Saturday, 8 February 2020

Agriculture Journal: January 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-1, January 2020

GIS-Based Soil Properties Analysis for Sustainable Agriculture in Bani Waleed (Libya)

Abstract This paper presents an study Soil Properties analysis for sustainable agriculture by GIS through 15 soil samples chemical characterization conducts to soil numerical classification and crops soil suitability that has the advantage to guide the practices of soil management is as follows: Soil Salinity: The results of electrical conductivity indicated that the studied soils were generally positioned into the very saline class that had an area of (3847.96 ha) representing (79.50 %). The soils assembled into five classes; non-saline (198.5 ha) and it is suitable for most crops, moderately saline (385.75ha), where crops salt-tolerant crops give yield with marginal reduction. Finally, strong saline (112.00 ha) that it is suitable just for high salt-tolerant crops but also with yield reduction. Soil Sodic: the non-sodic soil class occupied the majority of the studied area with 96.8 % (4689.18 ha). The sodic soil had only (151.27 ha) 13.12 %. calcium carbonate to moderately calcareous soil (2317.93 ha) 47.89% and calcareous soil (2522.51 ha)52.11%. Crops soil suitability (Wheat): (S1), (S2) and (NS2) It is as follows (4000.78ha) 82.65 %, 114.37ha 2.36 %, and 725.30ha 14.98% of the studied area, respectively. (Tomato): is as follows: (4190.85 ha) 86.58 % of the study area is highly suitable (S1) and (NS2) (649.61ha) 13.42 % is unsuitable represent respectively. (Olive): The majority of the study area 4081.04 ha (84.31 %) was classified as highly suitable soils (S1), potentially suitable class (NS1) is about 236.61ha (4.89 %) and unsuitable class (NS2) is about (522.81ha) 10.80 % respectively. Soil Management and Crops tolerance for soil parameters The GIS-ESP soil map divided the studied area into three categories of ESP tolerance crops soil; Extremely sensitive ESP crop (4164.65 ha), sensitive ESP crop (594.13 ha) and moderately tolerant crop (81.67 ha). The GIS-CaCO3 soil map divided the studied area into two categories of CaCO3 tolerance crops soil; Crops that tolerate a certain (1924.92 ha) and Crops which support high (2915.54 ha). EC tolerance crops soil; Sensitive (3835.38 ha), moderately (224.28ha), highly (650.86 ha) and very highly (129.93ha).

Keywords— Sustainable Agriculture, GIS, Soil Suitability and Tolerant Crops.

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Effect of Storage and Poultry Manure Dosage on Soil Nitrate (NO3-) and Ammonium (NH4+) Availability, N-Uptake, and Yield of Head Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa, L.) Grown on Typic Calciaquolls

Abstract The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of storage and poultry manure dosage on soil nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) availability, N-uptake, and yield of Head lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) grown on Typic Calciaquoll. Data obtained from the experiment of seven treatments with four replications were subjected to Randomized Block Design. The observation conducted in three times i.e. 4 Week After Plant (WAP), 6 WAP, and 8 WAP. The treatments were: (1) without poultry manure (control), (2) dry poultry manure (DPM) with 12,5 g dosage, (3) DPM with 25 g dosage, (4) DPM with 37,5 g dosage, (5) fresh poultry manure (FPM) with 12,5 g dosage, (6) FPM with 25 g dosage, (7) FPM with 37,5 g dosage. The results of experiment showed that there were significantly effects of storage and poultry manure dosage on soil nitrate and ammonium, N-uptake, and yield of head lettuce. The treatment combination of DPM 37,5 g showed the highest value on soil nitrate and ammonium in 4 WAP, N-uptake in 6 and 8 WAP, and the yield of head lettuce in 6 and 8 WAP. The treatment combination of FPM 37,5 g showed the highest value on soil nitrate and ammonium in 6 and 8 WAP, N-uptake in 4 WAP, and the yield of Head lettuce in 4 WAP. Generally, it concluded that the dry poultry manure (DPM) had the better effects than the fresh poultry manure (FPM) on yield of head lettuce.

Keywords Ammonium, Head lettuce, Nitrate, Poultry manure, Yield.

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Characterization of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and its adverse effects on environment and public health in Rwanda

Abstract— There is a low awareness level among the general populace and relevant stakeholders on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and their adverse effects on human health and the environment. This often results in the continued use of POPs in agriculture as pesticides, industrial chemicals, and production of unintentional POPs from incineration, open burning, and other practices that add to the POPs level in Rwanda. Thus, all stakeholders have a responsibility in the process but due to the lack of awareness about the issue they are not able to fulfill this role. With increased awareness, concrete steps can be taken towards the elimination of POPs in Rwanda. The identification of the stakeholders and their roles in the waste management in Rwanda, tool kit for POPs identification and quantification, Desk Review and Field visits have been used to characterize and assess the management of POPs in Rwanda. The most commonly encountered POPs in Rwanda, are organochlorine pesticides, industrial chemicals, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), as well as unintentional by-products of many industrial processes, especially polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF). The POP pesticides are temporarily stored in the Nyanza-Kicukiro dumpsite. These POPs pesticides are Endosulfan 3% dust (1,748 kg) and Lindane (mixed with Thiram (Fernasan 45%WP): 1,280 kg. The country contains around 1,905.9 kg of PBDEs and both transport sector and electronic sector have almost the same contribution as their contents are around 935.9kg and 966.1 kg respectively. The production of iron and steel from metallic wastes (scraps) are producing the UPOP releases of 4000 g TEQ/a in air and 6000 g TEQ/a in residues and waste incineration of medical wastes released 42.1 g TEQ/a in air and 104.6 g TEQ/a in residue. And other sources are producing UPOP releases at low level. The contaminated sites are Nyanza, Nduba landfill, Nyabugogo wetland and Gikondo industrial Park. The workers who recycle and dispose of POPs are exposed to dangerous materials and the environment suffers from them. This paper is intended to characterize the POPs and waste management in Rwanda in order to characterize the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and build capacities of vulnerable communities for the sound environmentally management of chemicals and wastes and transforming waste into resources of greater value for reuse. This paper can be considered as one of primary form of intervention related to persistent organic pollutants and waste management in Rwanda.

KeywordsPersistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), PCB.

