Sunday, 1 January 2017

Agriculture Journal: IJOEAR: December 2016

Agriculture Journal: Published its volume-2, issue-11, November 2016 with AD Publications

Microbiological and Physicochemical Assessment of Poultry Soil Samples in Akure Metropolis, Nigeria

Abstract Human activities such as animal production in many parts of the world, still impact negatively on the environment and biodiversity. This study was carried out to assess the microbiological and physicochemical parameters of poultry soil samples. Soil samples were collected from different poultry in Akure metropolis and soil samples from Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) environment as control. Microbiological and physicochemical analyses were carried out using standard methods. The mean total viable bacterial count of poultry soil ranged from 9.02±0.511×105cfu/g in sample site A to 11.2±0.021×105cfu/g in sample site B and there were significant difference (p<0.05) between the bacterial count of poultry soil and control, mean highest fungal load is 6.05±0.301× 103sfu/g. Bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila ,Bacilllus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecium. Escherichia coli had the highest occurrence of 23.08% while Aeromonas hydrophila had the lowest occurrence of 5.13%. Fungi isolated were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates and Saccharomyces species. Aspergillus niger 46.67% had the highest occurrence while Saccharomyces species had the lowest occurrence of 13.33%. Physiochemical analysis showed that poultry soil had mean pH, temperature and Organic Carbon of 7.92±0.34, 34±0.04oC and 14.88±0.56% respectively, Organic Matter is 5.50±0.61%, Nitrogen 1.27±0.03 mg/g, Phosphorus58.92±0.01 mg/g, Potassium55.48±0.23 mg/g, Sodium 41.77±0.91mg/g, Calcium 28.70±0.24mg/g, Magnesium 20.65±0.32 mg/g and Cation exchange capacity146.60±0.11%. The results obtained calls for proper discharge of poultry waste into the environment to prevent transmission of diseases by water borne pathogens.

Keywords Akure, Microbiological, Physicochemical, poultry, soil.

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Limiting factors for pasture and cereal production in marginal soils of the southwestern Pampas in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

Abstract Typical soils of Southwestern Buenos Aires Province were evaluated to determine quality and capability for cereal and forage production having in mind potential improvements due to amendment with organic residual from agroindustrial wastes process. Studied soils from Mollisol order were, Argiudoll and Argiustol suborder, of marginal area of Pampa Argentina. The organic matter content of those soils corresponded to weakly humic soils which shows the transition from the Pampas zone to the semi-arid zone and indicates a major limiting factor. Granulometric analyses were similar, with a sandy loam texture for the Tres Arroyos soil and a borderline sandy silt loam for the Cabildo soil. Anycase the results were below the limit that indicates salinity problems. Low availability of essential micronutrient like Copper and Molibdenum were another limiting factor of the Tres Arroyos soil, where the cultivation of winter grains, such as wheat and barley is very important for regional economy. The availability of the micronutrients Zn and Cu are strongly dependent on the soil pH; therefore, the more alkaline the conditions (such as for the Cabildo soil), as a limiting factor mainly for cereals sensitive to Cinc deficiencies like maize and sorghum. Soils from this marginal areas of the Pampas (Argentina), could be improved with respect to the factors that limit soil quality and productivity.

Keywords Soil, properties, limiting factors, degradation.

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Effect of Processing and Storage on the Content of Selected Antioxidants and Quality Parameters in Convection and Freeze-dried Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.)

Abstract Fresh and dried by convection and lyophilisation bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) were examined for content of water, vitamin C, vitamin E, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols and level of antioxidant activity against the DPPH radical. Both products were analyzed immediately after drying and after 4, 8 and 12 months of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC and 20 ± 2 ºC. Fresh fruit had a dry matter content of 14.74%, 100 g of which contained 208 mg vitamin C; 36.4 mg vitamin E; 2064 mg anthocyanins; and 5000 mg polyphenols, with antioxidant activity of 1750 µM Trolox eq/1 g dry matter. After 12 months’ storage, retention rates in products dried by convection and sublimation were respectively: vitamin C 38–47% and 49–53%; vitamin E 73–77% and 76–82%; anthocyanins 47–54% and 55–59%; polyphenols 68–74% and 72–74%; and antioxidant activity 63–70% and 73–77%, the lower value referring to storage at room temperature and the higher to chilled storage. There were no effect of storage temperature on rehydration of both products. Storage led to a significant increase in the proportion of red and yellow colors in both types of dried product compared to the raw material and product after drying.

