion of leaf harvest in germplasm assessment and new population development objectives.

Keywords leaf harvest, regimes, intensities, root yield, pest, sweetpotato.

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Review Article: Effect of Biochar on Growth and Yield of Agricultural Produce

Abstract Biochar is a boon for agricultural crops. Biochar is baked biomass that you can add to soil. It is a biomass that is thermally altered in the absence of oxygen, it is baked and not burned and flammable gasses are released (hydrogen, carbon dioxide). Heat transforms plant carbon (found in the cellulose and lignin) into fused aromatic carbon rings that are very stable. Biochar are made from different feedstocks at different physical and chemical properties. In carbon cycle almost all of the carbon returns to the air. Green plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere via photosynthesis and convert it into biomass. Virtually all of that carbon is returned to the atmosphere when the plants die and decay, or immediately if the biomass is burned as a renewable substitute for the fossil fuels. While in the biochar cycle up to half of the carbon is sequestered, green plants removed and sequestered as biochar, while the other half is converted to renewable energy co- products before being returned to the atmosphere. Biochar retains soil moisture of the agricultural field. Worms loves biochar, it works best when composted with other organic matter before adding to garden soil. This allows life to colonize the biochar. Biochar composted with animal manure, it is inoculated with compost tea. Biochar composted with food waste and bokashi (anaerobic lactobacillus fermentation). Other activities include minerals, NPK, fungi, worm castings, fish emulsion, urea, etc. biochar can be added to soils to improve fertility. Reduces emissions from the biomass. Improves the water quality and quantity. Helps to improve the agricultural productivity. Valuable resource reduces the forest fires. Value added product for urban and rural agriculture and forest communities.

Keywords— Biochar, Biomass, Green plants, Agricultural, Carbon, Sequestered.

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Degradation of Nevirapine and Trimethoprim from Aqueous Solutions using Selected Microorganisms

Abstract Together with pharmaceutical residues, personal care products encompassing prescription drugs, fragrances, and cosmetics have been detected in groundwater and other aquatic environments, hence compromising the quality of water. Their classification as micropollutants is due to their antibacterial resistance potential, persistence, and ecotoxicity. Biodegradation has been identified as a potential mechanism in their removal. The focus of this study focus was bioaugmentation; (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa) to enhance the degradation of Nevirapine and Trimethoprim in model aqueous solutions. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine the pharmaceuticals. The efficacy of the bacterial strains to degrade selected drugs was evaluated by making the two drugs the sole source of energy and carbon. From the experimental data, the highest percentage biodegradation was recorded; Pseudomonas aeroginosa (86 %) and Staphylococcus aureus (79 %) for TMP and NVP respectively.

Keywords— Biodegradation, efficacy, LC-MS/MS, model solutions, pharmaceutical.

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Analysis of the relationship between the Socio-Economic Characteristics of Rice Farmers and Soil Management Practices in Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract The study examined the analysis of the relationship between the Socio-Economic Characteristics of Rice Farmers and Soil Management Practices in Abuja. The study was conducted in rural communities in Abuja, Nigeria. Two objectives guided the study. The study adopted descriptive and logistic regression research design. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select the farming communities for the study. Twelve (12) agricultural wards (Chuwkuku, Gaube, Bamushin, kotunku, Pai, Dafa, Bako, Dobi, Paso, Chibiri, Gadabiu and Paikon) were randomly selected giving a total of thirty-six (36) agricultural wards. Five blocks were randomly picked from each of the agricultural wards making the total of 180. Lastly two (2) circles were randomly selected from each of the blocks resulting to three hundred and sixty (360) respondents who were randomly selected from the chosen circles. The results show that 58.06% of the respondents were male while 36.13% of the respondents were between the ages of 30 and 39years. Also, 47.74% of them were married with 40% of the respondents having an average of 5 people in their households. 61.94 had at most a national certificate of education (NCE). Majority (44.84) of the respondent had a farm size of between half a hectare and two hectares. The study recommended that manual tillage should be mostly carried out by rice farmer to improve the level of production and also soil rotation should be practiced where soil is much available to reduce the level of degradation.

Keywords— Smallholders, soil management, rice farmers, food security, adoption.

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Testing the ability against Bacillus cereus of actinobacteria strains isolated from sponges in Kien Giang Sea, Vietnam

Abstract This study aimed to test the antibacterial activity of Bacillus cereus of actinobacterial isolates isolated from marine sponges in the Kien Giang Sea, Vietnam. That can select the strains with high resistance to identify them. There were 198 actinobacterial isolates tested. Based on the ability of antimicrobial activity to B. cereus, 82/198 had the against B. cereus, in which there were six isolates with high (7.3%), 52 medium (25.6%), and 21 weak resistance (67.1%). Selection of six isolates with the best resistance to B. cereus (ND1.7a, ND2.7c, HD1-3e, HD1-6a, HD2.3b, and H6b) identified by PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results identified five strains of Streptomyces (Streptomyces tateyamensis ND1.7a, Streptomyces althioticus HD1.3e, Streptomyces flaveolus HD1.6a, Streptomyces olivaceus HD2.3d, and Streptomyces albidoflavus H6b) and one strain of genus Microbacterium (Microbacterium tumbae ND2.7c).

Keywords— Antimicrobial activity, Bacillus cereus, Kien Giang Sea, sponge, Streptomyces.

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Improving Fruit Quality and Nutritional Value of Deglet Nour dates subjected to Salt Stress by using Phospho-Potassium Fertilization (Biskra south-east of Algeria)

Abstract A field study was carried out during the two consecutive years (2015-2016) in the region of Biskra, southern east of Algeria on date palms of Deglet-Nour variety, grown in a salty environment. To study the combined effect of salinity and phospho-potassium fertilization on the quality and nutritional value of dates, two sites of different salinity, occupied by 54 date palms variety Deglet-Nour has been selected. The palms were fertilized by receiving three doses of potassium (0, 2 and 3 kg / palm) as potassium sulphate K2SO4 (50%) combined with three levels of phosphorus (0, 1 and 2 kg / palm) as superphosphate (TSP 46%). The results revealed that applying 2 kg of potassium/palm in an excessively salty environment and 3 kg/palm in a low or unsalted environment associated to 1 kg of phosphorus in the two different cases of salinity of the two sites S1 and S2 improving the fruit traits.

KeywordsSalinity, dates, date palm, quality of dates, phosphorus, potassium.

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Study of irrigation sources and cultivation area for Cereals & Pulses in the district of Meerut, Uttar Pradesh (India)

Abstract Cereals and pulses play a significant role in the diet of population. As per WHO, the recommended ratio is 2:1 for cereals and & pulses. However, there are different reasons which have gone against the production of pulses in general. Cereals on the other hand, have picked up larger portion in overall cultivation and consequently, the gross & net sown area are more under the cultivation of cereals. Currently, the ratio between cereal to pulses production ranges from 8:1 to 6:1. In this paper, it is found that the ratio between cereals and pulses which was 7.3:1 in the year 2012-13 increased to 7.7 1 in the year 2018-19. The study found that there was not much change in the gross & net area sown in the district of Meerut from the year 2012-13 to 2018-19. Irrigated area was also constant in both the years. Furthermore, production of different cereals and pulses are studied to know whether there is any change in their production due to change in the availability of water for irrigation during studied years in the district of Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.