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Quality Characteristics, Phenotypic correlations and Principal Component Analysis of Indigenous Free Range Chicken Eggs in Lusaka, Zambia

Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize indigenous chicken eggs and create an inventory that will set a base for designing breeding programs to improve egg quality traits. 338 eggs of mixed breeds of indigenous chickens from small scale farmers in Lusaka were collected and used in this study. A number of external and internal traits were measured manually. The eggs had a weight of 49±0.44g with a length of 54.55mm and 40.31mm wide. Other traits measured included egg shell weight and length, with the egg shell accounting for 12.78% of the total weight of the egg. The egg albumin and egg yolk weighed 26.21g and 16.55g respectively. The egg weight positively correlated with all the traits studied. A principal component analysis on these traits extracted three principal components that accounted 75.80%. The diversity shown by these eggs shows a huge potential for improvements of egg quality characteristics through proper selection and breeding.

Keywords— egg quality, indigenous chickens, egg shape index, principal component analysis, Lusaka.

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The Changing of Soil Reaction and Exchangeable Aluminum on two Different Soil Order due to Dolomite Application

Abstract The objective of the experiment was to know the effect of Dolomite application on soil reaction and exchangeable Aluminum in two different soil orders. The method was experimental using Factorial Randomized Block Design, which consists of two Factors. The First factor were soil orders consist two levels, i.e. T1= Ultisols Kentrong, dan T2 = Inseptisols Jatinangor, while the second were dolomite dosages, consist four levels, i.e. dO = 0 ton ha-1, d1 = 1 ton ha-1, d2 = 2 ton ha-1, d3 = 3 ton ha-1, d4 = 4 ton ha-1.The result of the experiment showed that on Ultisols Kentrong, dolomite applications significantly increased the value of soil reaction (pH) after two weeks incubation. The treatment of 3 ton/ha showed pH 4.73 or 8 % higher that control. Otherwise, the applications of dolomite also decreased the exchangeable Aluminum. The treatment of 3 ton/ha showed value 7.01 of exchangeable aluminum or 21 % lower than control. In Inceptisols Jatinangor, dolomite applications increased the value of soil reaction (pH) after two weeks incubation and the treatment of 3 tonha-1showed pH 5.83 or 11 % higher than control. Otherwise, the application of dolomite decreased the exchangeable aluminum although were not significantly different for that parameters in this soil order. Based on statistical analysis, it proved that liming unable applied effectively on whole soil types or orders due to its relation with the level of soil acidity.

Keywords Soil Reaction, Exchangeable Aluminum, Ultisols Kentrong, Inceptisols Jatinangor.

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Socioeconomic factors associated with the use of clean energy for cooking in informal settlements of Kigali City, Rwanda

Abstract Energy plays a vital role in human life as it serves in many different activities such as heating, cooking, transportation and lightingetc. This research aimed to determine household’s socio-economic factors associated with energy choice in informal settlements of Kigali city, Rwanda. The research was conducted in three sectors namely Gatenga located in Kicukiro district, Kimisagara located in Nyarugenge district and Kimironko in Gasabo district. Cluster sampling technique has been adopted to categorize the study area into different residential zones on the basis of socio-economic status where a sample of 107 participated in the research.

Chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistics was used to test the correlation between the household’s socio-economic factors and choice of energy. The research findings confirmed that most dominant energy type used for cooking in the study area ischarcoal which is non-clean energy. Also, family size and monthly income of the household influenced the choice of energy type used for cooking in informal settlement of Kigali City.

Keywords Socio-economic factors, clean energy, informal settlements.

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Effect of Different Sources of Nutrient on Growth and Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech)

Abstract The experiment was carried out at Nepal Polytechnic Institute field, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal to study the effect of different nutrient sources on growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L Monech). Five different treatments; poultry manure, FYM, goat manure, chemical (as per N equivalent) and no fertilizer (control) were replicated four times. The experiment was arranged in Randomize Complete Block Design (RCBD). The okra variety ArkaAnamika was used for experiment. The data were collected on the growth and yield parameters including plant height (cm), canopy (cm), numbers of leaves per plant, numbers of branches per plant, fruit length, diameter and yield. Results indicated that different nutrient sources had significant (P<0.05) affected on plant height, canopy, leaf number, branches and also in yield parameters. Based on the findings of the experiments, it can be concluded that application of poultry manure significantly increased the growth and yield performances on Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech (okra) compared to other types of fertilizers. As the study reflected the use of no fertilizer results in the lowest vegetative growth and yield performances which indicates to use some nutrient sources for better growth and production of okra.

Keywords fertilizer, okra, growth, yield.

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An exploratory study on farmer’s vernacular knowledge about the land characteristics, soil quality and crop suitability in Lower Ganga Flood Plain: Bangladesh Perspective

Abstract Local people and small scale farmer had a broad understanding of their land characteristics and soil quality to choose crop. Though Maximum farmers in our country are illiterate and little educated; they have no enough scientific knowledge about land type, soil quality and crop suitability. But they possess vast indigenous knowledge by living in a same environment for a long period of time. They have developed some strategies that helped them to attain a higher degree of satisfaction in farming. So therefore it is very important to explore the farmer’s vernacular knowledge about the land type, soil quality and crop suitability. To address this indigenous knowledge this study investigates the farmer’s vernacular knowledge about the land type, soil quality and crop suitability in Lower Ganga Flood Plain in Bangladesh. The information was collected from one Mouza in Nagarkanda upazila, Faridpur district Lower Ganga Flood Plain in Bangladesh. Qualitative and quantitative both data were used in this study. The data were collected from primary sources (such as questionnaire survey, FGD) and secondary data sources (such as books, journals, and published and unpublished research reports). Data were analyzed by exploratory statistics. Graphs and graph tables were created by MS excel. By analyzing the Field data it was investigated that farmers of the study area recognized four elevation levels of land; i). High Land (Vitta) ii). Medium Land (Taner Jomi) iii). Low Land (Nall/Dhop) iv).Very Low (Beel) based on its elevation, flood depth, land use, and crop suitability. The farmers of the study area possess considerable knowledge of the soils quality, moisture conditions of that area. The farmers of the study area distinguish soil into three categories primarily on the basis of color, texture, organic matter content, drainage, and fertility of soils. They use indigenous methods such as visual observation while color, tasting by tongue, feeling, vegetation cover and rubbing with fingers to determine various soil properties. Thus Farmers’ knowledge of soils is, therefore, a vast resource we summarized in this paper.

