Monday 1 May 2017

Agriculture journal: IJOEAR: april 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-4, April 2017

Influence of amino acids, bleed grape and seaweed extract on vegetative growth, yield and its quality of fig

Abstract This study was conducted during the growing season of 2016 in a private orchard at AL-Abbasyia, Najaf Governorate on the local fig cv. Aswod Diala. The trees were spraying with amino acids (Amister and Gusto) at concentrations of 500 mg / L each other; Bleed of grape 100% and seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum at concentrations of 4% in single way or in combination at 15 march and 15 May, 2016. Results showed that spraying with amino acids, bleed grape and seaweed extract treatments and their interactions caused a significant increase percentage of leaf area, total chlorophyll, length of shoots, percentage of carbohydrate in branches, percentage of nitrogen in branches, percentage of carbohydrate / nitrogen in branches, percentage of nitrogen in leaves, percentage of phosphor in leaves, percentage of potassium in leaves, diameter of fruit, length of fruit, weight of fruit, percentage humidity of fruit, percentage dray matter of fruit, number of days to ripening, percentage of total soluble sold, fruit firmness and total yield of trees compared with control treatment . There were significant differences between above mentioned treatments. The Bleed of grape was more effective than amino acids(Amister and Gusto) and seaweed in that respect, but the combination of amino acids(Amister and Gusto), Bleed of grape and seaweed gave the best results in the treatment ( Am + Gu+ Bg + Bs ) for the season of experiment.

Keywords Amino acids, Bleed of grape, Seaweed extract, fig trees.

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Implementation of histopathological techniques and transmission electron microscopy for research of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine

Abstract— Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a fastidious bacterium, an important member of swine respiratory disease complex, like Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia, affecting the non-specific defense mechanism of the respiratory tract, high mucociliary system, predisposing the pigs to secondary pathogens. The objective of this study is to implement precise diagnostic techniques for identification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. 19 swine lungs fragments were collected from slaughterhouses and submitted by histopathological techniques. The presence of mucocellular exudate in 78.94% of the samples was observed in the bronchi and bronchioles, absence of eyelashes in 63.15% and lymphoid tissue hyperplasia associated with the bronchus in 42.10%. In pulmonary parenchyma, thickening of alveolar wall and interstitial bronchopneumonia were observed in 68.42%, hemorrhage in 47.36%, which 36.84% had hemosiderin and 15.78% lung consolidation. The presence of mycoplasma by the negative staining technique was identified in all samples, also the labeling of epitopes by colloidal gold immunostaining, using monoclonal antibody. In immunohistochemistry techniques and in situ hybridization, the labeled epitope and genome were observed confirming the presence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in the State of São Paulo. Therefore, the bronchial epithelium is the best tissue to collect the sample for an accurate diagnosis and the best method of diagnosis is the negative staining technique for screening and colloidal gold immunocytochemistry techniques to identify Mycoplasma species.

KeywordsMycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia, Immunochistochemistry and Hybridization.

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Quantifying the relative impact of physical and human factors on the viticultural expression of terroir

Abstract— This work assesses the relative importance of the terroirs factors: climate, soil and the relation source-sink, on the vegetative development, yield, berry composition and plant sanitary status.

The study was carried out between 2011 and 2014 in nine vineyards from six viticultural regions over the coast of Río de la Plata (Uruguay). The cultivar studied was Tannat, vertically trellised and north-south oriented. The year effect refers to climate, which was characterized using solar irradiation and three indices. The soil was characterized using pits and physico-chemical analyses, to determine three textural categories and to define soil depth and water availability. The source-sink relationship referred to four categories of relations between leaf surface and yield per vine. Statistical analyses included a Mixed Model with random effects to determine the relative importance of each factor to the total variability within the dataset.

Total yield per vine was explained by the source-sink relationship, the year and their interaction, both linked to the rainfall amount occurred during the maturation period. The synthesis of primary compounds in the berries was more dependent on the year and the interaction of soil and year with the source-sink relationship. Secondary compound concentrations in the berry depended mainly on the source-sink relationship and climate.