KeywordsMeerut, Crops, cereals, Pulses, Irrigated area, gross sown area, net sown area, irrigation sources, canals, tube wells.

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Effect of selected fungicides on Brown spot disease of rice caused by Helminthosporium oryzae

Abstract The in-vitro test of selected fungicides against brown spot disease incidence of rice and development of a disease prediction model base on weather variable was conducted during two Kharif seasons from 2014-2015 to 2015-2016. Results revealed that among the selected fungicides treatment lowest per cent disease incidence was found in Propiconazole in both the cropping season (2014-15) and (2015-16) with minimum mean per cent disease index (PDI) value bcd (7.76) and (7.03) with per cent disease control of 72.39 and 73.09 respectively over the control, followed by Propineb (PDI) value bcd (8.6) and (7.23) with per cent disease control of (69.40) and 73.09 respectively of the two cropping seasons. Among the fungicides treatment highest disease incidence was found in Thiophanate with maximum mean per cent disease index (PDI) value bcd (17.03) and (14.98) with per cent disease that control of 39.41 and 42.67 respectively in both the cropping seasons. It was also found disease intensity was higher during the first cropping season (2014-15) as indicated by higher mean per cent disease index (PDI) value abcd (12.5**) whereas in the following cropping season (2015-16) with lower value of (PDI) value abcd (11.18**).

Keywords— Brown spot, Helminthosporium oryzae, disease index, Fungicides, Rice, Fungal Diseases.

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Irrigation Water Quality Assessment for Water Resources used in Irrigation of Agricultural Fields in Mezitli Town of Mersin Province

Abstract This study was conducted for irrigation water quality assessment of water resources used in irrigation of agricultural fields in Mezitli town of Mersin province. Water samples were taken from 20 sampling points of surface water resources used for irrigations in irrigated farming lands of Mezitli town in 4 sampling periods (July – October). Samples were analyzed for pH, EC, water-soluble cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) and anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl and SO4), boron, %Na, SAR and RSC. Sample pH values varied between 7,05 - 8,26 and EC values varied between 292 - 1103 µmhos/cm. According to US Salinity Lab Classification System, irrigation waters were classified as C2S1 and C3S1 (moderately and highly saline waters). Boron concentrations of all samples were below the threshold value of 0,67 ppm. Significant differences were not observed in water quality parameters throughout the irrigation season.

Keywords Irrigation, irrigation water quality, saline irrigation water, boron.

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Barley Net Blotch Disease Management: A Review

Abstract— Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the ancient grain crops cultivated and used worldwide. In Ethiopia, barley is among important staple crops next to tef, maize, wheat and sorghum mainly grown on about 1 million ha of land with average yield of 2.1t ha. It is the predominant cereal in the high altitudes and it accounts nearly 25% of the total production in Africa.

The fungi Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt) and P. teres f. maculata (Ptm) cause net form net blotch (NFNB) and spot form net blotch (SFNB) of barley, respectively. Net blotch is one of the most important barley diseases which reduce both quality and quantity of barley grain. Yield loss due to this disease reaches up to 100% in susceptible cultivars under severe epidemics. In Ethiopia, barley net blotch is among widely distributed and destructive diseases in cool highland areas and yield losses reaching about 67% have been recorded. Currently, the disease can be controlled using different approaches such as cultural, chemical and biological controls as well as using resistant cultivars of which development and deployment of resistant cultivars is the best management method. However, it is argued that using integrated disease management is one of the most important strategies that should be followed to reduce the effect of barley net blotch diseases. This review discusses recent information on economic importance, epidemiology, life cycle, host range, geographical distribution and disease management of barley net blotch disease. It also presents the barley net blotch disease management methods such as cultural, chemical, biological and use of host resistance methods. Under host resistance method, information on types of resistance, sources of resistance have been presented.

Keywords— Barley net blotch, Disease management, Methods, Cultural, Chemical, Host resistance.

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Thursday 16 September 2021

Agriculture Journal: August 2021

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-7, Issue-8, August 2021

Effect of mixed Gmelina and Moringa leaf meal inclusion and sampling periods on haematology and serum biochemistry of growing Red Sokoto does

Abstract— A study was carried out to investigate the effect of mixed Gmelina arborea and Moringa oleifera (GMMO) leaf meal inclusion and sampling periods on the haematology and serum biochemistry of Red Sokoto does fed Digiteria smutsii hay based diets. Twenty-eight (28) growing Red Sokoto does aged between 6 and 7 months with average weight of 14.71±0.09 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments balanced for weight with seven does per treatment in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were offered at 4% of body weight. Haematological values shows that all parameters measured are significantly different. Significant (P<0.05) differences were observed cholesterol levels of the animals across the treatments. Cholesterol level was significantly higher (P<0.05) in 0% (107.90) and 10% (107.57) compared to other treatments. Effect of sampling periods on haematological parameters of growing does shows significant differences (P<0.05) in all the parameters measured except white blood cells count. There were significant differences (P<0.05) on total protein and globulin. Total protein ranged from 65.58 to 69.75 g/L at the end and middle of the experiment, respectively. It was significantly higher (P<0.05) at the mid than other periods. Values of globulin were statistically higher (P<0.05) at mid and end of the experiment than at the beginning. Values for all the parameters measured in this study were within the normal ranges for healthy goats. GMMO leaf meal inclusion and sampling periods did not have any adverse effect on blood profile of Red Sokoto does. It can be concluded that GMMO leaf meal can be included in the diets of Red Sokoto does up to 30% without detrimental effects.

Keywords— Haematology, Serum biochemistry, Red Sokoto goats, Gmelina arborea and Moringa oleifera.

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Review Article: Bacteriocin Production and its Application in Food and Pharmaceuticals

Abstract— Bacteriocins are ribosomal - synthesized antimicrobial peptides that inhibit the growing of pathogenic or deteriorating bacteria. Bacteriocin are a heterogenous group of bioactive bacterial peptides or proteins having variable biochemical properties. Bacteriocin is introduced to denote toxic proteins or peptide produced by any type of bacteria that is active on related bacteria but does not harm the producing cell. They are antimicrobial peptides which are ribosomally synthesized and produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). Now days, there are various hazardous effect of chemicals. Instead of chemicals, bacteriocins are mostly effective in food technology which aims to extend food preservation time, treat pathogen diseases, cancer therapy & maintain human health. In food processing, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) shows numerous anti-microbial activities. This is mainly due to production of organic acid, but also of other compound, such as bacteriocin and various peptides. Bacteriocins are used as a potential drug for replacing antibiotics in order to treat multiple drug resistance pathogens. The important mechanism of bacteriocins is pore formation. Bacteriocins are used as food preservation against contaminating organism. It also used against anti-tumor drug in pharmaceutical. They play major role in prevention of human diseases such as cancer, inflammatory diseases, respiratory infection, intestinal disorders, etc. The species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus are successfully used. These are isolated from vegetables, dairy, cheese, meat and other products. Therefore, Bacteriocin may become a potential drug candidates for replacing antibiotics in order to treat multiple drugs resistance pathogens in the future. Bacteriocin become one of the weapons against micro-organisms due to the specific characteristics of large diversity of structure and function, natural resource and being stable to heat.