Keywords Agriculture, Crop suitability, Farmer, Local Knowledge, Land, Soil.

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Impact Assessment of Agroforestry Practices on Community Socio-Economic Livelihoods in Rwanda

Abstract Agroforestry is the source of energy for cooking, materials for construction, domestic utensils and other products and services including fruits, medicine, livestock, feeding and fencing. This study aimed to assess the impact of agroforestry practices on community’s socio-economic livelihoods in Karongi district, western Rwanda. The authors interviewed 45 Agroforestry Practioners (AFP) and 45 Non-Agroforestry Practioners (NAFP) from 8 cells randomly selected between July and September 2019.The data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20. The result, as asserted by 100 % of AFP, the Grevillea robustae was the frequently planted specie on contours and terraces due to its contribution on improving soil fertility and protecting the soil against erosion. The inheritance of land is the main mode of getting lands as mentioned by 69% and 62% of AFP and NAFP, respectively. In addition, it was noted that the number of reared goat, cattle and poultry is higher for the AFP than that of NAFP. Furthermore, the AFP’ mean yearly income and its uses (food security, agriculture and household building) is significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to that of NAFP. Thus, in Karongi District, the agroforestry significantly enhances its practioner’s livelihoods. This study can serve as guide to other similar areas in adopting the agroforestry.

Keywords— Agroforestry; Local Community; Livelihood; Karongi district; Rwanda.

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Agroforestry Practices in Ballia District of Eastern Plain Region of Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract Agroforestry is an efficient land-use system where trees or shrubs are grown with arable crops, seeking positive interactions in enhancing productivity on the sustainable basis. Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. The study was conducted in selected villages (1%) of Ballia District of Eastern plain region of Uttar Pradesh in India during the year 2018 to record the crop combinations with tree species and their stratified arrangement to identify agroforestry practices. The socio-economic studies based on general village profile, land holding, land use pattern and tree species planting pattern were performed in 1 % villages to collect the data with structured questionnaire and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools. The results demonstrated that a total of six different agroforestry practices, agri-silviculture, silvi-horticulture, agri-horticulture, agri-silvi-horticulture, silvi-pastoral, and homestead existed in different villages. Out of different categories, timber, fruits, medicinal, agriculture, flower and other plant species were recorded. It was recorded that out of existing agroforestry practices, scattered near farms and around homestead was found most common (about 37.7 %) followed by agri-silviculture (20.20 %), silvi-horticulture (19.1 %) and agri-horticulture (12.3 %). The pattern of plantation on bunds and blocks was 17.94 % and 16.82 % respectively. The benefits from agro forestry practices in the villages was also assessed and ranked in their order of preferences in respective blocks of district. The different benefits as fruits/vegetables, timber, shade, medicinal, fodder, firewood, protection, and soil erosion were scored from 1 to 8. It was concluded from the results that status of agroforestry in the studied zonal area of the region is in developing stage and needs to be improved by imparting technical knowledge about planting material, methods and sale of end produces of trees to the farmers and tree growers.

KeywordsSocio-economic studies, agroforestry practices, homestead system, trees benefit scoring.

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Agriculture Journal: December 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-12, December 2019

Ecological-edaphic and Socio-economic drivers of on-farm tree farming enterprises in Wakiso District, Central Uganda

Abstract The biophysical-edaphic and socio-economic factors do equally influence the on-farm tree farming in the smallholder farming systems. Naturally, neither of the factors do act in isolation, but they are interrelated. The study was carried out in Nsangi sub-county, Wakiso District, 2018. Using the stratified random sampling method based on landholding sizes, a sample of size of sixty households were selected and interviewed. The objectives of the study were to examine the influence of the bio-physical, edaphic and socio-cultural-economic factors onto the performance of the on-farm tree farming enterprise, and to evaluate the farmer's participation in on-farm tree farming activities. The results showed that both ecological-edaphic and socio-cultural-economic factors influence the performance of the tree volume, tree species diversity and tree stand density/ha. There is a negative correlation between size of landholding and farmer's interaction with the on-farm tree farming enterprises. Judging from the results of this study, there is a need for a policy review aimed at devising appropriate socio-cultural-economic and ecological-edaphic practices that promote on-farm tree farming programmes.

Keywords— On-farm tree farming enterprise, ecological-edaphic, socio-cultural-economic factors.

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Farmers Profits: Can the Standard Weights and Measures Help?

AbstractIn Ghana, rural people, mostly farmers, experience food insecurity. In bargaining with marketers, farmers tend to lose profits. The use of traditional weights and measures led to inefficient transactions. These difficulties have negatively affected farmers’ productivity, calories intake, and international competitiveness. This research investigates how standard weights and measures can secure farmers’ profits at local markets. Using a random selection of 312 farmers for the questionnaire survey at two markets, we examine the impact of current pricing methods on farmers’ profits and advantages of standard weights and measures for farmers. The results show that price decision-making was based on three primary methods: (1) traditional weights and measures, (2) negotiation with individual marketers, and (3) negotiation with market queens. Markets queens and traditional measures negatively influenced farmers’ profits. Farmers’ perceptions showed that standard weights and measures would not only increase their profits at local markets but also enhance their international competitiveness.

Keywords— Ghana, food security, local market, weights and measures.