This study represents a significant advance to the knowledge of grapevine adaptation to the Río de la Plata terroirs, assigning a fundamental role to the vine grower actions. The growers can modulate grapevine balance as a function of the environment.

Keywords berry composition, soil, Tannat, terroir, yield.

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Land use and water quality in two sub-basins

Abstract The study evaluated the effects of land use and occupation in water quality in two sub-basins located in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The first sub-basin has 69.8% of native vegetation (natural) and the other has 54.1% of the land cultivated (anthropic). Samples were collected from April to December 2015, analyzing the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity, color, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and fecal coliforms. The natural sub-basin presented, significantly, better water quality. Total phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand and fecal coliforms exceeded the legal limits on the anthropic sub-basin. At this sub-basin correlation was found between cumulative rainfall of five days with turbidity and fecal coliforms, two days cumulative rainfall and total nitrogen, as well as between air and water temperature, affecting the dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity and fecal coliforms. In the natural sub-basin correlation was found between cumulative rainfall of two days and turbidity, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity.

Keywords agriculture, native vegetation, watershed.

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Mycotoxin production by entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus

Abstract Qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected mycotoxins has been performed in extracts of Conidiobolus coronatus pathogenic fungus cultivated under optimal and stress conditions. Furthermore, the analyses of these compounds in post-incubation filtrates were done. For identification purposes the analytical method allows identification and quantitation of selected mycotoxins including beauvericin , fumonisin B1, enniatin A and B and destruxin A based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Only beauvericin was detected in very low amounts in C. coronatus mycelium extract cultivated under optimal condition. In the extract of C. coronatus mycelium grown on LB 12.3 ± 0.1 µg/g of beauvericin was determined, while in the extract of C. coronatus mycelium grown on MM medium beauvericin content was lower and amounted 4.6 ± 0.1 µg/g. Also the presence of beauvericin was confirmed in postincubaction filtrate extract (MM). The content of this compound was 2.2 ± 0.1 µg/g. In other extracts beauvericin was not detected. In addition, in the tested extracts other compounds were not detected.

Keywords Mycotoxin Production, Conidiobolus, quantitative analysis.

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Effects of heavy metals' toxicity on plants and enhancement of plant defense mechanisms of Si-mediation “Review"

Abstract Today’s [e.g., “heavy metals (HMs)”] caused by anthropogenic activities have negative impacts on our environment and food productions. HMs can be classified as either essential or nonessential. A trace of essential HMs, such as Cu, Mo, and Zn, can be necessary for plant metabolism, but excess of them can harm the plant growth and development. Nonessential HMs, however, are toxic for plant metabolism and have damaging effects on enzyme activity, photosynthetic properties, cell membrane, permeability and eventually plant growth. Plants with avoidance and tolerance against stress could manage extreme HM stress in soils so that with special mechanisms, such as specific translation and metal accumulation, can elevate abiotic and biotic stress in plants. Moreover, in cells with mechanisms such as [e.g., “Metallothionein (MTs)”] (metal binding proteins) or [e.g., “Phytochelatin (PCs)”] storage and crystallization could reduce the HM stress in the cell wall, plasma membrane, cytosol, tonoplast and vacuoles. Meanwhile, the role of Si-mediation in detoxification of HMs is so bold. Si-mediation with increasing antioxidant, reducing lipid peroxidation, and increasing efficiency of photosynthetic properties elevates the HMs and other biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

Keywords HMs, stress, cells defense mechanism, Silicon.