Keywords— Bacteriocin, Lactic acid bacteria, Cancer therapy, Pore formation, Antimicrobial activity.

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Effect of Storage Method and Storage Duration on Chicken Egg Quality

Abstract Poultry production is a fast growing industry and has become a dependable source of obtaining income for many farmers. There is therefore a growing need for technologies to preserve poultry products, in this case eggs, to prevent or reduce post-harvest losses. The aim of this present study is to evaluate the effect of storage method and duration on internal and external egg quality traits of eggs stored under three different storage conditions. A total of 190 eggs (from Isa brown breed hens aged 51 weeks) were used for the analysis. The storage methods to which the eggs were subjected included; 1) Cold Storage (M1), 2) Saw dust (M2) and 3) Control (M3) at a temperature range of 26°C- 32°C.The eggs were stored for 15 days, while the readings were taken at three day intervals. Albumen height, haugh unit, yolk index and egg weight have been found to be important parameters influenced by storage method and storage duration. Cold storage had the highest value for albumen height, haugh unit, yolk index and egg weight, while eggs stored under sawdust had no significant difference from those under control. Duration however had a deteriorating effect on important egg quality traits form D3 to D15 as could be observed in Albumen weight (41.14 to 36.37), Haugh unit (73.0 to 55.1), Yolk Index (36.99 to 26.61) and Egg weight (61.85 to 56.76). Thus, lower egg quality was recorded as storage time increased. Results from the first microbial analysis (freshly laid eggs) showed that no organism was isolated. Coliform bacteria, mold and yeast were isolated from eggs stored using cold storage and control conditions respectively. This study showed that eggs stored under cold storage retained both internal and external quality traits for longer time than those stored under sawdust and control, after the eggs had been stored for 15 days.

Keywords— Egg, Egg quality, Storage method, Storage duration.

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Genotype × Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Selected Agronomic Traits in Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

Abstract Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root and tuber crop worldwide. The crop is highly influenced by variations in production environments. A significant Genotype × Environment Interaction (GEI) presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. This study determined the magnitude of GEI and stability performances of 26 cassava genotypes for key agronomic traits across three multi-environments. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design during 2016/2017 cropping season. Genotype TR0288 had the highest starch content at Pendembu and Kambia, while TR1436 performed best at Njala. Genotype TR0768 had the highest fresh storage root yield at Pendembu, TR0455 at Kambia and TR0591 and TR0657 at Njala environments. For dry matter content, genotypes SLICASS4, TR0310 and TR0740 performed best at Njala, Pendembu and Njala, respectively. Genotype TR0455 had the highest fresh storage root yield across the three production environments, TR1436 for starch content and TR0310 for dry matter content. TR0310 was the most stable and favorable genotype based on mean dry matter content and stability performance across the three production environments. Harvest index was positive and significantly correlated with storage root (r = 0.54***), fresh storage root yield was highly and positively correlated with number of storage root (r = 0.61***) and harvest index (r =0.49***). The information generated is relevant for selection initiatives targeted at superior high yielding, high dry matter content and starch content cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic in Sierra Leone.

Keywords— Genotypic performance, multi-environment trial, stability analysis, trait correlation, cassava.

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Evaluation of Various Parameters in Mass Multiplication of Beauveria bassiana in Modified Method.

Abstract— In the recent years, the environmental contamination caused by excessive use of chemical pesticides increased the interest in integrated pest management, where bio-pesticides are used to control plant pests and plant diseases. Present study deals with use of different media like SDA, rice bran, wheat bran, sorghum and to find their ability as substrates for mass multiplication of beauveria bassiana and creates effective production methodology which can be easily adopted. Biomasses of fungal grain media, organic media and non-synthetic media have been used for the production. Mass multiplication of Beauveria bassiana on different grain media, different temperature like with incubator and without incubator method and calculate biomass of fungus, microscopic examination. Development of SDA was the result which was considered as a best media for quickly growth of Beauveria bassiana and rice bran produced spore production which are most suitable for Beauveria bassiana. Keywords— Beauveria bassiana, chemical pesticides, SDA, rice bran, wheat bran, sorghum, fungal grain media, organic media and non-synthetic media.

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Implementation and analysis of diagnostic techniques for Mycobacterium spp. and Francisella spp. in granulomatous disease of fish in breeding and wild aquaculture of São Paulo/Brazil

Abstract Mycobacterium spp. and Francisella spp. bacteria have serious implications for Animal Health, Public Health and Agribusiness and yet, in Brazil, there is little knowledge about the best diagnostic techniques to detect and characterize them. Therefore, the occurrence of these bacteria was verified in 519 fish from fish farms (active collection), wild freshwater animals from the State of São Paulo (active collection), and in materials filed in our laboratory (passive collection), using the techniques in situ hybridization (IHS), immunohistochemistry (IHC), optical microscopy (MO) (H&E and (ZN) Ziehl Neelsen or Fite-Faraco), and negative staining for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histologically, granulomas were observed in 135 fish. By the ZN Faraco technique, Mycobacterium spp was found in 54 animals. By Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization, 46 fish were found infected with Mycobacterium spp, 40 with Francisella spp and 30 with both bacteria. In one of the animals the presence of granulomas was found, although not caused by Mycobaterium spp or Francisella spp. TEM also showed the presence of other bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best diagnostic techniques for Mycobaterium spp or Francisella spp in fish fragments.

Keywords— Francisella spp; Mycobacterium spp, fish disease.

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Novel Ecofriendly Approaches for Controlling Soil Borne Fungal Pathogens: A Review

Abstract— The application of chemical fungicides for controlling soil borne plant pathogens is rapidly increasing due to their potential to deliver desirable results in a short span of time. However their rampant use has made many invasive plant pathogens resistant to any chemical control making them way harder to eradicate or eliminate as compared to the past days. The uncontrolled use of chemical fungicides is also causing soil toxicity and water pollution leading to several health hazards. The aim of the review article is to highlight the recent advancements in the field of eco-friendly disease management using the extracts obtained from natural resources and biologically active antagonistic organisms. The review article highlights the management of Black scurf disease (Rhizoctonia solani) in Potato using Bacillus subtilis V26 strain and by using a mixture of cattle manure and date palm compost. Biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici) by the application of endophytic bacterial isolates from Silver Leaf (Solanum elaeagnifolium) has been also mentioned. The review includes the management of Late blight of potato (Phytophthora infestans) using antagonistic Poplar (Populus nigra) bud extracts and peptide extracts obtained from Common Horsetail (Equisetum arvense). The review article also mentions the innovative method of management of Black shank disease of tobacco (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae) by colonization of tobacco roots with Paenibacillus polymyxa C5 strain. As per the article, Foot rot of rice or rice bakanae (Fusarium moniliforme) can be effectively managed by the application of antifungal Surfactin-A extracted from Bacillus subtilis NH-100 and NH-217 strains. The article highlights the potential of the Bacillus subtilis RH5 strain as a bioformulation for controlling Sheath blight of rice (Rhizoctonia solani). The extracts and the antagonistic biocontrol agents can be used in the effective management of some economically important soil-borne plant diseases as a novel, innovative and environmentally safe approach.

