Abstract— This paper presents an study Soil Properties analysis for sustainable agriculture by GIS through 15 soil samples chemical characterization conducts to soil numerical classification and crops soil suitability that has the advantage to guide the practices of soil management is as follows: Soil Salinity: The results of electrical conductivity indicated that the studied soils were generally positioned into the very saline class that had an area of (3847.96 ha) representing (79.50 %). The soils assembled into five classes; non-saline (198.5 ha) and it is suitable for most crops, moderately saline (385.75ha), where crops salt-tolerant crops give yield with marginal reduction. Finally, strong saline (112.00 ha) that it is suitable just for high salt-tolerant crops but also with yield reduction. Soil Sodic: the non-sodic soil class occupied the majority of the studied area with 96.8 % (4689.18 ha). The sodic soil had only (151.27 ha) 13.12 %. calcium carbonate to moderately calcareous soil (2317.93 ha) 47.89% and calcareous soil (2522.51 ha)52.11%. Crops soil suitability (Wheat): (S1), (S2) and (NS2) It is as follows (4000.78ha) 82.65 %, 114.37ha 2.36 %, and 725.30ha 14.98% of the studied area, respectively. (Tomato): is as follows: (4190.85 ha) 86.58 % of the study area is highly suitable (S1) and (NS2) (649.61ha) 13.42 % is unsuitable represent respectively. (Olive): The majority of the study area 4081.04 ha (84.31 %) was classified as highly suitable soils (S1), potentially suitable class (NS1) is about 236.61ha (4.89 %) and unsuitable class (NS2) is about (522.81ha) 10.80 % respectively. Soil Management and Crops tolerance for soil parameters The GIS-ESP soil map divided the studied area into three categories of ESP tolerance crops soil; Extremely sensitive ESP crop (4164.65 ha), sensitive ESP crop (594.13 ha) and moderately tolerant crop (81.67 ha). The GIS-CaCO3 soil map divided the studied area into two categories of CaCO3 tolerance crops soil; Crops that tolerate a certain (1924.92 ha) and Crops which support high (2915.54 ha). EC tolerance crops soil; Sensitive (3835.38 ha), moderately (224.28ha), highly (650.86 ha) and very highly (129.93ha).
Keywords— Sustainable Agriculture, GIS, Soil Suitability and Tolerant Crops.
Effect of Storage and Poultry Manure Dosage on Soil Nitrate (NO3-) and Ammonium (NH4+) Availability, N-Uptake, and Yield of Head Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa, L.) Grown on Typic Calciaquolls
Abstract— The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of storage and poultry manure dosage on soil nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) availability, N-uptake, and yield of Head lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) grown on Typic Calciaquoll. Data obtained from the experiment of seven treatments with four replications were subjected to Randomized Block Design. The observation conducted in three times i.e. 4 Week After Plant (WAP), 6 WAP, and 8 WAP. The treatments were: (1) without poultry manure (control), (2) dry poultry manure (DPM) with 12,5 g dosage, (3) DPM with 25 g dosage, (4) DPM with 37,5 g dosage, (5) fresh poultry manure (FPM) with 12,5 g dosage, (6) FPM with 25 g dosage, (7) FPM with 37,5 g dosage. The results of experiment showed that there were significantly effects of storage and poultry manure dosage on soil nitrate and ammonium, N-uptake, and yield of head lettuce. The treatment combination of DPM 37,5 g showed the highest value on soil nitrate and ammonium in 4 WAP, N-uptake in 6 and 8 WAP, and the yield of head lettuce in 6 and 8 WAP. The treatment combination of FPM 37,5 g showed the highest value on soil nitrate and ammonium in 6 and 8 WAP, N-uptake in 4 WAP, and the yield of Head lettuce in 4 WAP. Generally, it concluded that the dry poultry manure (DPM) had the better effects than the fresh poultry manure (FPM) on yield of head lettuce.
