Thursday 13 September 2018

Agriculture Journal: August 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-8, august 2018

Purification and properties of polygalacturonase associated with the infection process of Colletotrichum truncatum CP2 in chilli

AbstractIn this study, polygalacturonase enzyme produced by Colletotrichum truncatum CP2 was partially purified by aqueous two-phase system and the properties of this enzyme was characterized. The highest yield (57.4%) and purification fold (5.1) was obtained using 22% PEG 6,000/15% sodium citrate comprising crude load of 16% (w/w) at pH 7.0 with addition of 1.0% (w/w) sodium chloride. The partially purified PG remained active over a wide range of pH (2.5-6.0) and the optimum activity was obtained at pH 5.0. Incubation of the partially purified PG at 40 and 50 °C for 30 min caused the activity of PG to decrease up to 20% and 40%, respectively. However, no significant changes in the activity when the enzymes were incubated up to 4 h at 40 and 50 °C. The results from this study suggested that ATPS comprising of PEG and sodium citrate could be potentially used as an alternative method for purification of PG.

Keywords Chilli, Colletotrichum truncatum, polygalacturonase, aqueous two-phase system.

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Study of Macroinvertebrates Assemblage as an Indication of a Tropical Freshwater Lagoon Water Quality: Ono Lagoon (Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa)

Abstract This study aimed to assess the water quality of Ono lagoon using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. The Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) scoring system and the Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) were used to assess the ecosystem health of water. Samples were monthly collected from September 2015 to August 2016. A total of 12145 macroinvertebrates belonging to 47 families, 17 orders, 5 classes and 3 phyla were identified. Macroinvertebrates were mainly composed of Arthropoda, Mollusca and Annelida. The most abundant taxa was Insecta (83.14%) followed by Gastropoda (6.65%) and whereas the least abundant taxa were Achaeta (6.19%), Crustacea (2.39%) and Arachnida (1.62%). The BMWP score was 140, indicating that water was neither very clean nor significantly altered aquatic habitat. According to the PTI, the water was moderately polluted based on the number of moderately pollution-sensitive organisms (52.96%) and the number of aquatic organisms which are fairly and very sensitive to pollution (34.6%). These results showed that biological quality of Ono lagoon can be considered as acceptable.

Keywords BMWP scoring system, Macroinvertebrates, Ono Lagoon, Pollution Tolerance Index, Water quality.

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Hydroponic hop crop (Humulus lupulus L.) under greenhouse conditions in Mexico City.

Abstract H. lupulus is a dioecious plant member of the Cannabaceae family whose female flowers are used in the brewing industry. The value of female plants lies in the lupulin glands that contain resins and essential oils required for the flavor and aroma of beer. Hop crop growths between 35 ° and 55 ° latitude north and south, however, it has been possible to cultivate where conditions does not resemble those observed in the mentioned latitudes. Even more, hop has been hydroponic cultivated in traditional crop areas. Hydroponics provides controlled conditions, isolation and all needed nutrients in an aqueous solution. The aim of this work was to establish a hydroponic hop culture in greenhouse conditions, using a modified Hoagland nutrient solution. An average daily growth rate of 1.17 cm was obtained by rhizome plants and of 1.38 cm for those from freshly germinated seedlings, and an average overall height of 218 cm, an adequate growth when compared to the background of this crop. The data obtained show that hydroponics hop crops can be settle in areas with different conditions from those of the traditional cultivation zone.

Keywords Brewing industry, hop, hydroponics, rhizome, seedling.

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Determining the best Lentil (Lens culinaris) and Mustard (Brassica campestris) Intercrop Combination to Improve Biomass Yield and Economic Returns on the Yield in Southern Region of Bangladesh

Abstract An intercropping experiment on mustard with lentil was conducted during rabi season of 2013-14 and 2014-15 at the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Rahmatpur, Barisal to find out suitable intercrop combination for higher profitability and economic return. Sole lentil (100%), sole mustard (100%) and five intercrop combinations {one row of lentil and one row of mustard (1:1), one row of mustard in between two rows of lentil (2:1), one row of mustard in between three rows of lentil (3:1), one row of mustard in between four rows of lentil (4:1) and two rows of mustard in between four rows of lentil (4:2)} were evaluated in the present study. Significantly the highest lentil (1.91 t/ha) and mustard yield (1.48 t/ha) were obtained from their respective sole crops. Lentil yield was reduced (17-34%) due to intercropping, but it was compensated by the mustard yield. Moreover, land equivalent ratios (LER) of the intercrop treatments were higher than those of sole crops. The highest (2.29t/ha) lentil equivalent yield (LEY) was obtained from T5 treatment (One row of lentil + Three rows of mustard). This treatment also gave the highest LER (1.65), gross return (Tk 182400/ha), net return (Tk. 103200/ha) and benefit cost ratio (2.29).