Keywords antioxidants, bilberry, convection drying, freeze-drying, storage, quality.

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Short Communication: Natural Prophylaxis to the Control of Swine Coccidiosis

Abstract Coccidiosis swine causes high economic loss, and its prophylaxis is usually performed by the use of chemical drugs. However, these chemical drugs are not allowed in agroecological, organic or biological dynamic systems of production. Additionally, there are concerns about pharmacological resistance and contamination by the presence of chemical residues in the environment and at the food of animal origin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the weight gain and the prevalence of coccidia in piglets submitted to the following treatments: alcoholic extract of propolis 30% (AEP), chemical treatment toltrazuril (CTT), negative control with grain alcohol (NCA) and negative control without treatment (NCT). By means of the individual weights and the number of coccidia at the faeces, it was monitored 216 piglets from commercial farms. Under the conditions of this study none therapeutic intervention provided benefits for weight gain and prevalence of coccidia. Thus, by making it possible the minimization of chemical drug use, these results allow us to suggest the laboratory periodic monitoring as a prophylactic control method for swine coccidiosis.

Keywords Isospora suis, laboratory monitoring, organic production, piglets, propolis.

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The Effects of Using Magnetic Treatment Brackish Water in Irrigation on the Yield Medical Herbs “Origanum Vulgare” Pilot Project: AL-Uja Area/Lower Jordan Valley-West Bank

Abstract Over abstraction of groundwater and limitation of natural recharge in the Lower Jordan Valley are causing an increase in groundwater salinity. The high demand for medicine herbs at international market attracted Palestinian farmers to grow medicine herbs including Oregano. Pilot project was carried out under greenhouse condition where magnetize technology introduced for the first time in irrigation of Oregano to overcome salinity problem. Using of magnetized treated water caused an increase of about 26% in the yield. Positive significant different for the favorite of Oregano irrigated with magnetized water compared with controlled in term of major branches, water content, number of surviving seedling and chlorophyll content. A decrease in the number of clogged dripper was found under treated magnetized water compared with controlled condition.

Keywords Magnetized water, Oregano, Water salinity.

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The formation of Maize Foundation Inbred Lines: Analysis in Different Perspective

Abstract Maize breeding has made a greater contribution to the increases of maize yield. Maize foundation inbred lines play an irreplaceable role in maize breeding. The formation of foundation lines were the results of many factors, the key factors of which were accord with breeding trends, adapt to environment in much of region, and have appropriate representativeness for particular heterotic group. Foundation lines possess well structure of source and better yield stability, this contribute to their combinations with coordinated source-sink relationship and adapt to close planting. Foundation lines resist major stress factor and adapt to the cropping systems and cultural practices of main maize producing areas. And foundation lines concentrate numerous unique alleles of particular heterotic group, so they are easy to generate heterotic with lines from other heterotic group. For new foundation lines breeding, the existing foundation lines are preferred basic germplasm and cross breeding unites with pedigree selection is effective breeding method. Moreover, we give a integrate breeding method base on rapid advances in plant-breeding technology.

Keywords Maize, Foundation inbred lines, China, formation.

