Possible New Species of Araecerus (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) associated with Mastixiodendronpachyclados (Rubiaceae) of Papua New Guinea
Abstract— Araecerus is genus of beetles of the Anthribidae family which are important economic pests of various crops including coffee (Rubiaceae), with A.fasciculatus (Degeer) being the common pest (weevil) of coffee beans. This paper presents a study in which five undescribed species of genus Araecerus were reared predominantly from the seeds of M.pachyclados (Rubiceae), a native tree of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Fruits of M. pachyclados were regularly sampled and insects attacking them were reared, preserved and identified. Fruits were hand collected, photographed, weighed and reared. Insects emerging from the fruits were captured and preserved in 99% ethanol. All the specimens were identified into morphospecies at the laboratory. The five new species discovered were designated as A. sp.1, A. sp.2, A. sp.3, A. sp.4 and A.sp.5. This was accorded based on differences in body length; scutellum color, size, hair-scales and visibility; length of first and second segments of fore tarsus; apical and subapical teeth-size (mandible and maxillary palpi); declivity of dorsal abdomen; basal-anterior eye markings; lateral eye markings; absence of eye markings; and shape of pygidium. We discovered A. sp.1 has yellowish gold marking inside the base of the eye, A. sp.2 with pygidium almost vertically-flat at abdominal apex, A. sp.3 has eyes without yellowish gold marking and generally dark in color, A. sp.4 with distinct yellowish gold interior-lateral marking in its eye, and A. sp.5 with pygidium pointed at abdominal apex.
Keywords— Araecerus, coleoptera, anthribidae, Mastixiodendronpachyclados, PNG.
Socio- Economic Factors Influencing the Probability of Market Participation among the Cattle Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria
Abstract— The study examined Socio- economic factors influencing the probability of market participation among the cattle farmers in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was employed to sample the respondents. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 400 respondents in the study area. Descriptive statistic was used to analysed the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents and logit regression analysis was employed to estimate the determinants market participation among the market participants. The result of the findings shows that cattle market participants were averagely aged 43 years, they are predominantly male (95.04%), (83.48%) were married, while (77.96%), (57.02%) had formal education and are full-time cattle farmers respectively. the result of logit regression analysis indicates that five variables (gender, education, distance to market, prior market information and seasonality) were significantly found to influence the farmers’ decision to participate in the market. The marginal effects were used to interpret the results. Recommendations were made such as to encourage more formal education among the farmers, the more the participant is educated, the better the chance of participation in the cattle market and also to encourage female and those that are unmarried to participate in cattle marketing activities. Provision of reliable market information through mass media or extension services is paramount important in improving market participation and to provide adequate pasture land and water supply so as to curb the problems of exposure to avarice of weather, creates more additional sales point at farming communities is paramount important in the intensity of cattle market participation.
Keywords— cattle, factors, farmers, market and participation.
Abstract— Labisia pumila or commonly known as kacip fatimah is one of the popular medicinal plant in Malaysia. The constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anti cancer, antioxidant, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties. The growth and production of L. pumila is greatly influenced by the environmental condition such as shade, humidity and growing media. In this study, the survivality of L. pumila var. alata (KFeFRIM01) plantlets derived from tissue culture technique using temporary immersion system were analyzed during pre and post acclimatization process. The plantlets were pre acclimatize in different potting media namely 100% sand and 100% jiffy and grown in plastic growth chamber with different percentage of shade (0%, 50% and 70%). After a month, the plants were transferred to the nursery for post acclimatization. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the survivality of plants placed under different percentage of shade (70% and 50%), suitable growing media and watering requirement per day. The growth of the plants such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf length and leaf width were recorded during the acclimatization process. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to evaluate the survivality and growth of this plant during the acclimatization process. KFeFRIM01 was found to grow better in 0% shade compared to 50% shade and 70% shade. However, there were no significant difference recorded in the usage of two potting medium (100% sand and 100% jiffy) on the growth of KFeFRIM01 during pre acclimatization process. While in post acclimatization, KFeFRIM01 placed under 50% shade produce better growth in term of leaves number (8.44a ± 0.20), leaf length (6.13a ± 0.14) and leaf width (3.17a ± 0.06) compared to 70% shade. KFeFRIM01 plants planted in treatment 1-top soil: leaf compost: sand (2:3:1) gave the highest growth performance in all parameter measured. Whereas, KFeFRIM01 plants that watered twice per day (9AM & 4PM) have greater plant height (8.83a ± 0.34) and leaves number (7.53a ± 0.39) compared to plants watered once per day. The findings from this study are essential for mass production of L. pumila using tissue culture technology in future as a successful protocol for acclimatization of this plants obtained.