Keywords— Ammonium, Head lettuce, Nitrate, Poultry manure, Yield.
Characterization of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and its adverse effects on environment and public health in Rwanda
Abstract— There is a low awareness level among the general populace and relevant stakeholders on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and their adverse effects on human health and the environment. This often results in the continued use of POPs in agriculture as pesticides, industrial chemicals, and production of unintentional POPs from incineration, open burning, and other practices that add to the POPs level in Rwanda. Thus, all stakeholders have a responsibility in the process but due to the lack of awareness about the issue they are not able to fulfill this role. With increased awareness, concrete steps can be taken towards the elimination of POPs in Rwanda. The identification of the stakeholders and their roles in the waste management in Rwanda, tool kit for POPs identification and quantification, Desk Review and Field visits have been used to characterize and assess the management of POPs in Rwanda. The most commonly encountered POPs in Rwanda, are organochlorine pesticides, industrial chemicals, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), as well as unintentional by-products of many industrial processes, especially polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF). The POP pesticides are temporarily stored in the Nyanza-Kicukiro dumpsite. These POPs pesticides are Endosulfan 3% dust (1,748 kg) and Lindane (mixed with Thiram (Fernasan 45%WP): 1,280 kg. The country contains around 1,905.9 kg of PBDEs and both transport sector and electronic sector have almost the same contribution as their contents are around 935.9kg and 966.1 kg respectively. The production of iron and steel from metallic wastes (scraps) are producing the UPOP releases of 4000 g TEQ/a in air and 6000 g TEQ/a in residues and waste incineration of medical wastes released 42.1 g TEQ/a in air and 104.6 g TEQ/a in residue. And other sources are producing UPOP releases at low level. The contaminated sites are Nyanza, Nduba landfill, Nyabugogo wetland and Gikondo industrial Park. The workers who recycle and dispose of POPs are exposed to dangerous materials and the environment suffers from them. This paper is intended to characterize the POPs and waste management in Rwanda in order to characterize the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and build capacities of vulnerable communities for the sound environmentally management of chemicals and wastes and transforming waste into resources of greater value for reuse. This paper can be considered as one of primary form of intervention related to persistent organic pollutants and waste management in Rwanda.
Keywords— Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), PCB.
Quality Characteristics, Phenotypic correlations and Principal Component Analysis of Indigenous Free Range Chicken Eggs in Lusaka, Zambia
Abstract— The aim of this study was to characterize indigenous chicken eggs and create an inventory that will set a base for designing breeding programs to improve egg quality traits. 338 eggs of mixed breeds of indigenous chickens from small scale farmers in Lusaka were collected and used in this study. A number of external and internal traits were measured manually. The eggs had a weight of 49±0.44g with a length of 54.55mm and 40.31mm wide. Other traits measured included egg shell weight and length, with the egg shell accounting for 12.78% of the total weight of the egg. The egg albumin and egg yolk weighed 26.21g and 16.55g respectively. The egg weight positively correlated with all the traits studied. A principal component analysis on these traits extracted three principal components that accounted 75.80%. The diversity shown by these eggs shows a huge potential for improvements of egg quality characteristics through proper selection and breeding.
Keywords— egg quality, indigenous chickens, egg shape index, principal component analysis, Lusaka.
