Thursday, 1 September 2016

Agriculture Journal IJOEAR: Volume-2, Issue-8, August 2016

Agriculture Journal published its volume-2, Issue-8, August 2016

hMSH2 Gly322Asp (rs4987188) Single nucleotide polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer in the Polish women


Aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women both in the developed and less developed world. The reported study was designed to explore associations between hMSH2 - Gly322Asp (1032G>A, rs4987188) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the risk of breast carcinoma in the Polish women.

Material and methods: Blood samples were obtained from women with breast cancer (n=225), treated at the Department of Oncological Surgery and Breast Diseases, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital – Research Institute between the years 2005 and 2012. A control group included 220 cancer-free women. Genomic DNA was isolated and the SNP Gly322Asp of hMSH2 was determined by High-Resolution Melter method. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each genotype and allele.

Results: This study revealed that single nucleotide polymorphism Gly322Asp of hMSH2 is associated with both breast cancer risk and grading. Moreover, it can be linked with breast carcinoma tumor size and lymph node status. The Asp allele in patients may be a risk factor for breast carcinoma (OR 5.12; 95% CI 3.77 –6.97, p<.0001).

Conclusions: Gly322Asp single nucleotide polymorphism of hMSH2 may be a risk factor of breast cancer in the Polish women.

Keywords breast cancer, single nucleotide polymorphism, hMSH2, mismatch repair genes.

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PVA-based electrospun nanofiber mats of potential use in active packaging

Abstract The aim of this study has been devoted to the study of electrospun polymeric nanofiber mats that can be potentially used in active packaging. A previous characterization of the PVA solutions was carried out. Thus, density, electrical conductivity and viscosity have been measured as a function of PVA concentration (0, 4, 7 and 10% w/w). Subsequently, a standard electrospinning process was carried out. The fibber diameter was determined by analyzing high-resolution images from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) using Image J software. Moreover, a characterization of tensile properties (by means of DMA) and vapour sorption capacity of PVA-based nanofiber mats was performed. In addition, water-soluble compounds were incorporated into electrospun nanofiber mats. Although they may induce marked changes in morphology, their incorporation may lead to marked improvements in techno-functional properties. Thus, addition of Sodium Carbonate (SC) involves occurrence of beads, due to the increase in electrostatic charges, whereas Citric Acid (CA) induce an increase in fibber size, related to a loss of solvent evaporation efficiency. However, both compounds significantly enhance water vapour absorption capacity.

Keywords Electrospinning, DMA, Nanofibers, Active Packaging, PVA.

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Egg quality characteristics and phenotypic correlations among egg quality traits in the naked neck, normal and dwarf strains of Tswana chickens raised under intensive management system

Abstract Strains found among Tswana chicken population include the naked neck, dwarf, frizzled, rumpless and normal-feathered (normal). Internal and external egg quality characteristics and phenotypic correlations among egg quality traits in different strains of Tswana chickens under intensive management have never been evaluated. The study was conducted to determine the internal and external egg quality characteristics of the naked neck, normal and dwarf strains of Tswana chicken. A total of 200, 185 and 175 eggs were collected from the naked neck, normal and dwarf strains, respectively, for external and internal egg quality analysis. No significant differences in albumin height, albumen pH and yolk pH were found between the strains. The naked neck strain however produced eggs with the highest egg weight, albumen weight, albumen content, egg volume and egg surface area and the lowest yolk content. The dwarf strain had the lowest egg weight, albumin weight, egg volume, and egg surface area and the highest egg shell thickness.All the three strains of Tswana chicken produced eggs of acceptable quality. The naked neck strain however had the best egg quality characteristics, followed by the normal strain and lastly the dwarf strain. Of the three strains, the naked neck strain had the strongest correlation coefficients among external and internal egg quality characteristics and between external and internal egg quality characteristics. Egg weight was positively and highly correlated with other egg quality traits such as egg length, egg width, egg volume, egg surface area, albumen weight and yolk weight in the three strains of Tswana chicken. Selection for higher egg weight is likely to lead to the greatest improvements in other egg quality characteristics (both internal and external) in the naked neck than in the normal and dwarf strains.