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Potential Impact Assessment of Agricultural Practices on Water Quality in Nyanza District; A Case Study of Bishya Wetland

Abstract A challenge of linking agricultural sector with water quality in order to combat water pollution remains worrying for the Government of Rwanda. The general objective of the study was to assess the potential impacts of agricultural practices on water quality in NYANZA District. Specifically, the study assessed agricultural practices in Bishya wetland, analyzed the level of water pollution in Bishya wetland, and demonstrated the correlation between agricultural practices and water quality from Bishya wetland. Data were obtained through questionnaires, observation, and laboratory analysis of water samples taken twice per month in six sampling points of bishya dam situated in bishya wetland starting from 4th March 2019 up to 20th August 2019. The Linear Regression Model using SPSS statistics with 95% confidence interval was used to demonstrate the correlation between agricultural inputs and water quality data for all selected physico-chemical parameters. Findings revealed that agricultural practices in Bishya wetland and surrounding areas are characterized by the presence of different crops, ineffective anti-erosions, absence of wetland margins, ineffective drainage of wetland, use of organic manures and chemical fertilizers, as well as the presence of different types of rocks and soils. Findings revealed also that all parameters have not manifested pollution, but some of them did according to Rwanda Standard Board guidelines. In sampling point1, the parameters that presented pollution were nitrites (r=0.047), phosphates(r=0.384), iron (r=0.11), and manganese(r=0.018); in sampling point2, were nitrites(r =0.010), iron (r=0.059), and chemical oxygen demand(r=0.012); in sampling point 3, were pH (r=0.048), nitrites(r =0.086), and phosphates (r=0.329); in sampling point 4, were nitrites (r =0.123), iron(r=0.182), and manganese (r=0.051); in sampling point 5,were turbidity (r=0.080), nitrites (r=0.095), phosphates(r=0.188),iron(r=0.093), manganese(r=0.051), and chemical oxygen demand(r=0.017), and in sampling point 6, the parameters that presented pollution were nitrites(r=0.046), phosphates(r=0.277), iron(r=0.106), and manganese(r=0.190). Finally, findings revealed that agricultural practices in Bishya wetland and surrounding areas, have contributed to the pollution of water quality of Bishya dam through substances of organic manures, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, crop residues, and soil sediments that are transported into the dam by erosion. The study concluded that an effort to create anti-erosions in all areas surrounding wetland, respectful of buffer zones, improving vegetation covers, creating water management bodies at cells level, increasing awareness of population about ecosystem functions, and capturing rain water from houses may effectively contribute to water quality in Bishya wetland.

Keywords— Agricultural practices, water quality, water pollution, and Bishya wetland.

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Abundance Plankton and Analysis Stomach Content and Trophic Level in Makassar Strait at East Season

Abstract The research aims to know the condition of environmental parameters both from biological factors and physical factors of the Makassar Strait during the East season. The usability of the research ie can be to build and simulate dynamic models of fisheries systems. Data Collection has been carried since May 2019 to November 2019. Data collection on environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, flow velocity) and nutrients (nitrates and phosphates), phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance, , and gastric contents analysis were carried out, Method for analysing was used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare environmental parameters, nutrients and abundance of plankton between the three districts observed. The relationship between the abundance of plankton with environmental parameters was analyzed by using multiple linear regression analysis. Determination of trophic level is based on analysis of gastric contents using the TrophLab 2K program. Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) between observation stations grouped in 6 months of observation showed that salinity was significantly different between locations and months of observation, temperature and pH were significantly different between months but did not differ according to location of observation, whereas DO levels did not show differences either between locations. The results of identification of phytoplankton types obtained during this research were dominated by diatoms. The type of zooplankton obtained is generally dominated by copepods. The result of gastric surgery is 10 dominant and economically valuable fish’s species belonging to planktivor, omnivor and carnivor fish, and based on ecosystems including pelagic and demersal fish.

Keywords— Abundance Plankton, phitoplankton, zooplankton, gastric contents, Makassar Strait.

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Effects of Water Deficiency on the Physiology and Yield of Three Maize Genotypes

Abstract Three maize genotypes research experiment was carried out in the experimental farm of University of Debrecen, Hungary. The genotypes were subjected to two different treatments, (irrigated and non-irrigated) where the irrigated was the control experiment. Physiological parameters (SPAD, LAI, HEIGHT) and grain yield (kg ha-1) were measured and statistically computed. From our results, SPAD, LAI and HEIGHT values were significantly affected by water stress in the three studied genotypes. Grain yield was reduced in two of the studied genotypes (S.Y Zephir and S.Y Chorintos). But no significant difference was notice in the KWS 4484 cultivar. LAI was not affected in the second measurement in the S.Y Chorintos genotype and, plant height did not record any difference in the first measurement in the KWS 4484 cultivar. Our results suggest second experiment to specifically look at the critical stage in the genotypes growth where water stress has the severe effect on the studied genotypes.

Keywords Maize genotype, water deficiency, Physiology and Yield.

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Agriculture Journal: November 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-11, November 2019

Impact of Solid Waste Management Practices on Environmental Protection Case of Kicukiro District

Abstract This Solid waste management practices are essential component of environmental infrastructure in human settlements; its poor management can lead to health problem and environmental destruction in general, this study was conducted in Kicukiro district. The data were collected on the sample of 97 households and some authorities through questionnaires, and interview and were analyzed using SPSS Version 20 (statistical tools) and this helped in generating tables and performing descriptive statistics like percentages, frequency, and mean.

The results obtained revealed that that in terms of waste segregation is explained excluding solid wastes from liquid wastes considering the mean of 2.73 which was interpreted as high mean. Those results influenced the grand mean to become 2.04 which is interpreted as low mean. This means that waste segregation practices is not efficiently done in households located in Kicukiro. It was revealed that transportation of wastes is characterized by the short time of loading wastes considering the mean of 2.91 which is interpreted as high mean. The findings revealed that the environmental protection in Kicukiro District is characterized by the following: little harmful materials (plastic packages) in the soils considering the mean of 3.18. This showed that there is link between solid waste management practices and environmental protection in Kicukiro District. For proper practices of waste management which is positive but only for waste transportation to have a significant relationship with environmental protection considering the correlation coefficient of 0.259 and the p-value or Sig.(2-tailed) of 0.010 which is below the p-alpha of 0.05. It is recommended that Kicukiro District has to launch a sustained, education and communication campaign informing residents on the importance of managing waste properly and its importance to their health, the environment and cleanliness of the city or use another waste reduction strategy in order to encourage recyclable production of goods to allow access to recyclable products.

KeywordsSolid Waste Management, environmental protection.