Keywords— adaptation, environmental condition, plant growth, survivality, clonal propagation.
Hiperparasitism on mycotoxigenic fungus Aspergillusochraceus G. Wilh. By Cladosporiumcladosporioides (Fresen) de Vries
Abstract— Biocontrol agents (BCAs) for the control of fungal diseases and pests has been the focus in the development of, thus, the agrochemical industry has refocused priorities on integrated control to include the use of BCAs in research and programmes for disease and pest control. The mechanism of action has often included direct antagonism between the BCA and fungal pathogen, competitive exclusion of the pathogen by niche occupation, production of secondary metabolites, hyperparasitism, and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It is considered as a characteristic of antagonist, to present more than one mechanism, because in this way, their chances of success are increased. The present study, objectived to evaluate, in vitro, competition between the fungus considered a bioprotective agent of the coffee quality Cladosporiumcladosporioides (Fresen) de Vries and the potentially toxigenic fungus Aspergillus ochraceus G. Wilh. Competition between isolates of C. cladosporioides and A. ochraceus was evaluated in vitro conditions by adding conidia aliquotas in Petri dishes containing PDA (potato, dextrose, ágar) culture medium.The antagonist relationship between isolates was observed in Olympus SZX7TR-ILA trinocular stereoscopic microscope coupled to a camera and in scanning electron microscopy ZEISS®. The fungus C. cladosporioides (Fresen) de Vries, showed its antagonism on potencialmycotoxigenic fungus A. ochraceus by of antibiosis and hyperparasitism mechanisms.
Keywords— Biocontrol, sustainability, food safe.
Abstract— The aim of this research was to investigate the groundwater quality in El Barreal basin (Córdoba, Argentina), through bacteriological analysis and antibiotic resistance of fecal bacteria indicators and their relationship with geochemical and land uses characteristics. Groundwater samples were collected in 36 wells and the following parameters were determined: major chemical components, heterotrophic plate counts, total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibiotic resistance of E. coli was analyzed using standard methods. The chemical and bacteriological analysis showed that more than 80 % of samples were unfit for human consumption. Bacteriological contamination was significant in 36 % of samples. The multivariate analysis between bacterial and geochemical variables explained local contamination conditions, evidenced by the arrival of bacteria and some typical indicators (NO3-, Cl- y HCO3-) to groundwater. No significant correlation between NO3- and bacterial counts was observed, which let us to interpret that part of NO3- contents can be supplied by inorganic fertilizers. Total and fecal coliforms were linked to a local increase of Cl- and HCO3- and a decrease of pH and dissolved oxygen, indicating the arrival and degradation of organic matter into groundwater. The resistance pattern of total E. coli isolates (n=12) showed that the highest percentages were observed for antibiotics of animal use (ampicillin, tetracycline and cephalothin). The analysis of results revealed the impact of land uses demonstrating that livestock activities are the main punctual contaminant sources in this sedimentary aquifer.
Keywords— antibiotics, bacterial contamination, hydrogeochemistry, land uses.
Abstract— In order to explore the relationship between the change of peptides and free-amino acid (FAA) and its unique flavour, Dry-cured duck samples of different processing phases were used to study the change of free-amino acid by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in this paper, meanwhile the trichloroacetic acid precipitation method for modeling use to establish the quantitative predicated peptides. The changes of small peptides and free amino acids in the process were studied. The results showed that the level and amount of proteolysis increased with the processing time at traditional technology, meanwhile the amount of peptides were positively correlated with FAA contents (R2=0.86).
Keywords— dry-cured duck, Free-amino acids, proteolysis, Peptides.
