Monday, 1 January 2018

Agriculture Journal: December 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-12, December 2017

Prediction of biodegradability ratios in wastewater treatment plant of Skhirat Morocco

Abstract In this note, our study was carried out by physico-chemical monitoring in terms of organic matter. The mean objective is to evaluate the performance of the Skhirat wastewater treatment plant based on the ratios COD/BOD and BOD/COD in order to know the degree of biodegradability and to make the decision about the treatment model to choose. In fact, the performances acquired in terms of COD and BOD are respectively of the order of 87.26% and 88.35%; what is significant downstream of this station that we take advantage of to irrigate several green spaces by saving all conventional water resources. In addition, the organic material is easily biodegradable with ratios of COD/BOD and BOD/COD respectively of about 2.05 and 0.49. This allows us to adopt an appropriate biological treatment by design and sizing suitable structures.

Keywords Wastewaters, Organic matter, biodegradability, performance, Skhirat, Morocco.

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Ecological and Agricultural monitoring of Sebou river waters at Kariat Bamohamed (Taounate-Morocco)

Abstract— Kariat Bamohamed is an agricultural region located to the west of the city of Taounate and north of the city of Fez. The surface waters in the region are mainly composed by the Sebou river and many natural springs.

The study concerns the analysis of hydrochemical parameters (T°, pH, CE, MES, O2, BOD5, COD, Cl-, PO43, NH4+ and NO3-) along the middle Sebou river region of Kariat Bamohamed in order to establish a diagnosis of the state of pollution of the surface waters of this part of the river. Water sampling was carried out at four study stations during flood period and during low water period.

In the light of the results obtained on the surface waters of the Sebou river, it is concluded to a degradation of water quality in both the winter and summer periods. In particular, an increase in the values ​​of ammonium, COD and BOD5 in addition to an acidic pH due to margine discharges and leaching of fertilizers and other discharges of wastewaters from the cities of Fez and Kariat Bamohamed.

Keywords Sebou River, Waters, Hydrochemistry, Irrigation, Kariat Bamohamed, Morocco.

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Physiological Selectivity of Agrochemicals to Predatory Mites of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Rosebushes Growing in Greenhouse

Abstract The growing of rose (Rosa spp.) in a greenhouse provides favorable conditions for both, the plant and the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), for which chemical control is still used. Consumers’ demand has encouraged researches to use less aggressive agricultural practices, making the biological control as a viable option. The objective of the present study was to investigate the physiological selectivity of plant protection products, used on rosebushes for the control of T. urticae and other pests or diseases, to Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) both predatory mites of T. urticae on rosebush growing in a greenhouse. According to IOBC/WPRS, the residual method of spraying on a glass and leaf surface area was used for the physiological selectivity test of plant protection products for the predatory mites. The obtained results shown that with the exception of the acaricides-insecticide chlorfenapyr all other tested products - fungicides, acaricides and acaricides-insecticide - methiram + pyraclostrobin, thiofanate-methyl, boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, chlorothalonil, propargite, mandipropamid, mefenoxam, difenoconazol, bifenthrin and pyriproxifen, were innocuous (class 1) or only slightly harmful (class 2) to both species. Chlorfenapyr was highly toxic only for N. californicus (class 4), however after five days of its application no toxic residue of the product was detected on the glass surface and so the product has been classified as innocuous (class 1) as well for this predatory mite species after this period.

Keywords Neoseiulus californicus, Phytoseiulus macropilis, Rosa spp., Protected crop, Agricultural acarology.

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Status of Methane Emission in Sewage Treatment Process and Emissions Estimate in Henan Province

Abstract Methane produced during sewage treatment is a source of greenhouse gases which cannot be ignored. The estimate of methane emissions during wastewater treatment has an important significance for proposing methane reduction measures on the technical and economic feasibility. In this paper, the status of CH4 emissions during sewage treatment of Henan Province is described. By obtaining the sewage treatment-related data and emission factor in Henan Province in 2010,CH4 emissions in the year is estimated. The results show that CH4 net emissions during domestic wastewater treatment is 21,764.10 tons in 2010 and that can evaluate the greenhouse effect and provide a basis for environmental management.