Keywords— Corroboration, Lentil (Lens culinaris), Mustard (Brassica campestris), Intercropping and Equivalent yield.

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Tracking of Diversity among a Wide Local Collection of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Landraces in Bangladesh

Abstract Genetic diversity of twenty bitter gourd genotypes based on ten characters was measured through multivariate analysis. The 20 genotypes fell into five distant clusters. The cluster IV comprised the maximum number (6) of genotypes followed by same in cluster II and cluster III (5). The cluster I and V comprised 3 and 1genotypes respectively. The highest inter-cluster distance (64.53) was observed between the cluster III and V. The lowest inter-cluster distance (7.05) was observed between the cluster II and III. The inter-cluster distances were larger than the intra-cluster distances. The intra-cluster distance in the entire five clusters was more or less low indicating that the genotypes within the same cluster were closely related. Fruit diameter and fruits per plant were the important component characters having higher contribution to the genetic divergence. Path co-efficient analysis revealed that branch per vine, fruits length, and fruit diameter had positive direct effect on fruit yield. Wide genetic diversity was observed in 20 genotypes of bitter gourd, which were grouped into five clusters. The genotypes of clusters III were more diverse from the genotypes of cluster V.Fruit diameter and fruits per plant were found responsible for the maximum diversity. Hybridization between the genotypes of cluster III and cluster V will manifest the wide genetic variability. Considering group distance and the agronomic performance, the inter genotypic crosses between G16 and G1; G16 and G17; G16 and G10; G16 and G4; G16 and G13 might be suitable choice for future hybridization programme.

Keywords Diversity, Path co-efficient, Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.), Landraces, Agronomic performance and Hybridization.

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Floristic Structure of Yukarisevindikli Natural Pasture in Tekirdag, Turkey

Abstract This research was conducted in Yukarisevindikli village natural pasture in Tekirdag province at Trakya (Thrace) region in Turkey. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between plant species composition and different management techniques of Yukarisevindikli natural pasture. Measurements on pasture were made at 3 different management system (grazed, abondened, mowed) units. Some ecological indicators were investigated such as frequency families, lifeforms, life spam and phytogeographical regions. The most widely spread species on grazed and abondened units were scented grass (Chrysopogon gryllus). Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens were determined common in mowed pasture units. Hemicryptophytes were dominant in the investigated area, followed by therophytes, chamaphytes and geophytes.

Keywords Pasture, biodiversity, land use, vegetation.

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Agriculture Journal: July 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-7, july 2018

Potential of Mealybugs Infestation, Planococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in an Agroforestry System in Coffee Crops

AbstractThe association of tree species to coffee plantations is a common practice in coffee crops, and studies must be performed to establish the effects of these associations. Pests such as the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso), and the pacificus mealybug, Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), can host in several plants and should be studied in relation to this integration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of associated trees to be a source of infestation for coffee crops. The treatments consisted of acrocarpus (Acrocarpus fraxinifolius), African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis), teak plants (Tectona grandis) and macadamia (Macadamia sp.), as well as the coffee tree Coffea Arabica cv. Mundo Novo. Food preference was studied in laboratory through the test of free choice. Mortality, development and reproduction were also evaluated on each host. Attractiveness of these plants towards the coffee tree was tested by means of an olfactometer, whereby the scale insects were exposed for 15 minutes to the odors of these plants. Both scales settled in all tested plants but the trees did not appear to be suitable hosts. High mortality was found on trees. These scales showed no olfactory preference between the coffee tree and the other tested species and teak leaves had even a repellent effect. It is concluded that acrocarpus, mahogany, macadamia and teak are not potential sources of infestation of mealybugs to the coffee tree, and by consequence they do not represent a threat to the crop.

KeywordsPlanococcus citri, Planococcus minor, Biology, Food Preference, Olfatometry.