Keywords Internal Egg Traits, External Egg Traits, Tswana Chickens, Intensive System, Botswana

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Effect of Gonadotrophin (Diclair®) on Semen Characteristics, Body Conformation and Hormonal Profile of Mature Male Turkeys

Abstract Sixteen sexually matured (12 months old) healthy male turkeys were used to determine the effect of Gonadotrophin (Diclair ®) on semen characteristics, body conformation and hormonal profile. The turkeys were divided into 4 treatment groups of 4 turkeys per group, identified as T1 (control), and ministered with 1.00ml physiological saline, T2, administered with 13.50i.u Diclair®, T3, administered with 27.00 i.u Diclair® and T4, administered with 40.50i.u Diclair®, with one turkey per replicate in a completely Randomized Design (CRD). The injections were divided into three doses each and administered intramuscularly in the thigh for three consecutive days. Semen was collected one week after Diclair® administration, twice a week for 4 weeks by the abdominal massage and manipulation of the cloaca method. Four cocks were randomly selected from each treatment group and bled one week after Diclair® injections to collect blood for hormonal profile evaluation. 30 days after Diclair® injection, parameters for body confirmation were measured. The results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among the treatment groups in all the parameters for semen characteristics except semen pH and semen volume which were similar (P > 0.05) among the treatment groups. The results further showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among the treatment groups in all the parameters for body confirmation: wing length, neck length, shank length, body length, beak length, thigh length, keel length, chest circumference and tail length. Similarly, the results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among the treatment groups in follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels. The results of this study suggest that Diclair® improved semen quality, body confirmation and was not detrimental to the hormonal profile of the turkeys.

Keywords Diclair®, semen quality, body conformation, hormones, Turkeys.

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Effect of Gonadotrophin (Pergonal®) on Haematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Mature Ouda Rams Treated for Sperm Production

Abstract Twelve Ouda rams aged 2 – 2.6 years and weighed between 40.21 – 40.32kg were randomly distributed into 3 groups of 4 animals with one ram per replicate in a completely randomized design and used to determine the effect of Pergonal® on haematology and serum biochemistry. These groups were assigned to 3 levels of Pergonal® injection as treatments. The injections were 0.00i.u, 49.50i.u, and 99.00i.u Pergonal® represented as T1 (control), T2, and T3, respectively. All the treatments were administered by intramuscular injections. The injections were divided into three doses each and administered intramuscularly in the thigh for three consecutive days. The results of the study showed that apart from Alanine transaminase and eosinophils, the haematological and serum biochemical parameters and immune status of ouda rams may be affected when 49.50i.u or more of Pergonal are used for induction of spermatogenesis. These parameters should be constantly monitored during pergonal administration in ouda rams.

Keywords Pergonal, Blood profile, Ouda rams.

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Cotton Sown in Different Row Distances after Wheat Harvest: Seed Cotton Yield and Yield Components

Abstract This study was conducted to determine seed cotton yield and yield components of some cotton varieties sown in different row distances after wheat harvest in Kahramanmaras conditions. Eleven cotton varieties (Albania-6172, Aktas-3, Beli Izvor-432, Azerbaycan-3038, Delta Opal, ST-468, DP-388, DP-5111, Golden West, ST-453 and Maras-92) and two different row distances (conventional row: 70x20 cm, narrow row: 35x20 cm) were used in the study. The experiment was designed as a split-plot with three replication in which sowing densities were the main plots and cotton cultivars were sub plots. In the study first harvest seed cotton ratio (FHSR), plant height (PH), number of fruit branches per plant (NFBP), number of bolls per plant (NBP), seed cotton weight per boll (SWB), ginning turn out (GTO) and seed cotton yield (SCY) were investigated. As a result of variance analyses, FHSR, PH, NFBP and SCY were affected by row distances. All the investigated characteristics except SWB were significantly affected by cultivar and interaction effects for FHSR, PH, NFBP and SCY were observed. In addition, the highest SCY was obtained from cultivar of Aktas-3 (2200 kg ha-1) in narrow row distance and it was followed by cotton cultivars of ST-468 and DP-388.

Keywords Cotton, Row distance, Narrow row, Cultivar, Seed cotton yield, Yield components.

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A linear programming model to optimize cropping pattern in small-scale irrigation schemes: an application to Mekabo Scheme in Tigray, Ethiopia

Abstract Selection of a viable irrigation cropping system, while considering all agronomy and extension constraints, has always been a scientific and professional challenge for agricultural scientists and practitioners. However, this prevailing challenge can be scientifically addressed using optimization techniques among them linear programming model. The model could take in the initially introduced percentage of crops as an entry point for optimization subjected to all introduced constraints while maximizing the farming income. Favorably, Microsoft Excel program includes a linear programming solver tool, which could be utilized for this purpose. The solver tool could easily be accessed from Excel program Data menu after activating the Add-Ins part of the Excel Options.