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A TaqMan-based Quantitative RT-PCR Method for Detection of Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus in Hawthorns

Abstract—ACLSV is one of the major fruit viruses and can cause severe diseases in species of family Rosaceae. Previous RT-PCR methods are available to detect ACLSV in hawthorn samples, but not to evaluate the infected level of ACLSV. In this study, a TaqMan-based quantitative RT-PCR detection method targeting CP gene of ACLSV was first established and the sensitivity and reproducibility were investigated. The results indicated that this standard curve between log of plasmid DNA concentration versus the cycle threshold (Ct) value generated a linear fit with a linear correlation (R2) of 0.99 and the PCR efficiency was more than 90%. The quantitative RT-PCR method was high sensitive and able to detect 6.9 × 102 copies·μL-1 of ACLSV RNA. Compared with the conventional RT-PCR method, it was 100-fold sensitive in detection of ACLSV. In addition, different organs of hawthorn samples were examined using the quantitative RT-PCR repeatedly and the result revealed that the quantitative RT-PCR is not only an effective detection method, and can obtain an absolute quantitation for ACLSV.

KeywordsTaqMan, quantitative RT-PCR, ACLSV, detection, sensitive.

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The Calculation of Optimal Osmotic Dehydration Process Parameters for Mushrooms by Employing: A Firefly Algorithm

Abstract The Firefly Algorithm (FA) is employed to determine the optimal parameter settings in a case study of the osmotic dehydration process of mushrooms. In the case, the functional form of the dehydration model is established through a response surface technique and the resulting mathematical programming is formulated as a non-linear goal programming model. For optimization purposes, a computationally efficient, FA-driven method is used and the resulting optimal process parameters are shown to be superior to those from previous approaches.

Keywords Firefly Algorithm, Mushrooms, Non-linear Goal Programming, Process Parameter Optimization, Osmotic Dehydration.

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Impact of organic and conventional practices on, soil health and crop yield under tropical and subtropical environment of Bangladesh

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the improvement of soil fertility and crop yield using formulated organic fertilizers in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) from October 2008 to April 2015 and the test crop was tomato, eggplant, cabbage and cauliflower. The physicochemical properties, behavior and persistence of plant beneficial microorganisms including nitrogen fixing bacteria, (e.g. Rhizobium sp., Azotobacter sp.), phosphate solubilizing bacteria e.g. (Bacillus sp. Pseudomonas sp., Phosphobacteria), Aspergillus sp. and Trichoderma sp., in the amended/ non-amended block were evaluated each year. The soil beneficial microbial populations and health properties including pH, nitrogen content, organic matter, phosphorus, K, Ca, and S, increased significantly in the compost-amended soils compared to the conventional practices. The total nitrogen (N) content and the organic matter of compost amended soil were 215% and 200% higher respectively than that of conventional practices (CP). Furthermore, significant increase of available organic matter, N, P, & K was observed in the compost-amended soils compared to conventional and control block. Furthermore, microbial population showed significant linear correlations with the organic matter contents of the soils and yearly vegetables yield increased gradually and was reached to almost identical to conventional field within 5 years, implying that the soil amended with BIOFER compost increased the soil fertility, and vegetables yields. Thus, application of BAOFER compost at the rate of 15 t/ha/year was found adequate in improving the vegetable yields and soil health in open field cultivation under subtropical climatic conditions.

Keywords Organic; conventional; production practices; soil microorganisms; soil health; crop yield and tropical environment.

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Fabrication of Low Cost Automated Lime Colour Sorter

Abstract Among fruit crops lime has high demand in the world. There are varieties of products being made from limes at various stage of maturity. Colour is the vital parameter of maturity indication of most agricultural produces. Colour of lime produce varies from green to yellow. Although yellowish limes are preferred by some category of people and processers, for exporting purposes greenish limes are being used because of their longest shelf time. Thus, sorting based on its colour is crucial for consumer acceptability and also for further processing. Both greenish and yellowish limes are harvested together and sorted through post-harvest operation of colour sorting. This is often performed by manual labourers. The main limitation associated with hand sorting is less accuracy, as human evaluation may vary person to person. Therefore, automated grading system is becoming popular due to its superior speed, consistency, and accuracy. This paper discusses about a new approach to develop a lime colour sorter at a minimum price using TCS230 colour sensor. The identification of the colour is based on the frequency analysis of the output of TCS230 sensor. Arduino Uno was used to control overall process. Stepper motor was used to sort limes into two different classes. All the mechanical parts were designed through Auto CAD software. Fabricated sorter was tested at various environmental light intensities, the results shown there is no influences by the sexternal light.