Keywords— Soil-borne fungus, Bio control agents, Late blight, Black scurf.

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Assessing the Value of Community-Based Tourism Approach in Community Development in the Surrounding area of the Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda

Abstract Community based-tourism (CBT) is both an integrated approach and a collaborative tool for socio-economic empowerment of communities through the development and marketing of natural and cultural community resources to add value to the experience of local and foreign visitors and simultaneously improve the level of the community. But there is lack of clear approaches to measure performances of CBTs, thus meaning that how they enhance socio-economic livelihoods of local communities and conserve protected areas is difficult to measure in both quantitative and qualitative terms. This study assessed the performance of Community Based Tourism on the socio-economic lives of local community around Volcanoes National Park, and it specifically 1) profiled and examined the performance of existing CBT ventures, 2) the factors affecting community-based tourism development around Volcanoes National Park and 3) the contribution of CBTs on social and economic lives of the local community. The methods used for data collection were sampling, key informant interviews, surveys, focus group discussions, observation and use of secondary data. Data was analysed using SPSS to generate descriptive information and further strata analysis was used. The study recommends that for Rwanda to achieve its goal of harnessing tourism for its vision 2050 the local communities around Volcanoes National Park should be empowered to embrace community-based tourism as an alternative to farming and fishing to improve their livelihood income.

Keywords— CBT Approach, and Community Development.

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Detection of Coronavirus in Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) by Transmission Electron Microscopy in São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Abstract Coronaviruses belong to the order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae and have four genera, Alphacoronavirus, Betaconavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. They infect humans and several animal species, causing various diseases. Coronavirus constitute zoonotic risk to global public health because of their ability to adapt to new species and establish sppilover events. In this study, we evaluated the presence of coronavirus particles in the feces of giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Under the transmission electron microscope, particles with coronavirus-like morphology, pleomorphic, rounded or elongated with radial projections forming a corona and measuring 80-140 nm in diameter, were visualized in all examined samples. The technique used was extremely useful for rapid viral diagnosis in affected animals. This report is the first occurrence of coronavirus in Giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

Keywords— Coronaviruses, Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), Transmission electron microscopy.

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Impact of Ginger Enrishment on Biochemical Characteristics of Tisane from Aloysia Citrodora Leaves, Cultivated at a small scale in the Area of Man (West Region of Côte d’Ivoire)

Abstract— This study confirm one of the official missions attributed to the University of Man, those to enhance natural’s resources of the region of Man and its properties. The assessment of the biochemical characterization of a tisane from Aloysia citrodora’s leaves enriched at ginger has been conducted.

To reach this goal, tisane has been prepared with Aloysia Citrodora. An aqueous extract of Zingiber rhizomes has been also produced. Ginger extract incorporated in tisane of Aloysia citrodora at 2.5 % level. The results have shown that many studied parameters increased highly. The dry matter increased from 88.92±3.92% to 90.07±2.91%. Incorporated ginger in tisane of Aloysia citrodora improved total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, insoluble solids. Total amount of phenolic compounds was 11.68±4.05mg GAE/g and it’s increased to 15.90±0.42 mg GAE /g. Antioxidant activity of this enriched tisane was also 3.96±1.58 µM Trolox Eq / Kg for the ABTS method. The analysis concerning mineral content of obtained tisane has noted a high content particularly those of Calcium. Its content were three time (535 130.4 ppm) important in enriched ginger tisane at 2.5% than Aloysia Citrodora’s tisane (192888.9 ppm).

Keywords— Aloysiacitriodora, tisane, Zingiber officinale, Man, Côte d'Ivoire.

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Economic Analysis of Costs and Returns of Vitamin A Cassava Production in Anambra State, Nigeria, West Africa

Abstract The study investigated the costs and returns of vitamin A cassava production in Anambra State, Nigeria. Multi-stage and simple random techniques were adopted in selecting one hundred and thirty eight respondents for the study. Data were collected using well structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression, budgetary technique and benefit cost ratio. The specific objectives were to ascertain costs and returns on vitamin A cassava based production; ascertain influence production costs have on the financial value of the crop’s output and to identify the constraints to production of the crop. Findings on costs and returns showed that gross margin, net farm income and net return on investment were ₦41,128.00, ₦41,097.00 and 1.6 respectively. This implies that for every 100 kobo invested in the production, 160% was gained. The result of Benefit Cost Ratio is an indicator that the venture is a profitable business. The findings also revealed that out of the five predictors included in the model, three namely cost of planting material, cost of labour and cost of renting land statistically and significantly influenced production returns earned by the farmers. High cost of labour, poor access to yellow stem, poor access to capital, poor pricing of yellow cassava tubers and poor transportation infrastructure were perceived as the most serious constraints encountered by vitamin A cassava production. Farmers should be encourage to form cooperative in order to enable them access or purchase tractors which should be made available and affordable to farmers to ease the cost of labour, government and other stakeholders should be encourage to multiply vitamin A cassava stems and investors should be encouraged to set up industries that would enter into contracts with vitamin A cassava farmers in the State in order to buy off their produce and process them into value added products were recommended.

Keywords— Cassava, Vitamin A, Production, Profitability.

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Effect of Socio-economic Characteristic on Maize Farmers in Zing Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

Abstract Smallholder farmers are one of the most important stakeholders in Nigeria’s agrarian economy. This study examined the effect of socio-economic characteristic on maize farmers in Zing Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. This study adopted descriptive survey design and used primary and secondary data. Questionnaires were used to elicit information from the respondents. Five (5) wards were purposively selected out of ten (10) wards in the study area. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study reveal that men are more involved in farming activities in the study area than women because of their ability to handle complex farming operations such as land preparation (clearing bushes and creating mounds and ridges). The study findings reveal that 33.73% of the respondents were in their prime age, between 20-30 years. As much as 63.86% of the respondents have small farm holdings between 3 to 5 hectares and 42.77% of the respondents acquire their farmlands through inheritance, 28.31% bought their farmlands, 19.28% rent their farmlands while 9.64% obtain their farmlands by lease. The study reveals that 34.64% of the respondent’s income ranges between ₦10,000 to ₦20,000. This income is very low, thereby forcing the local people to take to other alternative sources of livelihood such as commercial cyclist riding, carpentry, welding and petty trading. In terms of labour, 43.97% of the respondents use family labour exclusively in their farming operation, 27.11% used hired labour, 21.69 used mechanical power in form of tractor and 7.23% use animal draught in their farming operations. The poor socio-economic characteristics of the farmers contribute greatly to increasing decline in maize production in the study area which also translate to low income of the rural farmers. Based on the findings, the study recommended the need to assist the rural farmers to organize themselves into cooperatives and increase provision of up-to-date information and technology by extension workers to improve the skills of the rural farmers in modern agronomic practices.

Keywords— Maize farmers, Smallholder farmers, Socio-economic characteristics and Zing.

