The Effect of Different Seeding Rates on Grain Yield and Yield Components in SomeFlax (Linumusitatissimum L.) Varieties
Abstract— This study was carried out during the growing seasons of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016, in the Application and Experiment Fields of Namık Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, according to the Split-Plot Experiment Design in Randomized Blocks with 3 replications. In the study, it was aimed to determine the effect of three different amounts of seeds (30-50 and 70 kg/ha) applied to the unit area on the grain yield and yield components in five varieties of flax (Selection, York, Nekoma, Pembina, Neche). In the first year of the experiment on these genotypes, the plant height was 70.91-77.46 cm, the number of axillary branches was 6.50-10.24, the number of capsules was 48.46-81.87, the thousand grain weight (TGW) was 5.51-5.85 g and the grain yield was 1260.00-1863.30 kg/ha; while in the second year, the plant height was 74.61-82.25 cm, number of capsules was 14.50-27.52, the TGW was 5.51-5.83 g and the grain yield was 1715.50-2071.10 kg/ha. Due to the increase in the sowing norm, the number of plants increasing in the unit area has also significantly increased the grain yield in both years. In addition, it was observed that the number of axillary branches, the number of capsules, and the weight of thousand grains significantly decreased with the increasing plant density, although there was no difference in plant heights between the two years in accordance with the increase in the number of seeds. While the number of seeds in the capsule was not affected by the number of seeds in the first year of the experiment, it decreased significantly in the second year when the number of seeds used in the unit area increased.
Keywords— oilseed flax, seeding rate, grain yield, number of capsules, thousand grain weight.
Abstract— The petrochemicals wastes and pollutants are dumped without treatment in the environment, lakes and soil in Libya. The objective of our present research is to study the impact of waste from crude oil extraction on the environment of the Libyan region of Ajdabiya. The monitored physicochemical indicators are: Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (CE), TDS, CL- , NO3-, SO42-, HCO3-, Na+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Salinity, Total Hardness (TH). The mineralization faithfully follows the rates of dissolved salts. The electrical conductivity varies from 7880 to 46700 μs/cm and far exceeds the Libyan irrigation standards (>2700μs/cm). Concerning the nitrate their contents range from 230 to 1210 mg/L and clearly reflect the crude oil pollution origin. The Piper diagram and Wilcox-Riversade projections shows that the waters associated with crude oil have a chloride-sodium and potassium or sulphated sodic and slightly bicarbonated sodium or potassium facies. Moreover, the hydrophysico chemical plot shows that the quality of this water is poor and above all a degraded quality.
Keywords— Agriculture, Irrigation, Hydrochimestry, Pollution, Ajdabiya, Libya.
Approaches for Enhancing Nitrogen Use Efficiency in some Upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes under Water Stress Conditions
Abstract— Water stress causes serious yield loss of upland rice under water stress condition due to reduction in various physiological parameters, more particularly nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate six indigenous upland rice genotypes (viz., Mairen Ake-er, Soksu Ajoha, Soksu Abara, Chubok Abara, Bijor Soksu, and Inglongkiri) from North Hill zones (i.e. Karbi Anglong) for higher NUE and yield potential under different water regimes (Full irrigation & No water + 5000ppm of 6000PEG spray at tillering and heading stages). Real Time Nutrient Management (RTNM) approaches were used to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen for maximum yield and higher NUE under physiological drought condition. As such, amount of nitrogen fertilizer received by each of the varieties during growing period was 130 kgN/ha (1300ppm=1.3%) irrespective of water regimes. The genotypes showed differences in grain yield, plant height, chlorophyll content, proline, nitrate reductase, N-content and N-uptake. The variety Inglongkiri with the highest score corresponding to total N-uptake (88.85%), NUE (25.78%) and HI (43.51%), and the lowest reduction in grain yield (1.6%) has emerged as suitable genotype under water stress condition as compared to the irrigated one. Inglongkiri, a developed variety of Assam (RARS, Diphu), was found physiologically efficient among the varieties tested. This variety possesses the adaptive traits, especially higher N use efficiency, higher yield and attributes under physiological drought condition. Therefore, Inglongkiri may be taken as a donor in breeding programme for direct seeded upland limited moisture condition, and can be grown suitably under agro climatic conditions of elsewhere in Assam during Ahu season.
Keywords— Chlorophyll, grain yield, leaf area, plant height, proline, rice, water productivity.
Development of Food Security through Integrated Bio-Cycles Farming System in Manokwari, Papua, Indonesia
Abstract— Indonesia’s Law No. 18/2012 defines food security as the condition in which all people, in all households, at all times have sufficient food in both quantity and quality to enable them to live healthy, active, productive and sustainable lives, and that the food is safe, diverse, nutritious, equitably distributed and affordable, and does not conflict with religion, beliefs or culture. According to the Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas, Manokwari District in Province of West Papua was categorized as priority 2, strongly priority for improvement. The aim of this program was developing integrated bio-cycles farming system to improve their level of food security. The program was focused in Mansuburi and Wariori village, Masni Sub-district, Manokwari District, West Papua, Indonesia, from August 2015 for multi-years activities. Program was developed in cooperation between Kemendes PDTT (Ministry of Village, Development of Disadvantaged Areas and Transmigration); UGM Yogyakarta and local goverment of Manokwari District.