Keywords Methane, emissions, estimate, sewage treatment.

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Efficiency Production Cost of Goat Farming in the Lowland and the Highland Areas in Mojo Sub-district of Kediri Regency

Abstract This research aims to determine the level of efficiency production cost of goat farming in the lowland and the highland areas in Mojo Sub-district of Kediri Regency. Location determination and 60 respondents based on purposive sampling method from the total of all farmers in Mojo Sub-district of Kediri Regency. Data collection was done by questionnaire technique, interview technique and documentation. To analyzed the data in this research used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach Measuring the efficiency production cost of goat farming used input variable that consist of the cost of shrinkage of cages, shrinkage tools, seeds, feeds, medicines and labor. Variable output was the revenue from the goats sale. The results showed that the efficiency of production cost of lowland goat farming was varies, farmers who achieve efficiency value equal to 1 was 9 farmers or 30% of the total respondents and 70% inefficient. Farmers in the highland who achieved the same level of efficiency as 1 was 15 farmers or 50% and the remaining 50% was inefficient. The use of input production costs in lowland and highland areas had a slack input value. Farmers in the lowland area could reduce the use of production costs in the form of 18% shrinkage of cages, 13% tool shrinkage, 6% seed, 2% feed, 6% medicine and 1.4% labor whereas breeders in the highland could reduce the use of costs production of 12% shrinkage of cages, 23% tool shrinkage, 11% seed, 10% feed, 12% medicine and 7% labor.

Keywords Data Envelopment Analysis, efficiency of production cost, goat farming, highland, lowland.

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Evaluation of mass trapping for control of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Satsuma mandarin in Hatay province of Turkey

Abstract The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most important pests of citrus in Turkey. The objective of this study was to evaluate mass trapping for the control of Medfly in Satsuma mandarin in Hatay province of Turkey. The studies were conducted in 2011-2012 using eostrap® invaginada traps baited with % 95 Trimedlure impregnated in a polymeric plug-type dispenser. In the first year, 48 traps per 0.7 ha were placed in an experimental site from 1st August to December. In the second year, 23 traps per 0.7 ha were placed in the same site from 14 August to December. After two years of the study, the population density of medfly varied in each of the sampling year. In the first year, a total of 8968 medfly adults were caught by traps. The largest mean of catches per trap were recorded on 31 October (64.21), followed by 24 October (31.29), 17 October (22.48), 7 November (20.64), 3 October (17.60) and 10 October (16.71). In the second year, a total of 1307 medfly adults were caught by traps. The largest mean of the catches per trap were recorded on 25 September (7.35), followed by 13 November (5.83), 6 November (5.52), 18 September (5.43) and 30 October (4.26), respectively. The percentages of damage rates of medfly observed in both years. The damage rates of Medfly were 10.91 and 8.56 % in 2011 and 2012, respectively. In conclusion, the population density of medfly on satsuma mandarin increased in September and October due to high temperature. The mass trapping was not enough to control medfly on satsuma mandarin. Therefore, the mass trapping should be used with pesticides to decrease the population density of medfly during September and October in Hatay province of Turkey.

Keywords Medfly, trimedlure, traps, satsuma mandarin, Turkey.

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Survey of Household Solid Waste Management and Waste Minimization in Malaysia: Awareness, Issues and Practices

Abstract Effective solid waste management (SWM) is very crucial in every nation as it determines the sustainability of the environment and ensures the health of the society. This study examines households’ awareness on household solid waste management and their opinion on the services provided by a solid waste management concessionaire in one of the regions in Malaysia. A survey on 398 respondents among households finds that the awareness on the privatization of SWM is acceptable and a majority of them are ignorant about the frequency of waste collection. However, the respondents’ knowledge on waste and their understanding on the health consequences of waste are relatively good. The main problem expressed by respondents with respect to waste disposal is that collection schedules are not adhered to by the collectors. Disorderly disposal of rubbish is also perceived to be a problem, and a majority of the respondents believe that lack of awareness, knowledge and enforcement are the major causes of the problem. As far as waste minimization is concerned, respondents feel that the facilities and services provided are not adequate. Other than using the waste collection service, the households rarely practice other means of waste minimization such as to reuse, recycle, and compost. The role of regulators and concessionaires in educating the community so that the latter can play their role effectively is very crucial.