Abstract— Aim of this study was to obtain knowledge on boron supplemented diet to mineral status of body fluids and feces in short term nutrition of dairy cattle. A total of 24 healthy Holstein dairy cows were used. The animals were fed with standard ration, and boron at three different doses was added to experimental’ diets as boron compound: borax, for 10 days. Boron and other macro and trace minerals were determined in serum, milk, urine and feces samples taken on 0 and 11st days. In this study, there were no overt signs of toxicosis, and a pivotal knowledge was obtained in dairy cattle fed with boron supplemented diet on boron absorption, excretion, and its interaction with other minerals. Boron could not completely absorb from gastrointestinal tract. Urine was the most important excretion way of boron. More less boron was also eliminated by milk. Boron levels in body fluids (serum and milk, p<0.000) were increasingly changed based on the dose. Boron, among minerals, provided a striking increase for Ca (p<0.003) and Mg (p<0.028) levels in serum by increasing absorption of these minerals. This topic is worth evaluating as an alternative approach in the prevention of hypocalcemia in transition cows.
Keywords— Boron, Macro minerals, Micro minerals, Cattle.
Abstract— Cashew nut shell liquid based termiticides using neemseed oil, karanjseed oil and bhilawan shell liquid, were developed and the effect of 30, 60, 90 and 120 0C temperatures on viscosity, refractive index, specific gravity and colour was studied. It was observed that viscosity and refractive index of termiticides decreased with heating temperature from 30 to 120 0C, specific gravity found decreased with increase in temperature from 30, 60 and 900C. Colour of Neemseed oil became bright yellow and of Cashew nut shell liquid, Karanjseed oil and Bhilawan shell liquid became darker when heated at temperature from 30 to 120 0C. CNSL based termiticides were oil based therefore the properties of oils were reflected in the termiticide formulations with respect to the temperature.
Keywords— Cashew nut shell, Termiticides , neemseed oil, karanjseed oil, bhilawan shell liquid.
Abstract— The Qingliang mountain area located in the downtown of Nanjing, there were plenty of botany species in Qingliang Mountain Area, such as forest, bamboos and grasslands, the environment was good habitat to avians. In this paper, avian resource of Qingliang mountain area was studied, 11 species was watched which belonging to 2 Orders and 7 Families. 2 summer breeding birds and 9 resident birds were recorded, 4 species were oriental realm birds, 2 species were palaearctic realm birds. The Shannon-Wiener Index was 1.6869, The Pielou Index was 0.3055, and The G-F Index was 0.2261. The feeding condition and safety condition affects the biodiversity of avian of Qingliang mountain area.
Keywords— Avian Biodiversity Qingliang Mountain.
Incidence and Level of Mistletoe Infestation in Tree Species at Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources’ Sebele Content Farm Campus, Botswana
Abstract— A survey was conducted at Botswana University of Agriculture and natural Resources at Sebele content farm to determine the intensity and level of mistletoe infestation in tree species. The intensity and the total number of trees per tree species infected by the parasitic weed were determined. Acacia eriobola, Acacia mellifera, Terminalia sericea, Ziziphus mucronata, Schinus molle, Acacia tortilis, Acacia erubesens and Acacia flekii hosted the highest number of mistletoe. Results revealed significant variation in level of mistletoe infestation between tree species. A 100% infestation was recorded in some tree species such as Acacia eriobola and Ziziphus mucronata. Severely infested indigenous tree species were dying, whereas most of the exotic tree species were either not infested or have very little number of mistletoe on them. The variation observed could be due to the fact that indigenous species the frequently visited by dispensers looking for food and shelter than exotic species. In addition, there is a possibility that the mistletoe species co-evolved with the indigenous tree species and the vector may be well established on the host tree species than on exotic species.
Keywords— Avian-dispersers, Botswana, Infestation, Mistletoe, Tree species.