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Water productivity and yield of Paddy Rice cultivation under AWD irrigation management in Pingtung, southern Taiwan

AbstractDecreasing water input while maintaining grain yield remains a challenge for World to produce rice sustainably. In recent years, the Alternate wetting and Drying Irrigation(AWD)has been developed toward Asian’ farmers. However, the gap observed is the low assessment of its performances, particularly in Taiwan.

The aim of this study is to determine whether AWDI management could maintain grain yield with reduced water input.

AWD approach experiment field was conducted in National Pingtung University, in Southern Taiwan. A two leaves old rice seedling, TAINAN11 was arranged in a randomized complete block design with five water treatments: AWD2cm, AWD3cm, AWD3cm/w, AWD4cm and AWD5cm with respectively 2cm and 3 cm water depth monitoring by soil hairline cracks; 3cm, 4 cm, and 5cm weekly irrigation. The irrigation regimes were done by AWD technics. The plant water status was assessed through soil water content. Crop growth, grain yield, and water productivity were measured.

The results showed that grain yields under AWD3cm, AWD2cm and AWD3cm/w presented the high yield and irrigation water productivity about 0.211, 0.208 and 0.205 respectively. The AWD4cm and AWD5cm despite the high-water depth presented low yield with respectively 3081 Kg/ha and 2604 Kg/ha.

The results confirmed also that AWD3cm and more precisely AWD3cm/w could obtain comparable grain yield close to farmers practices with fewer irrigations. These findings suggested that AWD with 3 cm water depth (AWD3cm and AWD3cm/w) could be used for water-saving while maintaining grain yield in paddy rice production.

Keywords—Grain yield, Water productivity, Alternate Wetting and Drying, AWD.

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Influence of Baobab Leaf Enrichment on the Physicochemical, Sensory and Nutritional Characteristics of Plantain/Cashew kernels Composite Flours

Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the nutritional value and sensory acceptance of Baobab leaf enriched plantain- cashew kernel meal. Composite flours formulated from plantain and cashew almond were enriched with baobab leaf powder at substitution levels of 10%, 15% and 20%. The biochemical composition, minerals, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, sensory properties and nutritional parameters of the enriched composite flours were measured. The addition of baobab leaf powder evidenced significant (p <0.05) increase in protein, fiber, vitamin C, main mineral elements, total polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity; but dropped the lipids and carbohydrates contents. With sensory evaluation, cashew-almond-based composite meal formulas substituted for 10% by baobab leaf powder showed a similar overall sensory acceptance to non-enriched cashew-nut kernels. In addition, the ingestion of these meal formulas by the young rats was favorable to their growth. Thus, diets incorporating 10% baobab leaves are more suitable for consumption and growth of young rats.

Keywords Flour, plantain-cashew nut, enrichment, Baobab, leaves.

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Nutritional and Physiological Effects of Gradual Fish Replacement by Volvariella volvacea Powder in Growing Rats

Abstract This work aimed to evaluate the effect of substitution of fish proteins by powder of Volvariella volvacea, an edible mushroom of Côte d'Ivoire, in the growing rats. The gradual substitution of fish proteins by mushroom proteins leads to a decrease in the growth performance of rats. With 75 % and 100 % mushroom in diets, body weight gain, food efficiency and protein efficiency ratio are negative. These diets do not affect the average weight of some organs (heart, liver and spleen), except for the kidney average weight that increases as mushroom levels increase in diets. Likewise, the average weight of abdominal fat decreases and disappears as the mushroom incorporation rate increases. The incorporation of mushroom powder into the control diet provokes changes in the mean value of some serum metabolites and electrolytes. The popular belief that states that mushrooms proteins can substitute meat proteins is not valid. Mushrooms can be proposed as dietetic regime for obese people.

Keywords Rats, Volvariella volvacea, growth, metabolites.

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Effects of supplementation on the mycelial ergosterol content of Agaricus bisporus grown on media formulated with olive oil subproducts.