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Added Value on Sade Village and Bau Nyale Festival in Autoimmune Diseases Immunization Travel: Supported by Aptamers Technology

AbstractPrevalence of Autoimmune diseases (AD) are high in developed countries and low in developing countries. Wall of worm were associated with lower level of allergy and support the hygiene hypothesis (HyHy). Long term use of Interferon as drug for AD and synthetic vaccine made by epitope mapping are global economic burden. Adolescence from developed countries traveling to Ghana forwarding AD-HyHy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for fighting AD have been developed in hygiene countries such as UK, Japan and Korea, meanwhile the aims of this study are reveal an added value to Sade village 'FMT culture' and Bau Nyale/Mandalika Princess festival for Nature Vaccination on AD. These local nature vaccination needs to be known by policy maker and political doer and could be a translational-medicine education topic to lessen AD economic global burden. Method: Systematic-review and Bayesian network analysis. EBSCO host search engine were used. Result: Description of 9 Publications of meta-analysis are chosen. Conclusions: The increasing of immunity in developing countries and decreasing in clean habit educated family is based on hygiene hypothesis, could be answered by local life-style and festival. These added value for local tour package has been supported by affimers and aptamers contemporary technology based on bacteria and worm epitope mapping.

Keywordshygiene hypothesis-autoimmune diseases, bacteria and worm cell wall, aptamers, epitope mapping, Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT).

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SERS of insecticides and fungicides assisted by Au and Ag nanostructures produced by laser techniques

Abstract This study deals with the use of laser techniques for preparation of advanced Au and Ag nanostructures on SiO2 (001) substrates to be applied to high-resolution analyses, namely, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analyses. The optical and morphological properties of the nanostructures are compared with those of the PLD thin films. The activity is tested of the structures fabricated as substrates for SERS covered by small quantities (usually applied in agricultural medicine) of the Aktara 25 BG (thiamethoxam) insecticide and the Dithane DG (mancozeb) fungicide. To the best of our knowledge, Raman spectra of Aktara 25 BG are presented for the first time. The study has a direct bearing on the human health and food quality by way of assisting the detection of small amounts or residue of harmful pollutants.

Keywords laser deposition and annealing, Ag and Au nanostructures, SERS, insecticide Aktara 25 BG, fungicide Dithane DG.

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Effects of Bradyrhizobia and Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivated on Ferrasols of Cujut district, DakNong province, Vietnam

Abstract A field experiment was conducted in Summer-Spring cropping season 2016 at Cujut district, DakNong province, Vietnam to study the effects of rhizobia and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on soybean (cv. Cujut) cultivated on ferralsols. The experiment consisted of six treatments as follows: control (no fertilizer, no inoculant), 240 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15, rhizobial inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 20 kg N/ha applied at 10 days after sowing [DAS], PSB inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 20 kg N/ha at 10 DAS, rhizobial and PSB inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 400 kg fertilizer/ha + 20 kg N/ha at 10 DAS and endophytic bacteria inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 400 kg fertilizer/ha + 20 kg N/ha at 10 DAS from June to August, 2016. The results showed that application of rhizobial inoculant and/or PSB inoculant produced significantly higher yield component, grain yield than control and did not differ from 240 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15. Consequently, application of rhizobia and PSB improved soil fertility after harversting however using mixture of rhizobia and PSB inoculation plus 400 kg biofertilizer/ha +20 kg N/ha for soybean cultivation supported yield component, grain yield and oil, protein in seed than control and equivalent with treatment of chemical fertilizer (240 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15). This technique not only increased grain yield, incomes for farmers but also improved soil fertility.

Keywords - Endophytes, Ferralsols, Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, Rhizobia, Soybean.