Keywords Arduino Uno, Auto CAD, Colour sorting, Stepper motor, TCS230 colour sensor.

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Seasonal fluctuations of the airborne pollen in Guarda (Portugal)

Abstract Airborne pollen calendars are useful to estimate the flowering season of the different plants as well as to indicate the allergenic potential present in the atmosphere at a given time. In this study, a 1-year survey (from January 2013 to February 2014) is presented of the atmospheric concentration of pollen types in Guarda (Portugal), using a 7-day Hirst volumetric trap. The daily mean concentration of both the number of pollen grains and the main pollen season was determined as well as the bi-hourly variations. The highest airborne pollen concentration was found during early spring and early summer. Contrastingly, December was the month with the lowest pollen concentration. The major pollens sampled were Quercus, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Cupressaceae, Urticaceae, Apiaceae, Oleaceae and Polygonaceae. Some differences were found in the intradiurnal distribution patterns of the pollen types studied, with some taxa types being predominantly sampled in the morning (8:00-10:00 a.m.) while others were more evident in the late evening hours (8-10 p.m.). Finally, these results were compared with the forecast made by the Portuguese Aerobiology Network for the central region of Portugal, revealing some significant differences in the pollination periods.

Keywords Aerobiology, pollen season, bi-hourly distribution.

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Grain Yield and Some Quality Traits of Different Oat (Avena sativa L.) Genotypes

Abstract Oat cultivars should have both high yield potential and some quality criteria in accordance with using targets. Hence, grain yield and some quality traits of 25 oat genotypes grown in two consecutive years were studied. This study was carried out during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 growing seasons in Yozgat, Turkey. Grain yield, plant height, hectolitre weight, thousand grain weight, great percentage and grain composition (protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), β-glucan and starch) were evaluated. Analysis of the combined data for two years showed significant genotypic differences for all traits. According to the average of two years, among the genotypes, grain yield varied from 2432.3 (2 numbered genotype) to 5650.2 (19 numbered genotype) kg ha-1, plant height from 76.3 to 128.3 cm, hectoliter weight from 41.5 to 52.3 kg, thousand grain weight from 24.5 to 41.3 g, groat percentage from 70.4 to 76.6 %, protein content from 11.1to 14.3 %, fat content from 5.86 to 8.47 %, ash ratio from 2.52 to 3.43 %, ADF content from 11.0 to 16.4 %, NDF content from 29.5 to 37.3 %, β-glucan content from 1.33 to 2.58 % and starch content ranged from 34.9 to 47.7 %. Grain yield was significantly and positively correlated with thousand grain weight (r = 0.253**) and neutral detergent fibre (r = 0.160**). However, correlations between grain yield with crude protein (r = -0.216**) and hectolitre weight (r = 0.246) were significantly and negative.

Keywords Oat, Genotype, Yield, Quality traits.

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Optimization Strategy of Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Development of Integrated Agricultural Systems (Simantri Program) in Bali

Abstract Simantri (Integrated Agricultural Systems) Program is an agricultural sector development program having been implemented by Bali Province Government since 2009. One of its objectives is to support the development of integrated and agribusiness-based agricultural diversification. Agribusiness sectors have significant differences if associated with the gap of mastering information and communication technology (ICT). The role of ICT optimally affects motivation for farmers to apply Simantri Program effectively in order to obtain the effects of increasing income and welfare. This study uses survey research design by examining a sample drawn from the existing population. The samples totaled 50 Farmers’ group union scattered in the regencies of Buleleng, Bangli, and Badung. The respondents were purposively determined i.e. three people per Farmers’ group union, so that the total respondents were 150 people. The main variables include usefulness, ease of use and attractiveness of ICT, attitudes towards ICT and usage optimization strategy. Strategies to optimize the utilization of ICT in Simantri Program are designed to add value to the level of success of the Simantri Programme today. Data analysis techniques in the design optimization of the use of ICT strategy model uses PLS-SEM model analysis with analysis tools SmartPLS version 3.0 M3 Strategies to optimize the utilization of ICT in the development of Simantri program in Bali can be done with the highest priority to optimize the level of satisfaction of users of ICT (user satisfaction), in this case the farmers’ group union members, then on the other hand take the steps oriented to impact the use of ICT itself, both individual impact (individual impact) and the impact of organizational (organizational impact), accompanied by an increase in the quality of information systems implemented (system quality).