Abstract Supplementation is one of the most relevant procedures for mushroom growth modulation. Little is known about the influence of supplementation on the concentrations of metabolites with potential health benefits. Experiments on compost require long cultivation times. Similar composition has been detected in fruiting bodies and mycelia. Therefore, the mycelial composition can be assumed to be similar to that of the fruiting bodies. This study examines the effect of supplementing a minimal defined growth medium with components derived from olive oil industry subproducts on A. bisporus mycelial composition, primarily ergosterol, when grown on minimal defined liquid and solid media in an attempt to obtain a higher concentration of ergosterol (pro-vitamin D2).

bisporus supplemented with alperujo meal (ALPM) and olive leaf meal (OLM) led to higher ergosterol content than that of the fungi grown in non-supplemented media (5.64±0.47, 6.60±0.86 and 4.08±0.53 mg/g p.s. in MDLm and 5.36±0.39, 6.79±0.41 and 4.22±0.43 mg/g p.s. in MDSm). Western blotting was used to validate the cultivation results. Three proteins (ERG2, ERG6, and EGR11) involved in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway were significantly upregulated, indicating the importance of supplementation to ergosterol biosynthesis.

This report represents the first comprehensive study on the protein expression profiling of supplementation studies directed to improve metabolites with potential health benefits in A. bisporus. It provides new insights and a better understanding of the development of cultivation processes directed to increase ergosterol biosynthesis. These results could be used to obtain mycelia with higher vitamin D2 content after irradiation with UVB light.

Keywords Agaricus bisporus, cultivation medium supplementation, ergosterol, olive leaf meal, two-phase pomace.

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Agriculture Journal: June 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-6, june 2018

Analysis of Determinant Factors to Loan Repayment among Rice Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria

Abstract Analysis of loan repayment among rice farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria was studied using one hundred and eighty respondents. These respondents were selected using multi stage sampling procedure and purposive selection procedure. The objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the broiler farmers, identify the various broiler management practices the farmers put their credit into, assess the determinant factors influencin loan repayments among the farmers and identify the constraints to loan repayment by the farmers in the study area. Structured questionnaire was used to collect information for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive such as frequency distribution table and percentage responses, inferential statistics such as Logit model and factor analysis. The results of the study indicated that the sampled farmers were youthful, females, married, and had large household size and farming experience of above 11 years. Also, microfinance and commercial banks were the major sources of credit to the farmers. In addition, the major uses the credit was put into by the farmers were in purchasing feeds and buying of drugs and vaccines. The determinant factors to rice farmers’ loan repayment ability were household size, extension services, membership of organization, farming experience, educational level and off-farm income. The constraints to the farmers’ ability to repay their loan were high interest rate, low productivity, high collateral, poor loan assessment and changes in bank policy changes. The need to enhance the farmers’ access to training, off- farm income and the need to give rebate to farmers that repay their loans at appropriate time were recommended.

Keywords Analysis, Loan, Repayment, Broiler, Farmers, Enugu State, Nigeria.

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Analysis of the Environmental Effect of Pig Production in Okigwe Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

Abstract The research was aimed at accessing environmental effect of pig production in Okigwe local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to describe the socio economic characteristics of the respondents; identify the environmental effect of pig farming on the environs; identify the method of pig management and waste disposal methods among the respondents, determine the factors affecting the choice of waste disposal methods by respondents; and identify the constraints to wastes managements pig production in the study area. A total of 60 farmers were selected using purposive and multi stage random sampling techniques. The data were collected using questionnaire and secondary source. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical such as percentage and frequency distribution table for objectives i, ii and iv. The objective iii was captured using multi nominal logit model. The results showed that most of the respondents were aged, males, educated and had large household size. More so, on the method of pig management, intensive method was the most popular. Additionally, open lagoon, dumping in the farm and store in the bag were the major methods for waste disposal in pig production. In addition, the result of the multinomial regression model on the choice of methods of wastes disposal showed that age of the respondents, farming experience and membership of cooperative organization were positive and significant. The major constraints to wastes management in pig production in the study area were poor access to credit, poor road network, water problem and high costs of labour. There is need to ensure farmers’ access to credit, good road net work and water availability.

KeywordsAnalysis, Environmental effect, Pig production, Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria.