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Technical Efficiency of Tuong-Mango by Translog Production Function: Implication for Cooperative and Non-Cooperative Famers in the Southern Vietnam

Abstract This study employed a Translog stochastic production frontier function to estimate the level of technical efficiency and its determinants among mango farmers in the southern Vietnam. The results of the analysis showed that cropping season of mango growers have been round year. The difference of the study from past researches was efficiency comparison of three seasons instead of only focusing on efficiency of one season or total a year, especially was compared between cooperative and non-cooperative farmer groups. The findings revealed that technical efficiency mean of cooperative farmer category was greater than that of non-cooperative farmer category in season 2. However, technical efficiency mean of cooperative grower group was lower than that of non-cooperative grower group in season 1 and season 3. Results from the study showed that adjustments in the input factors could lead to improved productivity of mango. More so, positive determinants of technical efficiency of cooperative farmer group were land area plant density in three seasons, wrapping bag in season 1 and season 2, education, credit, payment for agro-input wholesale and classifying sale in season 3 while the negative factors were age, credit and payment for agro-input wholesale in season 2. Turning to non-cooperative farmer group, the positive determinants of technical efficiency were land area in three seasons, market access in season 2 and season 3 and payment for agro-input wholesale and wrapping bag in season 2 whereas the negative elements were farming experience in season 1.

Keywords— Technical efficiency, Tuong-mango, cooperative, the southern Vietnam.

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Optimization of antibiotic activity of composites of ethanolic extracts of flower of Mangifera indica, Gongronema latifolium leaves and Citrus sinensis peel using the mixture experimental design of the response surface methodology

Abstract The generation of pathogenic microorgannisms is overwhelming the potency, safety and cost of synthetic antibiotics. The study south insight for the use of plant materials to fight microbes and optimized antibiotic activity of pure, binary and ternary blends of ethanol extracts of flower of Mangifera india, Gongronema latifolium leaves, Citrus sinensis peel on Streptococcus aureus using the Simplex Lattice {3,3} mixture experimental design of the response surface methodology (RSM). Fourteen (14) blends of the plants' parts were produced and tested on the S. aureus. Inhibition zones inhibited by the extract blends ranged between 11-19 mm. Blends C and BC exhibited the highest value of 19 mm. Other blends equally exhibited some inhibition effects on the growth of the test microorganism, however, decreasing in values as their proportions in the blends carried. ANOVA on the data revealed that the model of the experiment was significant (p<0.05; R2=0.8350), the pure; A, B, C, and the ternary blends, ABC, were significant in the model (p<0.05). Although other blends were n ot statistically significant (p>0.05), the graphic and the equation indicated their positive contributions to the model. The model showed overall mean inhibition zone of 14.11 mm compared to 22.5 mm observed in Levofloxacin on the test organism. The study showed that ethanolic extracts of the plants' parts could provide the basis for engineering and synthesis of potent antibiotics.

Keywords Synthetic antibiotics, shynergism, Simplex Lattice design, antibiotics activity, zone of inhibition.

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Trends and Pattern of Crop Diversification in Kheri District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract Crop diversification in India is visualized as the shift from traditionally cultivated less remunerative crops to more remunerative crops. The process of crop diversification is a result of government efforts, market conditions, and farmers' decisions according to the physical conditions of a particular area. The study has been carried out considering Lakhimpur Kheri district as the study area. The crop diversification was estimated by applying three techniques given by Gibbs and Martin, Bhatiya and Singh. Two agricultural years 2006-07 and 2016-17 are taken for the study. The study focused on the spatial comparison in which the block is the minimum unit area for the analysis. The maps for the spatial distribution of crop diversity are generated in the Arc GIS 10.2.2. A change in the crop diversification in a decade has also been examined. There was great similarity in the results by applying all the techniques, but there was some exception in some cases. The results show that, in 2006-07, the diversification was high in the northern and southern blocks like Nighasan, Dhaurehra, Isanagar, Mitauli, and Pasgawan while the blocks lying in the western and central region registered the low intensity of diversification. While, in 2016-17, southern blocks registered high crop diversification and the diversification was low in the central region in almost all the techniques applied.

Keywords Crop diversification, Agriculture, Kheri District, Indian Agriculture.

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Agriculture Journal: October 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-10, October 2019

Assessing Fruit Farmers’ Perceptions of Post-Harvest Losses in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

Abstract Post-harvest loss reduces food availability. The need to examine post-harvest loss in Africa is recognized in one of 2030 SDG goals for sustainable consumption and production. This goal appears to be a tremendous challenge as Africa expects to double its population from 1.2 billion to 2.5 billion. This paper examines fruit farmers’ perceptions about post-harvest loss in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We interviewed 70 fruit farmers about the sources of post-harvest loss. We also assessed the relationship between their perceptions and socio-demographic characteristics. In revealing nuanced perceptions, we used the five-point Likert-scale in some questions. To determine the relationship between farmers’ perceptions and their socio-demographic characteristics, we conducted the multiple linear regression analysis. We found that the respondents were most concerned about their loss at market centers and storage. Loss during transportation was the least source of post-harvest loss perceived by the fruit farmers. The results from the regression analysis also showed that age, gender and farming experience were significantly associated with their perceptions. This paper then makes some recommendations to help reduce post-harvest loss for farmers.

Keywords Post-Harvest Loss, Fruit Farmers, Market Center, Ashanti Region, Ghana.

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Research progress of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus Asiaticus)

Abstract In order to help readers, understand the current research situation of Myxocyprinus Asiaticus in China, the author collated the research on the resource status, reproductive development, artificial breeding, nutrition research and disease of the Myxocyprinus Asiaticus. In the future, we should increase the number of populations, strengthen the protection of wild resources, research on artificial breeding, popularization of breeding technology and genetic research.

Keywords— Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus Asiaticus, Resources distribution.

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Farmers-Nomads conflict: effective local ways of conflicts resolutions over land use rights, in Greater Kordofan State, Sudan

Abstract This study was carried out in Greater Kordofan, Sudan, to explore the effective local ways of conflict resolutions and reconciliations over land use rights between farmers and nomads. The primary data were collected from five villages namely; Umdam, Tongaro, Habila, Dallang, and Abu Kirais through detailed field surveys using a questionnaire, interviews and group discussion. Cases as another means of data collection were also used to collect information from local institutions and groups of farmers and nomads. The results showed that 59.3% of the respondents (farmers and nomads) believed that the main causes of conflict were crops damaged by livestock. The study also found that farmers with a high percentage of 80.9% preferred the solutions made by a traditional council system in their communities. However, this study provides a concrete base of information regarding conflict resolutions that might help both local leaders and governments to understand the complexity of the issue in Great Kordofan.

Keywords Farmers, Nomads, Kordofan, Conflict, Resolutions.