Keywords solid waste management, waste minimization, awareness.

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Probable health damage to dogs by intakeing the Bravecto™ Product

Abstract The product based on fluralaner, brand name Bravecto was launched worldwide in 2014 in the form of a chewable tablet whose action on fleas and ticks lasts around three months. Presented by MSD ANIMAL HEALTH as an innovative product, highly safe, and can be ingested by dogs, including puppies, breeders, pregnant and lactating bitches and Collie dogs. In addition, it is indicated as part of the strategy to control allergic dermatitis and reduce the risk of transmitting fatal diseases transmitted by ticks. However, after its launch, numerous cases of development of pathologies and deaths of dogs of various races and ages, coinciding with the intake of the product began to be reported. Later on, the owners whose dogs had adverse effects on the product were organizing and forwarding reports to the manufacturer and entities responsible for product regulation and marketing and consumer support worldwide such as the CVM's Adverse Drug Event (ADE) EMA (European Medicines Agency), various sites on the pathologies developed in different breeds and the signs presented by the animals in the period of product administration. All this data which have become a database available for consultation.

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) in July 2017 had requested the company to investigate all relevant reports related to various disorders such as neurological, skin and appendage diseases, hypersensitivity or immune-mediated reactions and liver diseases, some of which were fatal. The present review aims to summarize the information and provide a scenario in which, despite the efficacy of the product in the control of ectoparasites, has coincided in the period after its application, with the incidence of several pathologies and even deaths of the canine species

Keywords Animal safe, pathologies, drugs, civilservice, data base.

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Analysis of Marketing Efficiency of Beef Cattle on “Tirto Sari” Livestock at Sub District of Samboja, District of Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan

Abstract The purpose of this study is to find out the marketing efficiency of beef cattle on “Tirto Sari” livestock at Sub District of Samboja, District of Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan. The result of this study indicates that there are four varieties in terms of beef cattle marketing on “Tirto Sari” livestock at Sub District of Samboja, District of Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan: direct marketing of marketing type I, intermediate marketing of marketing type II and III and long-processed marketing of marketing type IV. The marketing agencies involved in the marketing process of beef cattle are livestock, small-sized enterprises, wholesalers, final consumers or slaughterhouse. The result of marketing efficiency calculation shows that each marketing type of beef cattle on “Tirto Sari” livestock at Sub District of Samboja, District of Kutai Kartanegara is considered to be efficient, ranging from 0 – 33%. After the calculation of marketing margin and farmer’s share, the most efficient marketing type is marketing type I (direct marketing), showing lowest value of marketing margin and highest value of farmer’s share. It is, then, followed by marketing type II (intermediate marketing), marketing type III (intermediate marketing), and marketing type IV (long-processed marketing).

Keywords Marketing Efficiency, Beef Cattle, Kutai Kartanegara.

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Effects of Fermentation of Cashew Kernel on the Nutrient Value of Cassava Semolina Flour (Attieke)

Abstract Protein-energy malnutrition in children is a public health problem. This nutrition problem is attributed to inappropriate complementary feeding. Indeed, the cost of high-quality food supplements is high and traditional food supplements have a low nutritional quality related to the presence of antinutritional factors. The objective of this study is to determine acceptability and antinutritional factors in attiéké / cashew kernel composite flours. The cashew kernel flour is produced after various technological treatments to obtain two types of flour (unfermented flour and fermented flour). Physico-chemical and sensory analyzes are performed. The results showed that fermentation has an influence on the parameters studied. The protein contents of the unfermented formulations range from 7.53% to 10.62% while those of the fermented formulations range from 8.23% to 11.53%. Both formulations contain antinutritional factors.