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Production Techniques and Quality Evaluation of Distilled Alcoholic Beverages (Rum Spirits) in Onitsha Metropolis of Anambra State, Nigeria

Abstract Evaluation of production techniques and quality of rum distilled alcoholic beverages (Rum spirits) sold in Onitsha metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria was carried out using survey and laboratory studies. Rum distilled alcoholic beverage brands investigated included Nigerian and foreign makes. Nigerian made rums evaluated included DCL, SBD, S5BD, PBC, BWR, CBD and foreign made rums included KSCR, ELR, IVGR and GMCR. Field studies involved administration of questionnaires to the sellers of spirit alcoholic beverages in only three markets in Onitsha metropolis namely Ose-Okwodu, Relief and bridge Head markets that were purposely sampled for this study. Questions asked the sellers of distilled alcoholic beverages included names, background, and status of respondents and physicochemical characteristics of the products. There were also laboratory production of rum spirit beverage (LBC) based on survey studies and findings from producers. The laboratory produced and market samples were analyzed for physicochemical and organoleptic attributes. The mean and standard deviation of the data obtained were presented in tables whereas the statistical differences of the obtained data were determined by ANOVA (P < 0.05) using SPSS 22. The significant means were compared using Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (LSD). The alcohol content, pH, titratable acidity, specific gravity, total solids, suspended solids and dissolved solids contents of the eleven rum spirit brands ranged from 42% to 50% and average of 47%, pH3.3- 5.1 (average pH value of 3.7), 011 to 4.5 (average value of 0.74), 0.87-0.99 and average value of 0.94, 3.03 to 32.18 (average of 8.45), 1.19 and 12.31(average of 6.08) and 1.53to 18.05 (average of 6.38) respectively. The consumer acceptance and preference evaluation of the rum spirit brands using 10 panelists and 9-point Hedonic scale revealed sensory scores of 3.70-6.40, 2.50-6.80, 3.20- 6.70, 2.60-6.70 and 3.30-6.60on colour, taste, aroma, mouth feel and general acceptance respectively.

Keywords— Distilled Alcoholic Beverages, Rum Spirits, Anambra State.

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Economic Efficiency and Profitability of Sweet Potato Marketing in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Abstract The study examined the economic efficiency and profitability of sweet potato marketing in Anambra State, Nigeria. Specifically, it described profitability, economic efficiency and constraints to sweet potato marketing. Multistage sampling procedure which involved purposive and random sampling methods was used to select 240 marketers (120 wholesalers and 120 retailers). Data were collected from primary source using well structured questionnaire and were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics, enterprise budgeting and Sherpherd-Futell techniques. From the result, profitability indicators such as net marketing income, return on investment, net return on investment and coefficient of marketing efficiency of ₦ 8,775,807.4, 1.68, 0.68, 59.6 and ₦7, 892,837.4, 1.89, 0.89, 52.6 for wholesalers and retailers respectively proved the enterprise profitable at both levels. The implication of the net return on investment figures is that the wholesalers and retailers respectively return 0.68 kobo and 0.89 kobo for every 1 Naira invested in the business. Findings also indicated marketing efficiency levels of 59.6% for wholesalers and 52.6% for retailers implying that the retailers are more efficient in the marketing of sweet potato than the wholesalers. Findings on the constraints shows that seasonality of the product, high cost of transportation and rioting militated against sweet potato marketing on the wholesale whereas rioting and inadequate storage facility were perceived at the retail levels. Modern storage facilities and good road transport systems should be made available so that the volume of trade of marketers should increase for optimum profit.

Keywords— Economic, Efficiency, Profitability, Sweet potato.

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Mesquite (Prosopis Juliflora) Pod Meal to Goats Feed: Ruminal Parameters and Molecular Diversity of Ruminal Bacteria and Methanogenic Archaea

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pod meal (MPM) replacing corn in concentrate feeds on ruminal parameters and microbial diversity. MPM was used in 0.0, 33.3, 66.7 and 100% levels in isonitrogenous diets, and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage as forage. For the experiment we divided the animals into 4x4 Latin square. The intake of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were not affected by the MPM levels. The pH varied linearly, increasing according to the levels of MPM and remained at adequate range between 6.32 and 6.85 for 8 hours after feeding. The ammonia concentration showed a peak of 14.01 mmol L-1 2 hours after the morning feeding and the acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations did not show any effect. The genetic diversity of bacteria and archaea was determined by PCR-DGGE. The analyses showed variations in banding pattern, indicating changes in the populations studied as a result of the treatments and a reduction in methanogenic after the addition of up to 66.7% of MPM. MPM can be used at levels of 33.3% and 66.7% of corn replacing without reducing the nutrients intake. The reduction of archaea has a possible contribution in reducing methanogenesis, since it also reduces the acetate:propionate ratio. Mesquite is a source of food for goats in small holdings, with potential reduction in methanogenesis.

Keywords ecology, microbial, multivariate analysis, PCR-DGGE, ruminal fermentation.

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Quantitative Growth Analysis of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

Abstract The plant growth analysis parameters like Fresh Mass, Dry Mass, Resource Allocation, Leaf Area, Leaf Area Ratio (LAR), Net Assimilation Rate (NAR), Relative Growth Rate (RGR), Leaf Weight Ratio (LWR) and Root Shoot Ratio and relation between these parameters was studied in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) during entire life span i.e. from sowing till senescence in the field conditions. The values of growth analysis parameters like RGR and NAR were highest for the period of vegetative growth showing gradual decline towards the senescence. Leaf Weight Ratio (LWR) in general followed a declining trend but the decline was sharp during the transition from vegetative phase to reproductive phase. More resources were allocated towards leaves during vegetative phase to increase the photosynthetic efficiency whereas there was a shift towards reproductive parts during reproductive phase for fruiting. Leaf area followed an increasing trend with time reaching at its peak just before senescence and thereafter leaf area declined with the progress of senescence.

Keywords— Growth Analysis Parameters, Root-Shoot Ratio and Resource Allocation.

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Review on Barley Scald Disease Management

Abstract Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the ancient grain crops cultivated and used worldwide. In Ethiopia, barley is among important staple crops next to tef, maize, wheat and sorghum mainly grown on about 1 million ha of land with average yield of 2.1t ha. Leaf scald is one of the most important diseases of barley in the worldwide where the crop is grown and it causes significant reduction in yield and quality. In Ethiopia, barley is the predominant cereal in the high altitudes and it accounts nearly 25% of the total production in Africa. In addition, Ethiopia is the second largest barley producer in Africa.

Leaf scald is one of the most important diseases of barley in the worldwide wherever the crop is grown and it causes significant reduction in yield and quality. Yield loss due to scald disease reaches up to 100% in susceptible cultivars under severe epidemics. In Ethiopia, scald is among widely distributed and destructive diseases in cool highland areas and yield losses reaching about 67% have been recorded. This review discusses recent information on economic importance, epidemiology, life cycle, geographical distribution and disease management of barley leaf scald disease. It also presents the barley leaf scald disease management methods such as cultural, chemical, use of host resistance methods as well as integrated barley leaf scald disease management. Under host resistance method, information on types of resistance, sources of resistance have been presented.

Keywords— Barley, Scald disease, Management, Methods, Cultural, Chemical, Host resistance.