The availability of food especially the production of rice, maize, cassava in Manokwari were relatively less developed. Based on the indicators of Normative Consumption per Capita Ratio (NCPR), the ratio of consumption to production in Manokwari was relatively high deficits (> 1.50) due to the limited rice area. Percentage of villages with no access to land and natural fresh water is quite low (<10%)., because of large area and high presipitation in Papua. The poverty was high (25-35%) causes a low access to food. About 30-40% of households have no access to clean water directly. Land conversion from forest area to Sawit estate area around Wariori river caused annual flooding that destroyed 60 ha of agricultural land during rain season since 2014, but the dried effect of El Nino phenomen in 2015 was strongly affecting agricultural production and food security.
Development of master plan for food security 2015-2019 through (i) capacity building of human resources, (ii) natural resource management (iii) business management, would give smart and futuristic perpective program for food security. Facilitating menu 1 (improved seed and fertilizer), menu 2 (infrastructure of check dam, technical irrigation), menu 3 (hand-tractor, handsrayer, cultivator, transplator, composting unit), and menu 4 (rice milling unit, power threser, post-harvest machines) would be very usefull for food security, although delayed in execution. Technical assistance by expert from UGM Yogyakarta improved technical capability in managing natural resource for improvement of food security. The role of 2 assistants that were staying in the village was very important for community empowerment to support food security.
Keywords: community empowerment, Top of Form, food security, integrated farming, master plan, world food program.
Abstract—Harumanis is a very popular green eating mango variety which has been planted commercially in the State of Perlis, Malaysia. However, several variations such as fruit shape and tree architecture which are apparent on field have caused confusing to the farmers as well as consumers of the ‘genuine’ Harumanis. This study was designed to observe the variation among Harumanis population at several locations in Malaysia. Samples were classified into two treatments based on their tree architecture: droop Harumanis and erect Harumanis. The samples were collected from six farmers’ plot in Perlis, Kedah and Johor. Samples were subjected to fruit quality and branch strength analysis. Fruit quality characterisations and branch strength analysis revealed significant variation among treatments. Fruits harvested from droop Harumanis tree was bigger than erect Harumanis. Droop Harumanis fruit samples recorded higher value for relative water content, moisture content and modulus of elasticity while erect Harumanis recorded higher value for fresh-weight basis density and modulus of rupture. This study indicated that morphological characterisations play an important role in determining phenotypic variation in inter-variety population including Harumanis.
Keywords—branch strength analysis, fruit quality analysis, Harumanis, Mangifera indica L., modulus of rupture.
Molecular characterization of cadmium-resistant Cupriavidus spp. and Ralstonia solanacearum isolated from soil and plants in Taiwan
Abstract—Cadmium is a natural heavy-metal element. It is highly toxic and a vital industrial pollutant to the environment. In order to survive in heavy-metal polluted environments, some bacteria can withstand high concentrations of heavy metals in environment due to their specific mechanisms, including the transport of heavy metal ions out of the cell. Three kinds of membrane-bound-proteins are known to participate in this transport. The objective of this study was to determine the cadmium-resistant properties and possible mechanism among strains of Cupriavidus metallidurans (= Ralstonia eutropha), C. taiwanensis (=R. taiwanensis) and Ralstonia solanacearum isolated from soil and plants in Taiwan. Strains tested include six strains, rcd 6, 8, 19 (C. metallidurans) and rcd 12, 14, 21 (C. taiwanensis), from cadmium-polluted soil, seventeen strains, nod 1 to nod 5 and nod s1 to s12 (C. taiwanensis) from root nodules of two Mimosa species (M. pudica and M. diplotricha), and ten strains of R. solanacearum isolated from different diseased plants. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA ITS and nifH gene regions were used to confirm the taxonomic classification of these bacteria. However, the 624-bp PCR product of nifH gene was only amplified from strains nod 1 to nod 3 and nod s1 to s12, but not from other tested strains of Cupriavidus and Ralstonia spp. These tested strains could tolerate cadmium within the range from 0.67 to 6.70 mM. The gene, czcC, thought to encode the outer membrane factor (OMF) of czc efflux system, was found in fifteen tested strains (rcd 6, 8, 12, 14, 19, 21; nod s1 to s6, s9, s11; PSS161) by PCR. Especially, strains rcd 12, 14, and 21 which could tolerate higher cadmium concentration (6.70 mM) harbored the entire czc operon. In addition, the PCR products revealed that cadmium-tolerant strains contained at least a portion of the czc operon and efflux mechanism was confirmed by cadmium uptake test. The results here indicated that cadmium resistant capability in Cupriavidus spp. and R. solanacearum was related to the presence of czcC or czc operon.