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Effect of Operation Variables of Potato Digger with Double Chain Conveyors on Crop Handling and Machine Performance

Abstract The experiments were conducted at Al- Gimma Agricultural Scheme in the Tragma area- Shendi locality, River Nile State during April – 2017, to study the effect of some operational factors related to harvesting machine such as tractor forward speed (4.4, 5.6 and 6.7km/hr, harvesting depth (16, 18 and 21cm) and the conveyer inclination (15° and 20°) on some of potato crop handling such as lifting potatoes, cut of potatoes, Bruised and Total bruised (Damage) index potato and some of machine performance such as travel reduction (wheel slippage), effective field capacity and fuel consumption. The results showed that, there were significant influences of forward speed, harvesting depth and conveyer inclination on tubers lifting, cut of potatoes while the effect of different forward speed showed no significant effect on potatoes damage, further no significant on the percentage of scuffed damage tubers, peeler damage tubers, severe damage tubers, total damage index as effecting by conveyer inclination. As the digging depth of digger increased from 16 to 18, the lifting potatoes increased from 93.42 to 94.42%, while decreased from 94.42% to 87.72% when the digging depth decreased from 21cm to 18cm. Significant and consistent increase in tubers lifting percentage was recorded due to increase in conveyer inclination. Less percentage of scuffed, peeler, severe damage tubers and total damage index of 0.2%, 0.0%, 1.6% and 21.9, respectively were recorded at speed of 6.7km/hr, while the highest percentage of scuffed, peeler and severe damage tubers of 2.1%, 0.3% and 2.7% respectively were recorded at Speed of 4.3km/hr.

Statistical analysis (P<0.05) showed that increasing the forward speed, increased effective field capacity and fuel consumption significantly while there was no significance effect on wheel slippage. Furthermore, increasing the digging depth increased the wheel slippage and fuel consumption significantly where the effective field capacity significantly decreased. The conveyer inclination showed no significant effect on machine performance.

Keywords potato digger machine, lifting potatoes, cut of potatoes, bruised potato, and Total Damage index and machine performance.

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Predicting of Field Working Days of Planting and Harvesting Operations for Sorghum Crops Damazeen Area (Sudan)

Abstract Prediction model was developed to predict suitable field workdays for planting and harvesting operations in South Central Sudan (Damazeen). Predictions were made from a computer model which simulates daily soil moisture in the top 30 cm of soil depth using 11 years of daily meteorological records. The model was tested and validated by comparing its output with the observed workdays during the 2004 farming season on Clay soil types. Results show that there was good agreement between the observed and predicted values using established tractability criteria. A study was conducted to determine the appropriate number of working days in mechanized planting and semi-mechanized harvesting of Sorghum in Damazeen, Sudan in 2010. The number of working days for mechanized planting was estimated about 20 days, and for harvesting was about 23 days with 99% confidence. The allowed limit of soil moisture in clay-loam texture, for having the capability of running field operations was determined to be 14.5% of the weight. In this limit, soil has acceptability of 6.34 mm of water (rainfall) for sowing and 10.62 mm for harvesting at the depth of operation in each turn of rainfall or irrigation. At sowing and harvesting times, 19.3% and 7.5% of the rainfall is converted to runoff. Therefore, the maximum allowable rainfall in a situation that doesn’t change the soil condition from the proper situation for mechanized sowing and harvesting operation is 7.6 and 11.41 mm, respectively, in each rainfall turn. For the drainage of excess moisture after rainfall, in sowing and harvesting operations, five and seven days are required, respectively.

Keywords simulation model, drainage, proper working days, runoff, soil profile tractability.

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Use of Triple Bagging Systems and Lippia Multilora Leaves for the Protein-Energy Quality Preservation of Cowpea Seeds (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

Abstract Cowpea is a food legume highly appreciated in the traditional diet of the populations in Ivory Coast. It is confronted with storage and / or preservation problems which prevent his production in large quantity. This experiment carried out in Ivory Coast, made it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the triple bagging systems combined or not with the use of Lippia multiflora leaves on maintaining the cowpea seeds protein-energy quality during preservation. Thus, a 6x6 factorial design was considered to evaluate the cowpea seeds protein-energy quality. The first factor consisted to six types of packaging namely: one control with polypropylene bag (TST), one triple bagging batch (composed of 2 internal layers in independent high density polyethylene 80 mm thick and a woven bag polypropylene) without biopesticide (H0), and four batches (H1, H2, H3 and H4) containing respectively (0.7%; 2.5; 4.3%; and 5%) biopesticide. And second factor storage time, it included six periods of observation (0; 1; 2; 4.5; 7 and 8 months). Results showed significant influence of the interaction between types of treatments and storage time upon protein-energy quality of cowpea. Indeed, the polypropylene control was destocked at 4.5 months and very significant changes were recorded in the protein-energy quality of the cowpea seeds. Also, in the triple bagging systems without biopesticide significant changes were observed to seven months of storage in the contents of moisture (10.03% to 12.55%); ash (2.73% to 2.40%); fiber (5.15% to 4.37%); lipids (1.86% to 1.40%); proteins (22.75% to 15.21%); starch (53.80% to 42.27%); total carbohydrates (62.62% to 68.44%); total sugars (15.89% to 8.15%); reducing sugars (3.12% to 2.20%) and energy value (358% to 347.20%). However, cowpea seeds stored in triple bagging systems with biopesticide retain protein energy characteristic better for eight months period. The average values of analysis tests remained around: 12.06% humidity; 2.60% ash; 4.98% fiber; 18.50% proteins; 1.73% lipids; 52.13% starch; 65.13% total carbohydrates; 14.10% total sugars; 3.00% reducing sugars and finally 350.05% energy value. The results of the multivariate analysis indicate that the 0.7% biopesticide concentration is effective and maintains the protein-energy quality of the cowpea seeds for up to 8 months.