Keywords optimization strategy, information technology and communications, Simantri Program.

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Biological and Toxicological Responses to Dioxins Exposures

Abstract After the II Word War, the chemical based industrial revolution generated a wide and global contamination due to the release in the environment of thousand of compounds without an adequate knowledge of their environmental biotransformation and their toxic effect on the living matter. Recently, it has been found that several of these compounds and/or their relative by-products are persistent environmental contaminants associated with undesirable long-term effects. At present many questions have to be clarified with particular reference to lipophilic polyhalogenated compounds, such as polychloro-dibenzo-dioxins (PCDD), polychloro-dibenzo-furans (PCDF) and polychloro-biphenyls (PCB). These compounds accumulate up the food chain and humans can reach relative high concentration in their body with a consequent risk for health. In this paper we discuss the some basic features of both biological and toxicological aspects related to the dioxins exposure.

Keywords Dioxins, AhR, Estrogens.

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Impact of Pesticides on Farmer’s Health of Western Odisha

Abstract Agriculture is the basic need of human being to survive. Increase in human population, increases the food production. Largest areas are under rice cultivation. Rice plants were prone to attack by insect and pest. So, for its survival use of pesticide is necessary, but this had lead risk behaviour among rice farmers. The study was based on the farmers of Bargarh and Sundargarh District of Odisha regarding pesticide usage condition .100 farmers were interviewed from both the district, using questionnaire methods from February to April 2015. A questionnaire survey on personal history regarding agricultural labour, pesticide use and health history was conducted. Descriptive statistics was used for analysis of quantitative data. The most frequently used pesticides included organophosphates, carbamates. 2-3 times pesticide was applied after 15 days, after 1 month and also before the production time. Demographic data shows 87 respondents were male farmers rests were female farmers out of 100 respondents. Only 85 respondents were using sprayer for spraying pesticides out of 100 but 36 respondents were only using protective covers. 12 farmers only follow the instruction given on the pesticide container. 33 respondents have the knowledge of colour coding present in the pesticide bottle. Health symptom showed less frequently, in farmers using protective covers. Out of 100 respondents 58 had skin contact, 12 respondents suffer from eye irritation, and 28 respondents feel drowsiness after strong smell of pesticides while 31 farmers suffer from headache. Major factors of pesticide poisoning are due to lack of attention to safety precautions and lack of training before using of pesticide. So, training programme is necessary to improve safer pesticide behaviours, create more awareness among the farmers and also introduction of using bio pesticide instead of using pesticide.

Keywords Farmer, Health Impact of Pesticides, Pesticide Exposure.

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Genetic Engineering Techniques in Fruit Science

Abstract Today, fruit science have well been established in world trade networks and sophisticated cultural and postharvest technologies that allow fruits to be enjoyed throughout much of the year, instead of mere weeks per year like our ancestors experienced. Especially modern biotechnological methods including genetic engineering technologies have been taken part in breeding strategies of fruit crops. Several biotechnological methods can be applied to plant to have better ones in the process of fruit breeding. Genetic engineering is a powerful tool for plant improvement and has the potential to allow the integration of desirable characteristics into existing genomes. Transformation technology developed a path to transfer important genes into plant genome for enhancing resistance against fungal, viral pathogens, other pests, drought, and salinity as well as silencing undesirable genes and improvement in nutrient acquisition. Different gene transfer techniques could be employed for fruit species. As well as direct and indirect transformation, modern genome editing methods recently have been used in plant science. In this review, we illustrated how to use these technologies in fruit science.

Keywords Agrocbacterium, direct gene transfer, CRISPR-CAS9, TALENs, ZFN.

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