Keywords—cadmium-resistant genes (czc operon), Cupriavidus spp., efflux system, Ralstonia solanacearum.
Abstract— In the present study, it is proposed to characterize the physicochemical of the water of the Lower Sebou sub-basin in the Gharb region used mainly in irrigation. The physicochemical characterization of the raw waters of the Sebou revealed that this river is very loaded with mineral and organic matters and have a wide variation in the chemical composition:
*the electrical conductivity (EC), varies between a minimum of 629μS/cm and a maximum of 2370 μS/cm;
*the average pH is between 8 and 8.77. The pH is slightly basic but remains acceptable according to standard;
*the ammonium concentration varies between 0.04 and 2.66 mg/L;
*concentrations of nitrates NO3- have a maximum value of 196.9 mg/L and a minimum value of 0.24 mg/L;
*the concentration of ion Cl- has a maximum value of 385.53 mg/L and a minimum value of 145.55 mg/L;
*for sulfate ion SO4 --, the maximum concentrations is 359.29 mg /L and the minimum value is 37.62 mg /L;
*the maximum and minimum bicarbonate ion concentrations are 362.34 mg / L and 75.64 mg /L;
*calcium Ca2+ ion contents range from 220.4 to 97.6 mg /L;
* for magnesium ion Mg2 + the maximum concentration is 124.08 mg / L and the minimum value is 17.28 mg/L;
* Na + ion concentrations in water range from 2530 mg /L to 51 mg /L;
*K + ion concentrations in surface waters range from 17.55 mg /L to 2.54 mg /L.
In conclusion, this study shows that the waters of the lower Sebou have a high mineral load but remain within the limits of the Moroccan irrigation standard. The waters of the Sebou are too polluted and we recommend that all domestic and industrial wastewaters should be treated appropriately to reduce the nuisance to the receiving environment and to compensate for the loss of this coveted and prized water resource.
Keywords— Sebou River, Waters, Hydrochemistry, Agricultural, Irrigation, Gharb, Morocco.
Characterization of antifungal activity of endophytic Penicillium oxalicum T 3.3 for anthracnose biocontrol in dragon fruit (Hylocereus sp)
Abstract— A group of 126 endophytic fungi was isolated from dragon fruit plants in Malaysia. Dual culture and disc diffusion test revealed that seven strains could suppress the growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Of all the potential strains, strain T3.3 exhibited the best antagonistic activity by producing an inhibition zone of 12±1.0 mm in dual culture test. Disc diffusion test using crude extract produced by this fungus could inhibit the growth of C.gloeosporioides by 33.33±2.89%. The diffused non volatile metabolite produced by this strain suppressed the growth of the pathogen by 97% after 7 days of incubation. Based on morphological characteristics and ITS region sequence, strain T3.3 was identified as Penicillium oxalicum. The carbon utilization profile in Biolog FF Microplate analysis revealed that P.oxalicum T3.3 is a versatile microorganism. P.oxalicum T3.3 was found to produce β-glucanase and chitinase with activity of 3.38 U/mL and 1.19 U/mL respectively. In addition, the ethylacetate extract of P.oxalicum T3.3 could suppress the growth of C.gloeosporioides. Scanning electron microscopy study showed that the release of extracellular antifungal metabolites from the endophytic P.oxalicum T3.3 had caused abnormal hyphal growth of C.gloeosporioides. Treatment with the crude extract from this fungus on dragon fruit could control anthracnose disease in this fruit in vivo. Thus, endophytic Penicillium oxalicum T3.3 is considered as a potential biological control agent of anthracnose disease in dragon fruit.
Keywords— Antifungal, dragon fruit, endophytic fungi, Penicilium oxalicum.
Assessment of potential cancer protection of cosmetic products of agro-food origin by Zeolite Scaffolds
Abstract— In this work, three different pure inorganic zeolite membranes and three hybrid PLA-containing Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs) were fabricated and compared with each other in virtue of their ability to interact with cells for in vitro test applications. Additionally, we report their performances in cell experiments of novel olive oil-containing cosmetics by using two cell lines with (MCF-10A) epithelial and (MCF-7) epithelial-like cancer characteristics. Our in vitro results revealed that all zeolite scaffolds permit to obtain higher cell densities compared to pure polymeric scaffolds. We also describe that epithelial cells preferentially adhere on pure membranes according to decreasing order: Linde type L>Fe-S-1>Fe-ZSM-5. Moreover, we evidenced an opposite behavior of cancer cells that prefer to adhere and growth on MMM scaffolds. This study shows that the anticancer characteristics of novel cosmetics of natural origin can be easily determined and emphasized using zeolite membranes.
Keywords— Cell culture, Cosmetics, PZC, Scaffolds, Zeolite membranes.