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The Influence of Soil Organic Matter on the Uptake of Silver Nanoparticles in a Terrestrial System

Abstract The uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles in soil was investigated in the presence of increasing concentrations of soil organic matter. Especially, the effect of Humus component of soil organic matter on the uptake of Ag from silver nanoparticles was studied. Two insect species, Acheta domesticus and Tenebrio molitor, and two plant species, Helianthus annuus and Sorghum vulgare, were exposed to silver nanoparticles(25 ppm in the presence of increasing concentrations of Humus (0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20% Humus) in soil (by weight). The techniques of transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the silver nanoparticles used in the study. An inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer was used to measure the levels of silver in test samples. Increasing concentrations of Humus in soil has resulted in an increase in the sulfur content and cation exchange capacity of the soil. A general decrease in the concentrations of silver was observed in Acheta domesticus and both the plant species, as a function of increasing concentrations of Humus in soil. In the case of plant species, the accumulation of silver nanoparticles was predominantly observed in the root tissue. Additionally, the translocation of silver from the roots to other plant tissues was observed in the case of Helianthus annuus. Results from this study suggest that the presence of Humus in soil could possibly decrease the uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles by insect and plant species.

Keywords Silver nanoparticles, Acheta domesticus, Tenebrio molitor, Helianthus annus, Sorghum vulgare, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer, Soil organic matter, Humus.

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Renewable energy resource of Sri Lanka! A review

Abstract Energy and related sectors play a key role in the developmental profile of Sri Lanka. Energy demand is going up and up with time due to population growth and industrial revolutions. In order to meet such growing needs probably we are relying on fossil fuel in a large fraction, which is leading to many negative environmental impacts. Hence the government decided to take off many long term as well as short term planes to promote renewable energy sector in Sri Lanka as it gives minimum impact to environment and its quality than the fossil fuel. This paper gives basic information about renewable energy resources of Sri Lanka and their development &future perspectives.

Keywords Renewable Energy, Fossil fuel, Sri Lanka, Environment.

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The Factors of Land use Conversion from Settlement Area to Commercial Area at IR. Soekarno/ Merr Street, Rungkut Street, and Medokan Ayu Street, Surabaya

Abstract— Land use that does not conform to its city plan is a common phenomenon that happens on fast growing cities. Land use conversion usually caused by discrepancy between the reasoning that underlie a city plan and market’s judgement. At the area around Ir. Soekarno Street / MERR that designed as a part of Surabaya City Ring Road, the land use is gradually changing from settlement area into commercial area. In urban planning, it is important to understand the cause of land use change in order to be able to handle the implication well. Therefore, the research objective was to identify the factors that affecting land use conversion from settlement area into commercial area at Ir. Soekarno Street/MERR, Rungkut Madya Street, and Medokan Ayu Street. The research’s methods are descriptive. The descriptive analysis was used to describe the land use change pattern at Ir. Soekarno Street/MERR, Rungkut Madya Street, and Medokan Ayu Street. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyses the factors that affecting land use conversion from settlement area into commercial area. The result showed that the factors that affecting land use conversion are land’s value, average income of the land owner, and land use in the surrounding area.

Keywords conversion factor, land use, settlement, commercial area, regression analysis.

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Red Algae (Rhodophyta) in Biomonitoring of Coastal Ecosystems

Abstract The formation, species composition and functional role of red algae were studied in the Black Sea’s coastal zone. In sublittoral plant communities, red algae are dominant both by their number of species in the phytocenosis and by their active thallus - the one that ensures their high metabolism. Algae with a large specific surface area of thallus can accumulate heavy metals in higher concentrations. In the paper, we discuss possibilities of using red algae as biomarkers of marine pollution, and as bio filters in the processes of water natural.

Keywords biological monitoring, biomarkers, heavy metals, red algae (Rhodophyta), sublittoral zone.

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Factors Affecting the Acceptance of Integration Tend Rice Fields

Abstract Land fragmentation is one of the country's traditional agricultural structural elements which nowadays as one of the main obstacles to agricultural development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the willingness to accept integration of rice fields by the lifters who strive in Behshahr interest and identify factors affecting it. In this respect, the required data through the completion of a questionnaire among lifters who strive in Behshahr interest collected and analyzed using Logit analysis. The results of the study showed that the amount of variables, age, education, experience, income, capital, area under cultivation and the distance of the Earth from each other parts have a significant difference. At the end of the research based on the results, decide to present.

Keywords consolidate, the tendency toward admission, rice, Behshahr.

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