Keywords cashew kernel, attiéké, antinutritional factors, nutritional quality.

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Treatment of piggery wastewater through struvite precipitation and nitrogen removal bacteria and poly-phosphate bacteria (in-pots experiment)

Abstract Piggery wastewater is a type of wastewater which contains large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, therefore it needed to be treated before releasing to directly to the environment. The combination between struvite precipitation and nitrogen removal and poly-P bacteria into wastewater for piggery wastewater treatment has been found to be a cost-effective practice, a iable technology in terms of environmental protection and sustainability, especially in the developing-countries. For optimum struvite crystallization from piggery wastewater, the Mg:PO4 molar ratio as (1.2:1) was used, the pH of reaction was adjusted to 9 and the sample was stirred continuously during 40 minutes. The supernatant sample was then added 1% nitrogen removal bacteria (Pseudomonas stutzeri D3b strain) and 1% poly-P bacteria (Kurthia sp. TGT1013L strain), 5 g glucose/L and aeration 12/24h during 3 days, ammonium concentration reduced significantly from 1271 mg/L to 1.2 mg/L and orthophosphate concentration decreased noticeably from 24.91 mg/L to 16.1 mg/L.

Keywords ammonium, bacteria, orthophosphate, pH, piggery wastewater, struvite precipitation.

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A Preliminary Investigation of Bird Diversity in Nanjing

Abstract To find out the classification information and distribution information of common birds in Nanjing, China, and provide reference for the government to formulate the protection policy of bird, this paper analyzes the bird observation data from 2007 to 2016 in the Bird Observation Center (Nanjing area), and analyzes the ecological changes of the observation points in combination with the Nanjing land using situation. the results show that Nanjing is an important bird habitat, with many species and national protected species, but in recent years, the acceleration of urbanization and human activities have seriously affected these originally good bird distribution areas, government departments should strengthen the response and management.

Keywords Nanjing, Bird diversity, Protected species.

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The Effects of Grape Seed Powder and Extract on Antimicrobial of Fermented Turkish Sausage

Abstract In this study, the effects of the grape seed powders and extracts of from two different grape cultivars (Razakı and Siyah Gemre) on the quality characteristics of Turkish sausage were investigated during the ripening period. Some characteristics of Turkish sausage including phenolic content, radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, Fe+2 chelating activity, Inhibition of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcusaureus, Candida albicans were studied. In fermented sausage, grape seed powders and extracts demonstrated the greatest inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, the results showed that Siyah Gemre grape seed extract was able to reduce Staphylococcusaureus populations by 42 CFU/g, while the population of Escherichia Coli was reduced by 590 CFU/g. Siyah Gemre grape seed extract was able to reduce Candida albicans populations by 880 CFU/g. Also this study demonstrated that grape seed extracts were more effective than grape seed powders. Our results suggest that the use of grape seed extract is a feasible alternative as antibacterial and antioxidant agents to prevent the deterioration of foods by bacteria and oxidation.

Keywords Grape seed powder and extract, Razakı and Siyah Gemre antimicrobial, antioxidant, natural preservative.

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Ensuring Food Security by Reduction of Post-Harvest Fish Losses in Small-Scale Fisheries, Nigeria

Abstract This paper focus on types, causes and how post-harvest fish losses can be reduced in the artisanal fisheries sector to ensure food security and provision of adequate protein for the increasing population. Post-harvest fish loss is a serious threat to the artisanal fisheries sector which occurs from the capture to the final stage of marketing the product to the consumers. When fish undergoes microbiological decay, it leads to quality loss which results to depreciation in the market value. Consumption of such fish has adverse effect on human health; as a result of these, method of assessing post-harvest fish loss and ways of reducing it should be discovered in order to have good quality fish in abundance for the ever growing population and also improved livelihood of fisher folks.

Keywords Food security, Post-harvest fish losses, Artisanal fisheries sector, Livelihood.