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Custard Apple Seed Oil as a Pesticide

Abstract Essential oils are oils extracted from plants. These categories of oils are obtained through distillation or mechanical methods such as cold pressing. Custard Apple Seed Oil is a type of essential oil. This oil can be used as an eco-friendly biopesticide. They are cheap, safe to use also maintains the fertility of the soil. Therefore natural pesticides like custard apple seed oil are given preference over synthetic pesticides. Oil extracted from it can be used as a pesticide against several common pests like the white mealybug, aphid, termite, etc. The oil extracted from custard apple seeds contain acetogenin a group of powerful respiratory inhibiting toxic components, which is responsible to act as a bio-pesticide. Cold pressing, solvent extraction, steam distillation, maceration, percolation, tincture, and infusion are the methods that are used for custard apple seed oil extraction.

Keywords— Essential oils, distillation, cold pressing, acetogenin, maceration.

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Agriculture Journal: July 2021

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-7, Issue-7, July 2021

Role of Urban Agriculture in Achieving Food Security and other Social Missions – A Global Study

Abstract There is an increasing importance of addressing food scarcity and food safety issues as the population is increasing at a very fast rate. With the urban population increasing even more rapidly, there is a need for a radical change in the perception of food production and agriculture. Urban Agriculture has become significant in recent times as it provides a way for urban people to practice farming and easing the pressure on food production, in a way that can satisfy other important goals in a society. This paper analyses the different ways in which urban agriculture can benefit society through qualitative research. The paper finds that urban agriculture is practiced with the primary intent of food security and with other socio-economic goals in mind, through a review of various forms of qualitative data. The paper concludes by advocating for policy implications that will focus on bringing urban agriculture from the purview of the informal and unorganized sector and promoting it to urban dwellers as a viable economic and social activity.

Keywords— Food Security, Local Economies, Social Missions, Urban Agriculture, Urbanization.

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Biogeochemical aspects of selected elemental content in Ilex paraguayensis S.H from Eastern Paraguay

Abstract Yerba mate, Ilex Paraguayensis, is a plant of Paraguayan origin used in infusions/macerations by the ancient inhabitants of Paraguay as a “reviver”/energy beverage and mineral supplier which consumption is lasting up today; furthermore, it is extended almost worldwide. In regard to its mineral content very few studies are known; moreover, none has been published related to the occurrence of REE (rare earth) and other refractory elements in the leaves. In this work, minor and trace elements composition have been investigated by XRF techniques to determine their correlation as well as provenance. The analysis of complex spectra was performed by the AXIL software and the quantitative analysis by the QAES software. Analyzed trace elements were the refractory Rb , Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd , 3d as Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn. Minor elements were Mn, Fe which are often related to the above refractory together with S and K.

Keywords— Ilex Paraguayensis, uptake of minerals, elementary content, refractory and rare earth elements.

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Screening of Sponge-associated Actinobacteria against Human Pathogenic Candida albicans in Kien Giang Sea, Vietnam

Abstract From 198 actinomycetes isolated from sponges at the Kien Giang Sea in Vietnam, 42 actinomycete isolates were selected with the ability to resist Candida albicans, a species of yeast causes human diseases. There were eight isolates having strong resistance, 31 moderate, and three weak resistances. Eight best isolates were selected to identify by 16S rDNA gene analysis and sequencing. The result showed that six strains were characterized as Streptomyces spp., one strain belonged to genus Microbacterium, and one strain was genus Rhodococcus.

Keywords— Antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, Kien Giang Sea, sponge, Streptomyces.

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Optimization of a Filter Medium Suitable for Direct Irrigation with Seawater through a Water Table

Abstract The method that humanity has adopted to moisturize and thus bring to life the plants, imitating the model that was most visible, is rain. However, the great secret of irrigation lies in the land, in the water table and aquifers that treasure and manage water, sending away every drop of rain and spreading water through the underground basins of rivers, indirectly watering from the mountain to the Sea. The key is in the different circulation rates of groundwater because of the nature of the substrates. However, agriculture has adopted irrigation from above as we know it and has focused especially on drainage capacity. From this point of view, saline water is not beneficial for irrigated agriculture, but it may be the only source of irrigation water in large arid regions, especially in developing countries, where extreme freshwater scarcity and rapid population growth require more water.

When it is raised the possibility of watering with seawater without desalination, always through capillary systems, it is essential to take into account the different soil strata, the distance to the water table, the composition of the seawater, the capacity soil chemical reactions to salts, etc. Modification of any of these parameters may produce salinization effects, moisture loss or desertification among others.

Keywords Desertification, Desalination, Reuse, Marine Water Table.

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Real Time Nitrogen Management in Rice using Leaf Colour Chart under Rainfed Condition of Western Hills of Nepal

Abstract A field experimentation to determine the response of real time nitrogen management in rice using leaf colour chart on yield of rice under rainfed condition of western hills of Baitadi district of Nepal during rainy season of 2015. The variety for the field experimentation was carried in the variety “Rato Basmati”. This variety was tested at five LCC based nitrogen management practices (N omission + recommended dose of P and K, recommended dose 100:30:30 kg NPK ha-1, 30 kg N ha-1 + LCC < 4 @ 30 kg N ha-1, No basal + LCC<4 @30 kg N ha-1 and 30 kg N ha-1 15 DAT + LCC<4 @ 30 kg N ha-1) in simple RCBD with three replication. The soil of experimental site was sandy loam in texture with pH 5.93. The data showed that there was saving of 10 Kg N ha-1 as compared to recommended N practice (100 Kg N ha-1) in that LCC management practices where the basal application is omitted. Real time nitrogen management in rice using leaf colour chart significantly influenced the growth, yield attributes and yield over control. The highest plant height (122.90 cm), grain/panicle (103), grain yield (3890.83 kg/ha), harvest index (57.58) was obtained with no basal nitrogen plus LCC based nitrogen application. Maximum effective tiller (283.75) obtained from N2 application at 15 DAT+LCC based N application. The application of nitrogen only using the LCC or omitting the basal application further improve the efficiency of applied nitrogen and increase the yield by 75.53% and 25% respectively over the control and recommended practice.

Keywords— Real Time Nitrogen Management, Leaf Colour, Western Hills of Nepal, rice management.

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An Evaluation of different Forms of Granulated Compound Fertilisers and Micronutrients on Solanum lycopersicum var. Swaraksha

Abstract An open field experiment was conducted at the University of Mauritius Farm to evaluate the effects of different forms of compound fertilisers and the response of incorporating micronutrients along with the compound fertilisers on the vegetative growth and yield of Solanum lycopersicum, var. ‘Swaraksha’. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium being three essential plant nutrient components, play important roles in the production of Solanum lycopersicum. Besides, micronutrients in minute amounts are also indispensable for proper plant development. The treatments were randomly arranged in block design (RBD) with four replicates. These were: control (T1), 13-13-20-2 complex (T2), 13-13-20-2 complex with micronutrients (T3), 13-13-20-2 blended form with micronutrient (T4) and 13-13-20-2 in compacted form (T5). The results showed that treatment T4 had the most significant upsurge in growth and yield of Solanum lycopersicum with respect to the control block and compared to the other forms of fertilisers. The yields were found to be 47.83 t/ha under T4 followed by 35.52 t/ha under T3. The highest number of flowers and fruits per plant were also observed in T4. Hence, it is essential to employ these nutritive components for satisfactory growth and yield of Solanum lycopersicum while taking into consideration the costs of inputs.