Effect of basidiomycete fungi on the discoloration and phytotoxicity of synthetic dye and textile effluent
Abstract— The elimination of toxic wastes from industrial activities, mainly the textile industry, has induced the researchers to seek new techniques that reduce or eliminate the toxicity of these effluents. The textile effluent has a high chemical demand of oxygen and strong coloration, requiring an especific treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluated the decolorizationRemazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and textile effluent using pre-selected cultures of basidiomycete fungi: Lentinula edodes, Pleurotusostreatus and Pleutotuspulmorarius, and phytotoxicity of the dye and effluent before and after treatment with fungi. The decolorization test was realized in a liquid medium and the absorbance determined in spectrophotometer. For the dye was used to two pH values (5.0 and 9.0) and concentration (0.1 gL-1 and 0.5 gL-1). Lactuca sativa L. seeds were exposed to dye samples and textile effluents and the parameters evaluated were the germination rate and root lenght. The fungus Pleurotuspulmonarius was the one with the best result on the decolorization of dye RBBR on the both values: pH and concentration. As the textile effluent there was no significant difference among the treatments. In some treatments with the dye germination rate decreased indicating toxicity after decolorization. However there was an increase in root growth in the presence of the dye treated with P.pulmonarius.
Keywords— Pleurotuspulmonarius; Remazol Brilliant Blue R.; Decolorization; Toxicity.
Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) from anaerobic digestate and their effect on common wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedling growth
Abstract— The use of anaerobic digestate as fertilizer is considered beneficial since it provides plant nutrients and organic matter to soils. However, there is limited information about plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) in digestate. In this study, we isolated Bacillus and Pseudomonas from two types of anaerobic digestates, and selected three different plant growth promoting traits and antifungal activity to screen 200 bacteria isolated from each digestate. Then 6 isolates based on plant growth promoting traits were selected and inoculated with common wheat seeds to evaluate their plant growth promoting activity. Cultivable population of Bacillus and Pseudomonas were 2.20 × 106 and 6.98 × 104 CFU g-1 dry matter in mesophilic digestate, while were 6.86 × 105 and 5.65 × 104 CFU g-1 dry matter in thermophilic digestate. Twenty-five bacterial isolates from mesophilic digestate and 12 bacterial isolates from thermophilic digestate showed positive plant growth promoting traits or antifungal activity. In plant growth promoting assay, all isolates significantly promoted growth of wheat seedlings (p < 0.05). Seedlings stem length was increased from 28.5% to 38.6% by bacteria inoculation. In addition, bacteria inoculation increased seedlings stem weight from 113.3% to 214.2% and root weight from 108.6% to 207.2% as compared to un-inoculated control. The results showed that anaerobic digestate was a potential source for isolation of PGPB, and PGPB in digestate would be beneficial for plant growth with fertilizer application.
Keywords— Anaerobic digestate, Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Common wheat (Triticum aestivum).
Interspecific Interaction Between Phytoseiulus macropilis and Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Preying on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Rosebush Growing in Greenhouse
Abstract— Greenhouses provide favorable conditions to grow roses (Rosa spp.) but also for the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Although chemical control continues to be used against this pest, consumer demand has encouraged research on less aggressive agricultural practices and biological control is now a viable option. The objective of this study was to investigate biological control of the two-spotted mite, in rosebush growing in greenhouse, by Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), individually or in combination. Potted rosebushes (Rosa alba L., Rosaceae) were used in five treatments: 1 - control group, rosebushes only with T. urticae; 2 - rosebushes with T. urticae and N. californicus; 3 - rosebushes with T. urticae and P. macropilis; 4 - rosebushes with T. urticae, N. californicus, and, after 4 weeks, P. macropilis and 5 - rosebushes with T. urticae, N. californicus, and P. macropilis. Biological control was evaluated by counting live mites. The results showed that both predatory mites were efficient in the control of the two-spotted mite on rosebushes cultivated in the greenhouse, either alone or in combination, but, when only P. macropilis was released, this predaceous mite was more efficient than N. californicus, at either low or high prey density, but the N. californicus can survive for longer in the absence of prey or in its low presence, for being a generalist predatory mite.
Keywords— Biological control, Rosa spp., Two-spotted spider mite, Protected crop, Agricultural acarology.
Abstract— Hospitals could be the source of pollution that must be taken into account in a general approach to health and environmental risk assessment. This study is part of the characterization of hospital liquid waste in a region in Morocco, whose objective is to assess their physicochemical, bacteriological and toxicological quality.