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Uplifting Farmers Communities: A Training Needs Assessment

Abstract Educating farmers through training usually happen outside the formal learning institutions and it aims to contribute towards adult learning and improving their farming performances. This study focused on identifying the training needs and develops capacity training to improve farmers' association communities in their farming practices. A combination of internationally documented qualitative and quantitative research methods was utilized to capture the current knowledge and training needs of farmer’s association communities and the importance they place on different agricultural practices, and also to understand the best and most efficient approach in transmitting agricultural knowledge. The study used mixed methods in gathering data such as interview, survey and focus group discussion. Findings indicated that farmers associations still desire to improve their present knowledge and give more importance on the following: crop production in water management, vegetable production in controlling pest and diseases, livestock in chicken production and disease management, and developing small business as their alternative livelihood. It also showed that the government extension services were the main provider and presentation during community meetings is the most preferred methods of farmer’s association in receiving trainings. However, training needs and capacity training for the farmers' association communities required participation, cooperation and openness from the farmers towards their upliftment.

Keywords Agricultural Extension Service, Capacity Training, Farmers Education, Farmers’ Upliftment, Training Need.

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Thursday, 3 October 2019

Agriculture Journal: September 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-9, September 2019

Comparing the performance of a home-made bottle drip to a commercial drip system in the production of lettuce (Lactucasativa L.)

Abstract A study was conducted in which lettuce (Lactucasativa L.) was grown in a plot at the Faculty of Agriculture at Luyengo Campus of the University of Eswatini to compare three different irrigation methods on the production of marketable heads of lettuce. The performance of lettuce under a commercial drip tape was compared with a home-made bottle drip and a hand watering can as used typically by rural people in the country. The commercial drip had emitters discharging 2 liters per hour and therefore 2 liters per hour was applied with both the home-made bottle drip and the watering can during irrigation. The irrigation frequency was every after two days for all the treatments. The plot sizes were 1.5 m x 4.0 m and there were four replications per treatment. There were eighteen lettuce plants per plot. The lettuce was grown for a period of four weeks and then harvested whole. Yield parameters measured included the plant height (cm), leaf area index (LAI), root length (cm) and the fresh head mass (grams). Significant differences (P < 0.01) between treatments were obtained for fresh lettuce head mass and root length. The commercial drip treatment had largest fresh mass at 226.8 g. It was followed by bottle drip at 184.8 g. The control had the lowest yield at 165.3 g. There were no significant differences between treatments for plant height and leaf area index. It was concluded that the home-made bottle drip irrigation method could be recommended for rural people who cannot afford to buy the commercial drip system for the production of vegetables for household consumption.

Keywords Lettuce, yield, drip, irrigation, water use efficiency.

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Assessing the availability of community water at Madlangamphisi, a community in the Hhohho region of Eswatini

Abstract The research was conducted to assess the availability of domestic water and the extent of the problems associated with water scarcity at Madlangamphisi area in the Hhohho district of Eswatini. The research was a descriptive survey. A questionnaire was used to collect both qualitative and quantitative data for the survey. A total of 169 households out of 300 households in the community were randomly selected to participate in the survey. The majority (56.2%) of the households confirmed that there was water scarcity problems in the area as the streams they used for domestic water frequently dried up during the winter months. The study showed that a majority, 51.5% used water from rivers as the main source of domestic water, while 40.2% of the people travelled for more than 1,000 m to fetch water. To cope with water scarcity problems, 43.2% of the households reduced their water consumption level during droughts while 45% practiced rooftop rainwater harvesting. The study concluded that Madlangamphisi community experienced serious water scarcity problems since they relied on unprotected water sources for domestic use. Moreover, they had to travel for more than 200 m to collect water from nearest sources which is considered an indication of water scarcity by the WHO. The study observed that there was a need to introduce a rural water supply scheme in the area to solve the water scarcity problems and that households should treat water for drinking by either boiling or use a disinfectant to eliminate pathogenic organisms in the water.

Keywords— Community, water, rural schemes.

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Extraction and Evaluation of Chitosan Enhanced by Lippia Multiflora Oil Essential on Postharvest of Tomato

Abstract Influence of chitosan and Lippia multiflora (Lm) essential oil used singly or combined was studied on postharvest tomato. Chitosan with 89.31% of DDA and solubility in acetic acid at 97.15 % was extracted from shrimp exoskeletons. Three concentrations of chitosan extracted (0.25; 0.5 and 1%) containing or not L. multiflora oil were used on Rhizopus stolonifer growth in vitro and in situ condition. In vitro condition, antifungal activity of the chitosan and Lm oil against R. stolonifer was conducted on agar media inoculated with fungal spores. Coating containing 1% chitosan incorporated with Lm efficiently inhibited fungal proliferation at 100% after 10 days. The antifungal effect of two molecules was effective when they were associated. In situ condition tomatos were coated with different solution. Antifungal effect and chemical parameters (pH and titrable acidity) were evaluated. Combination of Lm and 1% chitosan delayed efficiently R. stolonifer radial growth (2.1 mm) compared to uncoated fruit (70.37 mm) after 10 days of storage. Chitosan at 1% with or not Lm significantly reduced weight loss. Though, pH and total acidity (TA) were not influenced by coating solution.

Keywords— Chitosan, Lippia multiflora, essential oil, antifungal, Rhizopus stolonifer, tomato.

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Biogeochemical Aspects of Manganese Content in Ilex Paraguayensis SH from Paraguay by EDXRF and INAA

Abstract Yerba mate, Ilex paraguayensis, is a plant of Paraguayan origin used in infusions/macerations by the ancient inhabitants of Paraguay as a “reviver”/energy beverage and mineral supplier which consumption is lasting up today; furthermore, it is extended almost worldwide. It has been recognized in Ilex paraguayensis, diuretic, CNS stimulant, hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective as well as other pharmacological properties. In regard to its elemental content few studies are known despite they play fundamental tasks in the structure and functioning of plants. One of them, Mn, usually occurs as a trace in Ilex paraguayensis, at relatively high concentration and in this work its concentration in plants from Paraguay have been investigated by EDXRF at Josef Stefan Institute at Ljubljana and at University of Asunción using radioactive isotopic sources and by INAA technique in the Faculty of Chemistry at Asunción with an Am-Be neutron source. These plants are grown mainly in two regions, north and south of Eastern Paraguay; results show that their manganese content can be used as a geochemical indicator to identify the region of origin. Besides, as in other plants, absorption, transport and homeostasis of Mn could be attributed to the action of different NRAMPs. In regard to its normal high content in healthy yerba plants, Mn in excess could be hidden in nodes and vacuoles being exported afterwards.