Keywords— blended, compacted, complex, costs, growth, yield.

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Haematological Characteristics of Broiler Birds Administered Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica) and Pawpaw leaf (Carica papaya) Leaf Extracts

Abstract One hundred and twenty (120) broilers birds of Abore acere breed were used to determine the effect of pawpaw leaf and neem leaf extracts on the haematological profile of broilers birds. The chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments with 30 birds in each treatment. Each treatment was replicated three times with 10 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). Treatment 1 received only vaccine and drugs without the leaf extract in their water, treatment 2 and 3 received 150 ml of the Neem and Pawpaw leaf extracts, respectively, and treatment 4 received 75ml of Neem extract and 75ml of pawpaw leaf extract mixed. 150ml of the extracts were all diluted into 1 litre of fresh drinking water and served to the broiler chicken. At the end of the experiment, which lasted for 7 weeks, blood sample were collected from the birds and analyzed for the haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, white blood cell count, and red blood cell count. Differential count was also carried out. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Result showed that there were no significant differences (P> 0.05) among the treatments in all the parameters tested. The study therefore concluded that 150 ml of neem leaf or pawpaw leaf extracts, or combination of the extracts may be administered to broiler birds without any deleterious effect on broilers’ haematological indices.

Keywords— Haematological indices, Neem leaf extract, Pawpaw leaf extract, broiler.

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Effect of mixed Gmelina and Moringa leaf meal inclusion on growing Red Sokoto does fed Digitaria smutsii hay based complete diets

Abstract— Gmelina arborea and Moringa oleifera (GMMO) leaf meal were combined at the ratio of 3:1 and included in the diets of Red Sokoto does at 0, 10, 20 and 30% to investigate the effect on dry matter intake, live weight and cost of feed in Digitaria smutsii hay based diets. Twenty-eight (28) growing Red Sokoto does aged between 6 and 7 months with average weight of 14.71±0.09 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments balanced for weight with seven does per treatment in a completely randomized design. The experimental diets were offered at 4% of body weight. Cost of feeding was studied to determine the cost effectiveness of GMMO leaf meal inclusion in the diets. Results indicated that inclusion of GMMO leaf meal significantly (P<0.05) improved weight gain of Red Sokoto does. Animals fed dietary treatments containing 10% and 20% of GMMO leaf meal had significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain (3.30kg and 3.38kg) than animals on 30% inclusion level. The feed cost/kg gain ranged from N 326.75 in 20% followed by N354.59, N 441.74 and N518.30 in 10%, 30% and 0%, respectively. The cost-benefit analysis showed that at 20% GMMO leaf meal inclusion, cost of feed/kg gain was reduced by 36.96% and gave more profit. The GMMO leaf meal inclusion did not have any adverse effect on Red Sokoto does. It can be concluded that mixed Gmelina and Moringa leaf meal can be included at 20% in diets of Red Sokoto does for improved dry matter intake, average daily weight gain and profitability.

Keywords— Leaf meal, weight gain, Red Sokoto goats, Gmelina arborea and Moringa oleifera.

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Review Article: Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Application

Abstract— Nanoparticles are small particles which ranges from 1-100nm in size. Nanoparticles can be synthesized through physical, chemical and biological method. Synthesis of nanoparticles through biological method which also known as green synthesis is eco-friendly and non-expensive method. This review gives idea about how silver nanoparticles are produce by using microorganisms and plant extract and their mechanism for biosynthesis. This review also shows an insight on wide application of silver nanoparticles in various fields.

Keywords— Nanobiotechnology, silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, microorganisms.

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Agriculture Journal: June 2021

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-7, Issue-6, June 2021

Occurrence of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in Prayagraj area of Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract Among the pseudo-cereals grown in India, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench is known as Common buckwheat and the most cultivated species in the hilly region of India. This is a short duration, multipurpose and nutritious crop which can withstand changing climatic conditions and fit well in multiple cropping systems. At remote locations of mountain ecosystems, buckwheat is a livelihood driven crop for small and marginal farmers. Buckwheat grains are primarily used for human consumption and also for livestock, poultry and piggery feeds. Rural population of hilly region of India use buckwheat sprouts and as pancakes especially in breakfast however, the recommended intake of buckwheat sprouts are less than 40 g/day. Furthermore, it is also grown as cover crop, green manure crop, fodder crop, fertility restoring crop, honey crop and medicinal plant. The crop is also a good source of Rutin (quercetin-3-rutinosid) and Fagopyrin that are known to be used in preventing various human disorders. In January 2020 occurrence of disease on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in the research field of SHUATS, Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh in India was observed. Black spot symptoms were noted on leaves with an approximate incidence of 50%. The disease symptoms are chlorotic leaf spots caused by Alternaria alternata uniformly distributed and having concentric margins. They are circular, oval or oblong in shape. Each spot has gray centre and brownish margin.

Keywords— Alternaria alternata, Buckwheat, Leaf spot.

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Milk marketing strategies adopted by dairy farmers: A study of Ernakulam district

Abstract Various studies and reports expect that due to great potential and increased demand on consumer’s side, dairy market in Kerala will grow at a CAGR of 15.7 percent during 2021-2026. But the reality and projection are quite different. Due to the involvement of many factors like lack of infrastructure facilities, transportation, interference of intermediaries, less bargaining capacity and lack of knowledge about the marketing conditions Kerala’s milk marketing is facing a huge challenges and constraints. Recent studies found that more than 70 percent of milk is sold to dairy cooperative society which implies that a traditional marketing channel dominates in Kerala. In this study, Ernakulam district have chosen. Ernakulam, which has over 330 co-operative societies of Milma in the district, faces a shortage of 70,000 litres per day. This gap is met by importing milk from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. It indicates that there is a huge scope for dairy market in Ernakulam due to the steady increase in demand on consumer’s side. But recent studies reveal that the existing marketing conditions are not favourable to farmers. Therefore, in this context, the marketing strategy adopted, various milk marketing channels, the reasons for choosing, price received and quantity of milk sold to these stakeholders/channels on the producer’s side to be studied in detail. All these aspects are covered under this study. Present study tries to help the government and concerned department in taking appropriate actions for boosting the milk market in Ernakulam district by giving equal importance to both production and marketing side.

Keywords— Consumer, Distribution channels, Marketing, Milk, Producer.

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Fresh Biofertilizer: A Novel Concept in Improving Soil Fertility

Abstract Biofertilizers are gaining tremendous importance in agriculture due to the detrimental effect of chemical fertilizers on plants and soil health. It consists of living beneficial microorganisms that enhance plant growth and maintain soil health by using different mechanisms. For improving the soil health along with the growth of plants Efficiency of biofertilizers depends upon different factors such as quality and formulation of inoculant, total number of living microbes, and shelf life. .Therefore it is very important to discuss the shelf life of biofertilizers and another alternative such as use of fresh biofertilizers. Fresh biofertilizers is a concept that emphasises immediate use of biofertilizer after production to ensure maximum microbial count and hence is a revolutionary idea in the field of agriculture. So this study shows the importance of fresh biofertilizer in improving soil health and plant growth.