Keywords Cowpea, preservation, triples bagging, biopesticide, protein energy characteristics.

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Environmental study of the role of anthropogenic factors on the possible pollution of coastal marine waters in Dakhla Bay – Morocco

Abstract The sites used for breeding and the beaches are ranked in descending order of health in 4 categories A, B, C and D according to the estimate of the microbiological quality and evaluation of the chemical contamination (circular 15.08.12 d 'August 2012). After classification, the target areas are subject to regular health surveillance, intended to verify the durability of the characteristics that have based their classification and to detect possible episodes of contamination. This monitoring covers the measurement of microbiological, chemical (heavy metal) and marine biotoxin parameters in bivalve molluscs, as well as phytoplankton pests in seawater.

The Main objective of the present survey is to make a diagnosis of the state of health of the principal beaches of the region of Dakhla Oued Eddahaba bay in years 2015, 2016 and 2017. Our sampling focused on 4 beaches: Foum Lbouir, El Moussafir, Lakeira, and Tourist Area. Bacteriological analyzes were conducted to identify the microorganisms that are indicative of faecal pollution including faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci and Escherichia coli and their enumeration by the filter membrane method on nutrient media Tergitol7 Agar, Litsky, Slanetz & Bartley.

In addition to microbiological monitoring of seawaters, the air temperature was measured "in situ" using a mercury thermometer, the temperature of the water using a pH meter, the tide (high or low) and finally the estimate of the number of bathers.

The Main results obtained made it possible to classify the four beaches in 3 categories according to the Moroccan standard for monitoring bathing water quality NM 03.7.200. The beaches of the Al Moussafir and Tourist PK25 are classified A. The beaches of Foum Lebouir with medium quality waters is classified A or B. Only the beach of Lakheira is very polluted and classified in category C.

Keywords Coast, Beaches, Swimming, Pollution, Microbiology, Coliforms, Streptococci, Dakhla, Morocco.

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Evaluation of the CropSyst Model on Soybean (Glycine max L.) in the Tropics

Abstract South Sulawesi is one of the soybean producer provinces in Indonesia. As in other tropical areas, South Sulawesi season comprises is dry and rainy seasons, so modeling of crops such as CropSyst can be very helpful in predicting planting time, providing irrigation, and applying the right fertilizer to get maximum soybean productivity. To apply the CropSyst model in the tropics such as South Sulawesi, calibration and validation of several plant parameters are required. Further calibration and validation results need to be tested to see the accuracy of predicting models. The results of soybean evaluation in South Sulawesi showed that RMSE (0.09 and 0.11), MBE (-0.01 and 0.11), MAE (0.08 and 0.11), and d (0.92 and 0.81) had values showing that CropSyst model accurately to predict grain yield of soybean in South Sulawesi.

Keywords soybean, CropSyst, calibration, validation, evaluation.

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Hydrogeochemical of Oued Ouerrha and Oued Sra, Taounate (Rif, Morocco)

AbstractThe superficial waters of Taounate district are particularly affected by the pollution problem that threatens their physicochemical quality. The city of Taounate, because of its growing demography, these superficial watercourses are currently threatened by wastewaters discharges. In order to establish a diagnosis of their state of pollution, water samples were taken at two stations on OuedOuerrha and two others on its tributary OuedSra, to make a comparison between these two watercourses.