The Changing of Soil Reaction and Exchangeable Aluminum on two Different Soil Order due to Dolomite Application
Abstract— The objective of the experiment was to know the effect of Dolomite application on soil reaction and exchangeable Aluminum in two different soil orders. The method was experimental using Factorial Randomized Block Design, which consists of two Factors. The First factor were soil orders consist two levels, i.e. T1= Ultisols Kentrong, dan T2 = Inseptisols Jatinangor, while the second were dolomite dosages, consist four levels, i.e. dO = 0 ton ha-1, d1 = 1 ton ha-1, d2 = 2 ton ha-1, d3 = 3 ton ha-1, d4 = 4 ton ha-1.The result of the experiment showed that on Ultisols Kentrong, dolomite applications significantly increased the value of soil reaction (pH) after two weeks incubation. The treatment of 3 ton/ha showed pH 4.73 or 8 % higher that control. Otherwise, the applications of dolomite also decreased the exchangeable Aluminum. The treatment of 3 ton/ha showed value 7.01 of exchangeable aluminum or 21 % lower than control. In Inceptisols Jatinangor, dolomite applications increased the value of soil reaction (pH) after two weeks incubation and the treatment of 3 tonha-1showed pH 5.83 or 11 % higher than control. Otherwise, the application of dolomite decreased the exchangeable aluminum although were not significantly different for that parameters in this soil order. Based on statistical analysis, it proved that liming unable applied effectively on whole soil types or orders due to its relation with the level of soil acidity.
Keywords— Soil Reaction, Exchangeable Aluminum, Ultisols Kentrong, Inceptisols Jatinangor.
Socioeconomic factors associated with the use of clean energy for cooking in informal settlements of Kigali City, Rwanda
Abstract— Energy plays a vital role in human life as it serves in many different activities such as heating, cooking, transportation and lightingetc. This research aimed to determine household’s socio-economic factors associated with energy choice in informal settlements of Kigali city, Rwanda. The research was conducted in three sectors namely Gatenga located in Kicukiro district, Kimisagara located in Nyarugenge district and Kimironko in Gasabo district. Cluster sampling technique has been adopted to categorize the study area into different residential zones on the basis of socio-economic status where a sample of 107 participated in the research.
Chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistics was used to test the correlation between the household’s socio-economic factors and choice of energy. The research findings confirmed that most dominant energy type used for cooking in the study area ischarcoal which is non-clean energy. Also, family size and monthly income of the household influenced the choice of energy type used for cooking in informal settlement of Kigali City.
Keywords— Socio-economic factors, clean energy, informal settlements.
Effect of Different Sources of Nutrient on Growth and Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech)
Abstract— The experiment was carried out at Nepal Polytechnic Institute field, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal to study the effect of different nutrient sources on growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L Monech). Five different treatments; poultry manure, FYM, goat manure, chemical (as per N equivalent) and no fertilizer (control) were replicated four times. The experiment was arranged in Randomize Complete Block Design (RCBD). The okra variety ArkaAnamika was used for experiment. The data were collected on the growth and yield parameters including plant height (cm), canopy (cm), numbers of leaves per plant, numbers of branches per plant, fruit length, diameter and yield. Results indicated that different nutrient sources had significant (P<0.05) affected on plant height, canopy, leaf number, branches and also in yield parameters. Based on the findings of the experiments, it can be concluded that application of poultry manure significantly increased the growth and yield performances on Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech (okra) compared to other types of fertilizers. As the study reflected the use of no fertilizer results in the lowest vegetative growth and yield performances which indicates to use some nutrient sources for better growth and production of okra.
Keywords— fertilizer, okra, growth, yield.