Accordingly, a simple and low input linear model was developed applying the Excel Solver tool to optimize the irrigation cropping pattern for the Mekabo small-scale irrigation scheme currently under construction in the Tigray region in Ethiopia. The input parameters were collected from field surveys and an assessment of the on-farm agronomic conditions. The objective function was subjected to agronomy and extension constraints as well as minimum required crop levels to comply with food security strategy. The model could find a viable solution while all constraints and optimality conditions were satisfied. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to analyze all other likely development scenarios. This paper will introduce the developed model and will discuss the processes led to the attainment of an optimized cropping pattern.

Keywords Small-scale irrigation, cropping pattern, linear programming model, optimization technique.

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Green Computing: A New Vision to Computer Technology

Abstract The usage of computer in day to day affairs is a basic need of everyone. No individual or organization can work without computer in the present era. However, extravagant practice of involving computer technology demands certain degree of responsibility on the part of user to avoid or minimize associated harmful impacts that are badly affecting environment.

Information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure accounts for seemingly significant electricity usage and considered accountable for greenhouse gases (GHGs) globally. The overwhelming and improper usage of ICT is leading to continual increase in carbon foot printing and GHGs. Green computing is emerging as a prompting solution to this crisis. Foremost measure in this regard is to develop computing technology that cut down usage of power input thus may leads to significant reduction in CO2 emission. Various proposed measures taken in this regard can be considered as effective approach to protect our environment from the hazardous material and its effects specially computers and related devices. We also highlighted computing related distresses, possible steps for its minimization through Green computing. The article also covers prospective measures ought to be taken to reduce the associated harmful impacts on our environment thereby protect planet from any future disaster.

Keywords Green computing, ICT, GHGs.

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Resistance of some olive (Olea europaea) cultivars and hybrids to leaf spot disease analyzed by microsatellites

Abstract In order to investigate the resistance of some olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars and hybrids to leaf spot disease caused by Venturia oleaginea, this study was conducted on high susceptible cultivar Meski and nine hybrids. Samples were collected from a field site located in Nabeul (North East of Tunisia) and evaluated for their susceptibility to leaf spot disease by means of visible and latent infection. Therefore, the studied plants were classified into three categories: very susceptible, intermediate and resistant. Meski cultivar and three hybrids (MxA) obtained through controlled crosses between Meski and Arbequina were the most susceptible to the disease. The hybrids MxC resulting from the crosses between Meski and Chétoui olive cultivars presented less severity. However, the hybrids obtained through crosses between Meski and Picholine cultivars showed the lowest incidence of infection. Microsatellites were used as markers to analyze the genetic relationships between parental olive cultivars and hybrids and the effects of crossing on the disease resistance. Cluster analyses, using the SSR data, showed that olive cultivars and hybrids obtained by controlled cross between MeskixPicholine, Meski x Arbequina and Meski ×Picholine were related to Picholine cultivar. The hybrid Meski x Chétoui was more related to cultivar Meski. Data analyses revealed that the GAPU101 showed the highest number of alleles (8) followed by the tow loci UDO99 and GAPU71 with 6 alleles. The DCA18 locus showed 5 alleles. Genetic variability was wide as indicated by the values of observed heterozygosity as noted 1.00 at locus of the four studied loci. Polymorphic information content (PIC) varied from 0.669 to 0.776. The gene diversity values were higher than 0.53. Genetic distances were determined based on the SSR genotype data and component principal analysis were used for finding possible correlation between severity disease, Meski cultivar and hybrids.

Keywords Olive, Venturia oleaginea, microsatellites, Genetic relationships, Disease resistance.

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Evaluation of various Synthetic Insecticides against Thrips (Thrips tabaci) in Bt Cotton

Abstract— Cotton (Gossypium spp.) popularly known as ‘white gold’ is one of the most ancient important cash crop of India. Apart from its value as fibre, it has great potential to be used as edible oil, food for animals and other by products like particle board and boxes. The development of Bt cotton containing a genetically introgresses endotoxin gene from the gram negative soil bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis Hubner) represents a significant technological land mark in the global cotton research. Thrips is a major sucking pest on cotton crop, causing quantitative and qualitative losses to cotton. An experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Station, Sri Ganganagar in Randomized Block Design with 10 treatments including control and replicated three times, to evaluate various insecticides against thrips in Bt cotton. The study revealed that maximum reduction (56.00%) in thrips population was recorded with the treatment of Acephate 75% SP, followed by Imidacloprid 17.8% SL (49.66%). Both the treatments were at par and significantly superior over the other treatments. The phytotoxic effect on crop could not be observed during the experimental period.