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Effects of Adding Different Levels of Phytase to Diet Containing Low Phosphorus on Performance, Shell Quality and Bone Parameters in Laying Japanese Quail

Abstract This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of addition of different levels of phytase containing low phosphorus diets on performance, eggshell quality and bone characteristics in laying Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). In the experiment, a total of 162 7-week-oldlaying Japanese quail were fed two different diets containing 0.33 % available phosphorus (AP, control) and 0.15 % AP supplemented with phytase 0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 phytase unites/g feed. Each diet was feed to groups having three replicates, each cages nine quail, in completely randomized design. Feed and water supplied for ad-libitum. Light was provided 17 hours daily. Egg production, egg mass, average daily feed consumption, viability, fat-free dried tibia weight were improved, as phytase level increased in the diet. However, final live weight, carcass weight, body weight gain, feed efficiency, tibia ash (%) and deformed egg ratio (%), some eggshell quality parameters measured in eggs collected at the end of the first period, were not affected by treatments. With regard to measured parameters, the responses of laying quail, to the increasing phytase levels, were not linear. The performance and bone parameters of the group fed with 1500 units were very close to that of the control group, even higher than the control group in some traits. Decreasing in shell weight of eggs collected at last three days of the experiment were not prevented any of the phytase levels. At the same period, shell thickness and breaking strength of the eggs of groups fed with 1500 and 2000 units phytase, were significantly lower than that of the control group. Manure ash percentage of phytase added groups were significantly lower than the control group.

Keywords— phosphorus, quail, performance, egg quality, bone traits.

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Social Protection and Climate Resilience: A Review Of Sub-Saharan African Case Studies

Abstract Social protection is mainly used for assisting the most vulnerable in the area of poverty reduction. However, international development scholars are arguing that social protection aside impacting the poor can also help in climate resilience. This study examines selected case studies in the social protection and climate resilient debate in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches in data collection, the study finds that social protection through cash transfers have been able to build climate resilience among participants of the scheme. Though findings from the study were minimal, a wide range of research needs to be carried out to determine the impact of social protection on climate shocks on a broader scale.

Keywords Climate Change, Cash Transfers, Social Protection, Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Institution of Prosecution against the Act of Transporting In a Vehicle a Bulk Consignment of Poultry Meat Unfit for Human Consumption – General Interest

AbstractStorage temperature plays a major role in causing changes in quality and safety of poultry meat. Product should retain its desired sensory, chemical, physical, functional and microbiological characteristics. Authorized Officers are expected to guide and inspect on food safety and security measures of the country. After conducting comprehensive food outlet inspections covering the whole Medical Officer Health (MOH) area and legal prosecutions over violation of law related to food safety, inspections of food transporting vehicles were conducted. Twenty vehicles were inspected and 7 out of them were released after giving strict advice, 3 were detained to produce before courts. By entering a plea of guilty, first two defendants were admitting their guilt and fined 67 USD each. Last case was charged against the chicken company transporting chicken at temperature of +50 Centigrade (standard -180 Centigrade), where company lawyer admitted a plea of guilt, but pleaded to release all chicken worth of 2700 USD. Usually in Sri Lankan context, temperature of container was measuring by thermometers as a spot reading of whole passage of cold chain of frozen foods. Upon the expert opinion and scientific explaining by the MOH of the impact of releasing this bulk of chicken on the health of the general public, the Magistrate made decision against the company with strict advice to maintain all vehicles in good sanitary condition, fined 67 USD and ordered to destroy the entire bulk quantity of chicken worth 2000 USD under the supervision of the MOH. This would set future reference/ benchmark in field of food safety in Sri Lanka to supervise and examine of temperature record by Authorized officers using smart phones on data lodgers, which records should be maintained by all frozen food companies thorough out their cold chain, and it can be used as weighted and firm evidence for their legal submissions in future as a complete reflection of cold chain.

Keywords Shelf life, food safety, enactment of food act, poultry meat, unhygienic transport, public health legislation.

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