An exploratory study on farmer’s vernacular knowledge about the land characteristics, soil quality and crop suitability in Lower Ganga Flood Plain: Bangladesh Perspective
Abstract— Local people and small scale farmer had a broad understanding of their land characteristics and soil quality to choose crop. Though Maximum farmers in our country are illiterate and little educated; they have no enough scientific knowledge about land type, soil quality and crop suitability. But they possess vast indigenous knowledge by living in a same environment for a long period of time. They have developed some strategies that helped them to attain a higher degree of satisfaction in farming. So therefore it is very important to explore the farmer’s vernacular knowledge about the land type, soil quality and crop suitability. To address this indigenous knowledge this study investigates the farmer’s vernacular knowledge about the land type, soil quality and crop suitability in Lower Ganga Flood Plain in Bangladesh. The information was collected from one Mouza in Nagarkanda upazila, Faridpur district Lower Ganga Flood Plain in Bangladesh. Qualitative and quantitative both data were used in this study. The data were collected from primary sources (such as questionnaire survey, FGD) and secondary data sources (such as books, journals, and published and unpublished research reports). Data were analyzed by exploratory statistics. Graphs and graph tables were created by MS excel. By analyzing the Field data it was investigated that farmers of the study area recognized four elevation levels of land; i). High Land (Vitta) ii). Medium Land (Taner Jomi) iii). Low Land (Nall/Dhop) iv).Very Low (Beel) based on its elevation, flood depth, land use, and crop suitability. The farmers of the study area possess considerable knowledge of the soils quality, moisture conditions of that area. The farmers of the study area distinguish soil into three categories primarily on the basis of color, texture, organic matter content, drainage, and fertility of soils. They use indigenous methods such as visual observation while color, tasting by tongue, feeling, vegetation cover and rubbing with fingers to determine various soil properties. Thus Farmers’ knowledge of soils is, therefore, a vast resource we summarized in this paper.
Keywords— Agriculture, Crop suitability, Farmer, Local Knowledge, Land, Soil.
Abstract— Agroforestry is the source of energy for cooking, materials for construction, domestic utensils and other products and services including fruits, medicine, livestock, feeding and fencing. This study aimed to assess the impact of agroforestry practices on community’s socio-economic livelihoods in Karongi district, western Rwanda. The authors interviewed 45 Agroforestry Practioners (AFP) and 45 Non-Agroforestry Practioners (NAFP) from 8 cells randomly selected between July and September 2019.The data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20. The result, as asserted by 100 % of AFP, the Grevillea robustae was the frequently planted specie on contours and terraces due to its contribution on improving soil fertility and protecting the soil against erosion. The inheritance of land is the main mode of getting lands as mentioned by 69% and 62% of AFP and NAFP, respectively. In addition, it was noted that the number of reared goat, cattle and poultry is higher for the AFP than that of NAFP. Furthermore, the AFP’ mean yearly income and its uses (food security, agriculture and household building) is significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to that of NAFP. Thus, in Karongi District, the agroforestry significantly enhances its practioner’s livelihoods. This study can serve as guide to other similar areas in adopting the agroforestry.
Keywords— Agroforestry; Local Community; Livelihood; Karongi district; Rwanda.
Abstract— Agroforestry is an efficient land-use system where trees or shrubs are grown with arable crops, seeking positive interactions in enhancing productivity on the sustainable basis. Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. The study was conducted in selected villages (1%) of Ballia District of Eastern plain region of Uttar Pradesh in India during the year 2018 to record the crop combinations with tree species and their stratified arrangement to identify agroforestry practices. The socio-economic studies based on general village profile, land holding, land use pattern and tree species planting pattern were performed in 1 % villages to collect the data with structured questionnaire and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools. The results demonstrated that a total of six different agroforestry practices, agri-silviculture, silvi-horticulture, agri-horticulture, agri-silvi-horticulture, silvi-pastoral, and homestead existed in different villages. Out of different categories, timber, fruits, medicinal, agriculture, flower and other plant species were recorded. It was recorded that out of existing agroforestry practices, scattered near farms and around homestead was found most common (about 37.7 %) followed by agri-silviculture (20.20 %), silvi-horticulture (19.1 %) and agri-horticulture (12.3 %). The pattern of plantation on bunds and blocks was 17.94 % and 16.82 % respectively. The benefits from agro forestry practices in the villages was also assessed and ranked in their order of preferences in respective blocks of district. The different benefits as fruits/vegetables, timber, shade, medicinal, fodder, firewood, protection, and soil erosion were scored from 1 to 8. It was concluded from the results that status of agroforestry in the studied zonal area of the region is in developing stage and needs to be improved by imparting technical knowledge about planting material, methods and sale of end produces of trees to the farmers and tree growers.
Keywords— Socio-economic studies, agroforestry practices, homestead system, trees benefit scoring.