Keywords Cotton, Agriculture Research, Acephate, soil bacteria, Acephate.

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Sulfentrazone and Flumetsulam herbicides caused DNA damage and Instability in Allium cepa test

Abstract Boral 500® (sulfentrazone as active ingredient) and Scorpion® (flumetsulam as active ingredient) are herbicides widely used in Brazil´s soybean crops. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency classificated them as non-carcinogenic and no mutagenic, but literature shows that often this classification is misguided. Allium cepa assay was chosen to evaluate these herbicides, once it analyzes the frequency of micronuclei (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and the mitotic index (MI). Four concentrations of each herbicide (50, 75, 100 and 125 %) were tested in triplicate using distilled water (negative control) and methyl methanesulfonate (positive control) as controls. Three experimental repetitions were realized. Boral 500® showed a higher MI in all concentrations, and higher CA and MN in the 75%, 100% and 125% concentration, with no recovery. Scorpion® showed a higher MI, CA and MN in 100% and 125% concentration, with recovery only for MI and CA. Both herbicides showed mutagenic damage and increased proliferative capacity in Allium cepa. So on, these herbicides should be revaluated as mutagenicity and carcinogenicity for responsible agencies.

KeywordsChromosome aberration, micronuclei, mitotic index, mutagenicity.

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Chemical and spectroscopy of peat from West and Central Kalimantan, Indonesia in relation to peat properties

Abstract Improving peat soil is difficult but not impossible. Managed correctly, peat can be a highly productive medium for agriculture, but drainage and cultivation can lead to irreversible peat shrinkage. Vegetational changes during the restoration of cutover peatlands leave a legacy in terms of the organic matter quality of the newly formed peat. Current efforts to restore peatlands at a large scale therefore require low cost and high throughput techniques to monitor the evolution of organic matter. In this study, we assessed the merits of using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra to predict the organic matter composition in peat samples in relation with soil peat properties, tends to to be hydrophobic, flammable.

Keywords chemical properties, FT-IR spectroscopy, peat, West and Central Kalimantan.

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Autochthonous yeasts: Role in vinification and aging of Cabernet-Sauvignon

Abstract Selection of the appropriate autochthonous yeasts assures the maintenance of the unique enological characteristics, which could be considered representative of an enological region. The evaluation of yeasts of the Indian Geographical origin on fermentation was carried out using Cabernet Sauvignon. The organic acid profiling of wines indicated a decrease in tartaric and malic acids with a concomitant increase in lactic and succinic acids. Non-anthocyanin transformation studies indicated the increase in monomeric forms (except coumaric, catechin, quercetin) in wines. Principal component analysis model developed was capable of classifying the volatile compounds with respect to yeast and aging, thus indicating that the volatile profile varied with yeast treatment and aging of wine. Sensory analysis of wines revealed that all wines were organoleptically accepted. Thus autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains exhibited desired enological properties equivalent to the commercial S.cerevisiae.

Keywords Autochthonous, yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wine,Aging, CabernetSauvignon, phenolics, aroma, India.

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Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to estimate soil attributes of Brazilian wetlands

Abstract The study of soils and characterization of its attributes are continually evolving, however, for the condition of wetlands, such information is still scarce and poorly distributed. Thus, the objective of this work was to characterize spectrally the soils of a wetland area. On the study area were collected georeferenced soil samples and sent for chemical and physical analysis routine and then subjected to spectral evaluation. Were identified seven soil classes with hydromorphic characteristics in their spectral curves? The information contained in these curves then led the development of equations for soil attributes. Sand was the physical attribute of a better correlation with laboratory data and Cationic Exchange Capacity (CEC), the chemical attributes that showed better results.

Key words: hydromorphism, spectral curve, radiance, absorption band.

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Marketing of Poultry and Poultry Products in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Abstract A survey was carried out to discover the marketing of poultry and poultry products in Itu Local government area of Akwa -Ibom State, Nigeria. The materials used were text books, personal observations, oral interview and questionnaires. Results obtained show that farmers in NtiatItam town consume more eggs per household than other towns in Itu Local Government Area surveyed Farmers in MbakAtai 1 produced more poultry droppings than farmers in other towns while more poultry droppings were distributed by traders in NtiatItam town.

Keywords Marketing of Poultry, Poultry Products, Eggs per Household, Farmers, Traders.

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