The physicochemical characterization of downstream stations, especially in OuedSra, shows high levels in terms of BOD5 (180 mg/L), COD (288 mg/L), and MES (152 mg/L), with a pH of 8,00 and a decrease in dissolved oxygen levels (4,8 mg/L) due essentially to urban discharges from the city of Taounate.

Otherwise, the influences of liquid discharges would certainly lead to the degradation of the quality of these waters. This situation may be aggravated by climate change, whose consequences could have adverse effects on the potential of water resources, both in terms of quantity and quality.

KeywordsMorocco, OuedOuerrha, OuedSra, Taounate, Wastewater.

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Detection of Paramyxovirus, Reovirus and Adenovirus Infection in King Snakes (Lampropeltis triangulum spp.) by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Histopathology Techniques.

Abstract Viruses diverse occur worldwide in reptilian. Paramyxoviruses that infect reptiles belong to Paramyxoviridae family and Ferlavirus genus and are one of the major agents responsible for causing pneumonia in snakes. Reptilian adenovirus has already been documented in various species of snakes, associated with liver, gastrointestinal, respiratory and central nervous system disease. Reptilian orthoreovirus has been demonstrated in several species of reptiles associated with sudden death, central nervous system disorders, skin lesions and pneumonia. In this study 3 kingsnakes (Lampropeltis triangulum spp), from a breeding in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, presented a variable clinical picture and death. Feces and organ fragments were processed by the transmission electron microcopy (negative staining) and histopathology (H & E) techniques. By the negative staining, paramyxovirus-like particles, pleomorphic roughly spherical or filamentous, ranging in diameter from 100 to 500 nm, containing internal "herring-borne" nucleocapsid and an outer envelope covered by spikes, were visualized in all samples of the feces and fragments of organs examined. In samples of the small intestine, stomach, pancreas and spleen fragments, adenovirus-like particles, isometric, nonenveloped, containing icosahedral symmetry capsid, measuring 70-90 nm in diameter, were visualized. Reovirus-like particles, isometric, nonenveloped, spherical, characterized as "complete" or "empty", measuring between 65 and 70 nm in diameter, were also visualized in samples of the feces and small intestine. By the H & E, they were observed in the spleen numerous heterophiles, hypoplastic lymphoid follicles and hyperplastic red pulp. The lung presented hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the alveolar walls, alveoli with cellular debris and mucus; numerous heterophiles and monolymphocytic inflammatory cells. The liver had a marked macro and microgoticular steatosis, with a multifocal presence of nodules in the parenchyma. Monolymphocytic hepatitis and large nuclear basophilic inclusion bodies were also observed in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and occasionally in endothelial cells. The large intestine presented monolymphocytic enteritis with hyperplasia of enteric lymph nodes and marked proliferation of eosinophils. Some areas showed flattened villi. The skin presented areas with hyperkeratosis, foci with ballooniform degeneration and presence of eosinophilic inclusion corpuscles. In these areas a large number of eosinophils were observed. The kidneys presented monolymphocytic glomerulonephritis. The evaluation of the techniques employed allowed the rapid diagnosis of the viruses in the snakes.

Keywords Transmission electron microscopy, Histopathology, Snakes, Viruses.

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Typology of Constraints and Recommended Solutions for the Agroforestry in the Cascades Region of Burkina Faso

Abstract The tree-crop and / or animal association is a source of many ecological and socio-economic benefits, but it’s facing various constraints. The main objective of this work is to identify constraints and solutions to improve the agroforestry level in the Cascades region. Specifically, it aims to identify the units of management; list the agroforestry techniques used; identify the levels and types of constraints and recommended solutions. Interviews were conducted with the supervisors of agroforestry activities from technical public offices, researchers, partners and producers from 10 villages selected according to their specificities. They focused on agroforestry practices, constraints and solutions in the management of tree-crop fields, riverbanks, nurseries, plantations and direct seedings with forest tree seeds. A typology of the constraints was made and consisted in listing them, classifying them in different types and levels. These results highlighted six kinds of units on which eight agroforestry practices were found; 41 constraints were listed, classified in three (03) levels then in 10 types. Finally, 14 solutions are recommended by the interviewed actors to remove these constraints. A synergy of actions between the actors will allow better development of agroforestry in this region.

Keywords Agroforestry, Parklands, Constraints, Solutions, Cascades Region.

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