Keywords— Microorganisms, Shelf life, Fresh biofertilizer, Soil fertility.

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Irrigation Water Quality Assessment for Water Resources Used in Irrigation of Agricultural Fields of Kütahya - Alayunt Village

Abstract This study was conducted to assess the irrigation water quality of deep wells in Kütahya- Alayunt village and to assess the salinity-alkalinity of agricultural fields irrigated with these waters. The pH values of water samples taken in May, June, July, August and September varied between 7,12 - 8,57 and electrical conductivity (EC) values varied between 563 - 1483 µmhos/cm. According to US Salinity Lab. Classification System, water samples were classified as C2S1 (moderately saline – low alkaline) and C3S1 (highly saline – low alkaline). Differences were observed in irrigation water quality criteria throughout the irrigation season. Soils of the research site had loamy (L) and clay-loam (CL) textures. Soil pH values varied between 7,23 - 7,94 and EC values varied between 485 - 1652 µmhos/cm.

Keywords— Irrigation, irrigation water quality, soil salinity.

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Agriculture Journal: May 2021

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-7, Issue-5, May 2021

Groundnut Cultivation: A Novel Approach using Organic Input

Abstract The groundnut or peanut is one of the important legume crops of our world, produced over an area of 5.4 million ha and production of 5.43 million tones with a productivity 910 kg/ha. High profitability along with sustainability can be attained in groundnut with proper fertility management and by organic farm practices. In the recent years organic farming has gained significant importance by supporting sustainable crop production and due to its eco-friendly benefits. Organic farming system in groundnut emphasis the use of vermi-compost, FYM along with other organic amendments like bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides etc. and hence paving way for production of organic and healthy peanuts.

Keywords bio-fertilizers, organic peanuts, bio control-agents, disease management.

Papers Highlights:

  • Significance of cultivation of groundnut using organic inputs.
  • Role of bio-fertilizers in groundnut cultivation.
  • Use of organic manures in producing healthy peanuts.
  • Pest and disease management in groundnut using bio-control agents.
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Use of Basil Ocimum basilicum and Chrysoperla externa (Chrysopidae) in Agroecological Management of Rosebushes

Abstract The intensive cultivation of flowers in a greenhouse often presents low diversity of plant species and this limits the preservation of natural enemies for pest control. Floral resources may provide multiple ecosystem services and promote regulation of pest populations in greenhouses. Chrysoperla externa (Chrysopidae) is a predator of various pests in the Neotropical region. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum) and C. externa releases on agroecological pest management in rosebushes and compare it with conventional management. The greenhouse with rosebush 'Carolla' was divided in two parts, one side with diversified rosebush (rosebush + basil + C. externa releases) and the other side with conventional rosebush (insecticides, acaricides and fungicides). Arthropods were sampled weekly in the rosebushes and basil. The abundance and diversity were different between the systems evaluated. Greater abundance of natural enemies and pollinators was observed in the diversified rosebush. Basil has attracted a greater diversity of natural enemies and had a positive effect on pest control in the rosebush. In conventional rosebushes most insects were phytophagous. The production and quality of roses were not influenced by the treatments. Agroecological pest management favors the biological control in rosebush cultivation in greenhouse.

Keywords— Biological control, Floral resources, Habitat management, Natural enemies, Roses.

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Microbial and Nutritional Evaluation of Fresh and Wastewater Cultivated Cabbage in Quetta, Pakistan

Abstract Using wastewater for agricultural irrigation presents potential risks to public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the microbial burden and nutritional components of cabbage grown in fresh and wastewater in Quetta, Pakistan. Cabbage samples randomly collected from fields irrigated with fresh and wastewater sources were analysed for viable bacterial and fungal counts, pH and vitamin contents. There was a significant difference in viable bacterial (3.0 × 106, 1.9 × 107 CFU g-1) and fungal (2.4 × 103, 1.0 × 105 CFU g-1) counts for cabbage grown in fresh and wastewater, respectively. There were no significant differences in pH (7.88/7.86) and contents of the vitamins thiamin (0.31/0.30 mg/100 g), riboflavin (0.05/0.04 mg/100 g), niacin (0.56/.54 mg/100 g), pyridoxine (0.13/0.12 mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (57.00/56.60 mg/100 g). Results demonstrated that cabbage grown in wastewater had a significantly higher microbial burden than cabbage grown in fresh water, although there were no significant differences in nutritional components of cabbage from the different water sources. These observations emphasise the potential dangers to public health in using wastewater for agricultural irrigation.

Keywords Agricultural irrigation, Bacterial count, Brassica, Public health, Vitamins, Water resources.

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Production of Exportable Agricultural Commodities in Nigeria

Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the production of exportable agricultural commodities (cocoa, cashew and ginger) in Nigeria. Three hundred and seventy (370) exporters were interviewed for this study. Findings revealed that half of the respondents’ source for their seedlings through purchase of certified seeds. Almost 33.5% of the respondents plant Brazilian cashew, 30% plant both yellow and black ginger varieties while 37% of them majorly plant Forastero cocoa varieties due to their high demand. Results showed that most of the respondents (26.2%, 36.8% and 33.5%) supplied the highest volume of agricultural commodities (cashew, ginger and cocoa) in year 2012 and earn more in the same period. Findings indicated that land (36.2%) is the major cost component that had the highest impact while transportation (34.6%) is the main cost component that steadily increases among others. Government should provide services on trade support to aid access to global markets.

Keywords Production, agricultural commodities, exportable, cost.

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Implementing a Capacity Development Initiative to Build Resilience to Better Adapt to Climate Change: A Case Study in Ethiopia, Africa

Abstract A five-year capacity development initiative called Small-scale and Micro Irrigation Support (SMIS) Project has been funded and launched in Ethiopia by the governments of the Netherlands and Canada in close collaboration with the local government in the year 2014. The project has been mobilized to expand the capacity of agriculture and water sectors that will use the newly-provided technologies to increase yields and quality of their agricultural products as well as to strengthen their resilience to better adapt to climate change at four Ethiopian states including the state of Tigray. The capacity building plan in the Tigray state has been implemented in eight-pilot woredas (villages) and twelve running pilot irrigation schemes. To bridge the identified capacity gaps, many regional and woreda level agriculture and water sector staff as well as the farmers have been trained using the SMIS Project six-stage capacity development strategy. The progression of several related key indicators was continuously traced using the performance measurement framework (PMF) method and the results were communicated to the stakeholders utilizing results-based management (RBM) approach. The intermittent outcomes have shown that the implementation of SMIS Project capacity development initiative has created landmark changes and outstanding qualities among the relevant institutions, staff, and farmers in the pilot schemes of all sub-regions in the Tigray state. The project has promoted more efficient institutions and was able to train many skillful farmers to build resilience to better adapt to climate change when it strikes. This paper will discuss and present the project outline and its partial achievements until the project midterm.

Keywords— Adapting to climate change, building resilience, capacity development, small-scale irrigation, food security.

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