Keywords Ilex paraguayensis, Eastern Paraguay, yerba mate, Mn content, NRAMP, transporter.

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Decitabine Self Monitoring in Unstable Methylation of DNMT Patients: A Quasi Systematic Review

Abstract

Background: Grey zone or intermediate zone CGG repeat in Pre-mutation FMR1 gene become in high prevalence in tropical rainforest area.

Problem: Bipolar disorder and Major depressive disorder used epigenetic drugs inhibitor to ameliorating their mood as well anticancer agent, decitabine are broadly used. Meanwhile, basic knowledge remains largely unknown.

Objective: Demethylation effect in grey zone methylation instability has to be controlled whereas up till now are to be disturbing the social behavior activities.

Hypothesis: Demethylation drive through, from >34 to <26 CGG repeat has behavior abnormalities.

Method: Quasi-Systematic Review with Bayesian network analysis using Science Direct and Ebsco-host search engine.

Result: One PRISMA Systematic Review flowchart to got the references and one table of 16 references to answer the methylation and demethylation in global living related to decitabine are recorded.

Discussion: Decitabine effect in epigenetic memory in mammals and neuro developmental, cognitive, behavioral and physical changes in grey zone and carrier permutation FMR1 gene are scanned.

Conclusion: Demethylation to high as well low grey zone CGG count could be self monitor due to instable methylation.

Keywords: decitabine, hypomethylation, CGG repeat, tremor, cognitive, epigenetic instability.

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Disease in Plant and Animal: Similarities and Differences

Abstract According to current human opinion and knowledge living organisms can be divided into seven kingdoms. The similarities and differences between these seven groups also the relationships between them are very interesting. These relationships lead to creation the different kinds of biological terms such as, mutualism, commensalism and parasitism. So plants and animal also microorganisms have to fight sometimes. The mechanisms of pathogenicity and the mechanisms of defense can be either similar or different. Emphasizing aspect of pathogenicity of some microorganisms, such as Salmonella, Fusarium and Tobacco mosaic virus can case to disease in plants and animals.

Keywords Animal diseases, Defense system, Plant diseases, Pathogenicity.

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The Effect of Mulching on Soil Moisture Retention and Yield of Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.)

Abstract An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different mulching materials on soil moisture retention and yield of lettuce at the greenhouse located at Luyengo campus of the University of Eswatini during the months of January and February, 2019. The treatments consisted of grass mulch (GM), Plastic mulch (PM), leaf debris mulch (LM), and no mulch (NM) which was used as a control. Each of the treatments had four replications. The organic mulch was applied at a thickness of 10 cm, and the plots for experiments were randomly selected. Each plant received 600 cm3 of water every 3 days using a homemade drip irrigation system (equivalent to 6 mm per irrigation circle). Data on soil moisture content was collected using the gravimetric method every 3 days (before irrigation).The growth parameters of the lettuce plants that were collected weekly were plant height, leaf number and leaf area. Both wet weight and dry weight yield were determined for each plot at the end of the experiment (six weeks after planting). Data collected was coded and entered into SPSS computer software. Data analysis was conducted using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the least significance difference (LSD) test to determine if means were significantly different. The results showed that GM treatment had high mean moisture retention at 9.3%. It was followed by PM and LM at 8.9%. The lowest moisture retention was realized from the control (No mulching) at 7.9%.The differences in mean moisture retention was significant between NM and NM (p<0.05). The same pattern was observed for the growth parameters, where GN had highest values and the control had the lowest values. The wet mass yield was highest for GM, at 164.7 g. The yield from LM was 149.3 g. It was followed by PM at 141.3 g. The lowest yield was obtained from the control at 108 g. The difference in mean yields for GM and NM were significant (p<0.05). They were not significantly different for all the other treatments (p>0.050. It was concluded from the experiment that grass mulching resulted in improved moisture retention and high yields.

Keywords—Drippers, irrigation, moisture, mulching, yield.

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Monday, 23 September 2019

Agriculture Journal: August 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-8, August 2019

Analysis of Ecosystem Services in the Oaxacan Mixtec Region, (Tiltepec Watershed)

AbstractThe present work analyzes the sources of supply and regulation of ecosystem services (ES) in the Tiltepec watershed, Oaxaca, Mexico, specifically the production of fuelwood, water for human consumption, forage for domestic livestock, as well as regulation for runoff and sediments estimated with the MUSLE model (Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation), Random sampling points were defined according to the soil used and coverage, to determine production of fuelwood and forage. Firewood was evaluated in quadrants of 10 x 10 m for tree strata and 5 x 5 m for shrub strata. Forage production was determined with lines of 20 m and quadrants of 0.25 x 0.25 m to determine biomass and vegetation cover. Water supply was estimated with inflows from springs and the storage capacity of infrastructure works and water demand estimated with the current population and the maximum daily and hourly consumption. The estimated average fuelwood consumption was 1.4 kg person-1 day-1for a total volume of 3,189.5 m3. The estimated average forage yield was 856.6 kg ha-1 and a grazing coefficient of 13.9 ha animal unit (AU-1), with a census of 171.7 AU. The springs produce a daily volume of 150.4 m3 and the storage water capacity is 184.7 m3 for human consumption and 718.5 m3 for irrigation and recreational uses. With the MUSLE model, a reduction in runoff of 33.93% and 62.93% in specific degradation was estimated comparing the current scenario with that of 1984. The presence of ES in the Tiltepec watershed is essential to provide well-being to local people and regulation of erosion process through works, soil and water conservation practices. These will enable better provision of goods and services.

Keywords— provision and regulation services, water, forage, firewood and sediments.