The physicochemical analyzes carried out on 144 samples taken during one year showed a great fluctuation of some parameters such as: BOD5, COD, MES, PH, T°, as well as an important bacteriological load: Total coliforms, E coli, faecal Streptococci, pathogenic germs such as: Salmonella, Staphylococcus, 20% multi-resistant, virulent germs of emerging nature such as: Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and trace metal elements such as: mercury and copper that exceed the threshold of acceptability. At the end of this study, it turned out that hospital effluents are heavily loaded with pollutants. We therefore hope, in the light of the results provided by this study, to have generated a real awareness of the competent authorities on strengthening and improving the treatment of hospital liquid effluents such as developed countries, as the impact of these effluents on human and environmental health is harmful and can spread emerging diseases.
Keywords— Wastewater, Liquid effluent, physicochemical pollution, bacteriological, trace elements.
Abstract— NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) and have been shown to function in plant development processes and abiotic and/or biotic stress responses. SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN1 (SND1) is one type of NAC TFs, which is a key regulator in the regulation network for secondary wall synthesis. In this study, the SND1 gene, named CpSND1 because it has a conservative N-terminal DNA-binding domain with AtSND1, was isolated from hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida). The full-length CDS of this gene was 1,203 bp, encoding 400 amino acids. The CpSND1 gene was transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) by the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, and 20 transgenic lines were obtained. Tobacco plants overexpressing CpSND1 had typical phenotypes, including inhibited growth, upward-curling leaves. Our results provided functional information of CpSND1 for future genetic engineering.
Keywords— hawthorn, transcription factor, SND1, ectopic expression.
Abstract— In order to compare the physical and chemical properties of taro in Taizhou area, taro starch was extracted through the method of spray drying , the blue values, solubility, swelling force, amino acid of amylose and amylopectin and taro starch granules were studied. The results showed that the blue values of amylose were1.16, 0.97, 1.1 in Taixing, jingjiang and xinghua taro respectively, the blue values of amylopectin were 0.19, 0.14, 0.13 in Taixing, jingjiang and xinghua taro respectively. In the comparison of solubility, taixing xianghe taro had a wide distribution, the following sequence was observed: jingjiang xiangsha taro >xinghua longxiang taro. Analyses of amino acids were 3.03mg/100g in taixing xianghe taro starch which was more than the other two taros. The nutritional assessment of amino acids suggested that the taixing xianghe and xinghua longxiang taro contained delicious amino acids which of EAA were 38% and 44% respectively. Taixing xianghe taro contained the highest content of phosphorus and potassium, which were 1419 mg/kg and 8084 mg/kg separately. Granule morphology showed that starch particles of taixing xianghe taro were smaller than those of taros and the surface was smooth, uniformly. Particle shape was spherical. Xinghua longxiang taro particles with irregular diamond, Jingjiang xiangsha taro starch particles was irregular sphere, and spherical surface was uneven. Taizhou taro was delicate, delicious, which of the taixing xianghe taro was with better quality on the domestic market.
Keywords— taro, extraction of starch, quality, analysis.
The effects of explant rotation, medium types, JA and GA3 additions on in vitro microtuber production from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
Abstract— This study investigates the effects on the in vitro microtuber formations of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Marfona species, effected by the direction of planting the explants (horizontal or vertical), the type of medium (solid or two-phase), adding Jasmonic acid (JA) (0.0, 10 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 0.2 mg/L) and Gibberellic acid (GA3) (0.0 and 0.2 mg/L). The cultures were incubated in a climate chamber at 22-25 oC, and were subjected to a light intensity of 145 µmol m-2 s-1 for 8 hours in light and 16 hours in dark photoperiods (short day) for 4-6 weeks. Microtuber production was inhibited when GA3 was added. The maximum number of microtubers was observed when the explants were planted vertically and were grown in two-phase medium which did not contain GA3 and had 10 ng/L JA present. It was determined that two-phase medium with 0.2 mg/L JA but without GA3 was the most favourable medium for tuber growth (for both height and width). The best microtuber formation on single node explants were observed to occur in the short day photoperiod (8 hours light/16 hours dark) in a two-phase medium that contained 0.2 mg/L JA without the addition of GA3. The results shows that the effect caused by JA works antagonistically with that of GA3 thus causing the resulting microtuber formation observed.
Keywords— Potato, In vitro Microtuberization, Two-Phase Medium, Jasmonic Acid, GA3.