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Germination Capacity in Culture Medium of Prosopis Laevigata Seeds in the Presence of Copper Sulphate

AbstractCopper is a heavy metal that has been used as an anti-fungal agent in various crops, this is why it accumulates in certain agricultural lands at levels that become toxic to plants, as well as to microflora. Cooper, although essential to plants, is toxic when found in high concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine if this element is capable of stimulating and at the same time inhibiting germination of seeds of Prosopislaevigata (mesquite) depending on concentration of CuS04.5H20 solutions. A completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and three repetitions was used to determine tolerance of mesquite seeds to copper. The variables evaluated were percentage of daily germination (PDG-A, PDG-B, and PDG-C), accumulative germination (AG-A, AG-B, and AG-C), average germination time (AGT), germination rate (GR) and anhydrous weight (AW) of mesquite seeds. The culture media supplied with concentration of 10-4 M of copper sulfate (CuS04.5H20), corresponding to treatment four (T4) showed significant differences (p≤0.05) in variable percentage of daily germination at 48 hours (PDG-B), which presented a germination of 66.7% in relation to treatment two (T2) with a concentration of 10-2 M of CuS04.5H20 and germination of 22.2%. Results obtained after 72 hours for percentage daily germination variable (PDG-C) with>p<0.1 showed that mesquite is a species that can tolerate and adapt in germination stage for culture medium with concentrations from 10-2 to 10-7M of CuS04.5H20, and consequently use of seedlings for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with copper.

Keywords— heavy metal, pesticide, germination percentage, average germination time, and culture medium.

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Rainy seasonal analysis of Physico-chemical parameters of Mukungwa River at NGARU point

Abstract Water availability and quality are important factors that determine not only where people can live, but also the quality of life. The Mukungwa river is affected by rainy season especially at Ngaru point before discharge in Nyabarongo river, where its physico – chemical properties are seasonally changed. This may cause serious problems on all forms of life in the river. Objective of this work was to assess the impacts of rainy season on physico-chemical properties of Mukugwa River before discharging into Nyabarongo River at Ngaru. The parameters such as pH, temperature, turbidity, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids (TSS), phosphates, nitrates, and ammonium were monitored in three rainy seasons: April, 2012; October, 2012 and May, 2017 respectively. In this research, pH, temperature, electric conductivity were analyzed in situ using multifunction pH-meter and others parameters, were analyzed in laboratory using electrometric, volumetric, turbidity tube and colorimetric methods. The measured values for each parameter in three seasons were analyzed using MS Excel, and then compared to their international standards for surface water delivered by World Health Organization (WHO). The findings showed high variation of TSS (134mg/l, 178mg/l, and 582mg/l), turbidity (322NTU, 317NTU and 1560NTU) and ammonium (0.498mg/L, 0.536mg/L and 0.78mg/L) in three rainy seasons assessed. The quality of Mukungwa River needs prevention measures in order to control its pollution by erosion.

Keywords physico-chemical parameters, seasonal analysis, water quality, water pollution.

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Agriculture Journal: July 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-7, July 2019

Effect of Cutting Frequency on Forage Growth and Yield in Elephant Grass in the Southern Rainforest of Nigeria

Abstract Pot experiment was conducted at Ndele, Rivers state, southern rainforest of Nigeria to determine the effect of cutting frequency on forage growth and yield in elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum. The study was a single factor experiment of cutting intervals (5 days; 10 days; 15 days and 20 days) replicated 3 times, arranged in a randomized complete block design using replicates as blocks. Data collected were plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, forage fresh weight and dry weight. Results showed that cutting frequency significantly influenced plant height or growth rate, leaf area and number of leaves. Leaf area and number of leaves reduced with higher frequency or shorter interval of cutting. Grasses cut at 20 days interval recorded the greatest number of leaves and highest leaf area. Cutting frequency markedly affected forage fresh weight and dry matter production (dry weight) and there was noticeable forage yield reduction in grasses cut at 5 days interval (higher frequency) with progressive cuttings as against those cut at 20 days interval (low frequency). Grasses cut at 20 days interval recorded the highest growth and leaf production, the most forage fresh weight and dry matter yield. 20 days interval is hereby recommended for cutting Pennistum purpureum cutting or gracing in southern rainforest of Nigeria.

Keywords Cutting interval, forage production, Pennisetum purpureum, southern rainforest, Nigeria.

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Effects of Paclobutrazol on fruit yield and physico-chemical characteristics of mango Cvs. Dashehari, Langra, Chausa and Fazri

Abstract Paclobutrazol is triazoles derivatives [(2 RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chloropheny)-4, 4-dimethyl-2- (1, 2, 4 triazole-1-yl)] Pentane - 3 - ethanol. It is taken up of xylem and translocated acropetally to sub apical meristem. Paclobutrazol is metabolized in plant in 10-15 days but persists in soil generally for more than one year Pactbutrazol was applied on a basic trunk drench (1.0 g/m, 0.5 g/m tree canopy diameter) in 21-22 year old mango tree Paclobutrazol treatment induced early ripening, reduced fruit sized when applied continuously for more than one year. However that quality was better in terms of higher TSS, total sugar, and β-carotene and Ascorbic aid.

Keywords Paclobutrazol (PBZ), Auxins (IAA), Gibbcrellins, Cytokinins and Plant growth regulator.

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Carbon stock of woody species along Altitude gradient in Alemsaga Forest, South Gondar, North Western Ethiopia

Abstract

Purpose: Forest ecosystems play a significant role in the climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation. Therefore carbon determination provide clear indications of the possibilities of promoting forest development and management for mitigating of climate change through soil and vegetation carbon sequestration. The study was carried out to quantify carbon stock potential in Alemsaga Forest, South Gondar zone.

Research method: Vegetation data Collection was made using a systematic sampling method; laying six transect lines with 500 m apart and 54 quadrants of 20 m X 20 m established 200 m distant to each other along the transect lines. In these plots, abundance, DBH and heights of all woody species were recorded, and soil sample was collected 1m X1m from the four corners and center of each quadrant. General allometric model was used for estimating above and belowground biomass. The organic carbon content of the soil samples was determined in the laboratory.

Finding: A total of 66 woody plant species belong to 42 families were identified, Fabaceae was the most dominant families. The total mean above and belowground carbon stock was 216.86 ton/ha and 114.71 ton/ha respectively and soil organic carbon (SOC) 103.15 ton/ha. Above and belowground carbon increased as altitude decreased, but SOC increases with increase of altitude.

Originality/value: Carbon stock estimation in the forest helps to manage the forests sustainably from the ecological, economic and environmental points of view and opportunities for economic benefit through carbon trading to farmers.

Key word: Altitude, Carbon stock, Forest, Woody species.

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