Monday 23 September 2019

Agriculture Journal: August 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-8, August 2019

Analysis of Ecosystem Services in the Oaxacan Mixtec Region, (Tiltepec Watershed)

AbstractThe present work analyzes the sources of supply and regulation of ecosystem services (ES) in the Tiltepec watershed, Oaxaca, Mexico, specifically the production of fuelwood, water for human consumption, forage for domestic livestock, as well as regulation for runoff and sediments estimated with the MUSLE model (Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation), Random sampling points were defined according to the soil used and coverage, to determine production of fuelwood and forage. Firewood was evaluated in quadrants of 10 x 10 m for tree strata and 5 x 5 m for shrub strata. Forage production was determined with lines of 20 m and quadrants of 0.25 x 0.25 m to determine biomass and vegetation cover. Water supply was estimated with inflows from springs and the storage capacity of infrastructure works and water demand estimated with the current population and the maximum daily and hourly consumption. The estimated average fuelwood consumption was 1.4 kg person-1 day-1for a total volume of 3,189.5 m3. The estimated average forage yield was 856.6 kg ha-1 and a grazing coefficient of 13.9 ha animal unit (AU-1), with a census of 171.7 AU. The springs produce a daily volume of 150.4 m3 and the storage water capacity is 184.7 m3 for human consumption and 718.5 m3 for irrigation and recreational uses. With the MUSLE model, a reduction in runoff of 33.93% and 62.93% in specific degradation was estimated comparing the current scenario with that of 1984. The presence of ES in the Tiltepec watershed is essential to provide well-being to local people and regulation of erosion process through works, soil and water conservation practices. These will enable better provision of goods and services.

Keywords— provision and regulation services, water, forage, firewood and sediments.

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Germination Capacity in Culture Medium of Prosopis Laevigata Seeds in the Presence of Copper Sulphate

AbstractCopper is a heavy metal that has been used as an anti-fungal agent in various crops, this is why it accumulates in certain agricultural lands at levels that become toxic to plants, as well as to microflora. Cooper, although essential to plants, is toxic when found in high concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine if this element is capable of stimulating and at the same time inhibiting germination of seeds of Prosopislaevigata (mesquite) depending on concentration of CuS04.5H20 solutions. A completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and three repetitions was used to determine tolerance of mesquite seeds to copper. The variables evaluated were percentage of daily germination (PDG-A, PDG-B, and PDG-C), accumulative germination (AG-A, AG-B, and AG-C), average germination time (AGT), germination rate (GR) and anhydrous weight (AW) of mesquite seeds. The culture media supplied with concentration of 10-4 M of copper sulfate (CuS04.5H20), corresponding to treatment four (T4) showed significant differences (p≤0.05) in variable percentage of daily germination at 48 hours (PDG-B), which presented a germination of 66.7% in relation to treatment two (T2) with a concentration of 10-2 M of CuS04.5H20 and germination of 22.2%. Results obtained after 72 hours for percentage daily germination variable (PDG-C) with>p<0.1 showed that mesquite is a species that can tolerate and adapt in germination stage for culture medium with concentrations from 10-2 to 10-7M of CuS04.5H20, and consequently use of seedlings for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with copper.

Keywords— heavy metal, pesticide, germination percentage, average germination time, and culture medium.

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Rainy seasonal analysis of Physico-chemical parameters of Mukungwa River at NGARU point

Abstract Water availability and quality are important factors that determine not only where people can live, but also the quality of life. The Mukungwa river is affected by rainy season especially at Ngaru point before discharge in Nyabarongo river, where its physico – chemical properties are seasonally changed. This may cause serious problems on all forms of life in the river. Objective of this work was to assess the impacts of rainy season on physico-chemical properties of Mukugwa River before discharging into Nyabarongo River at Ngaru. The parameters such as pH, temperature, turbidity, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids (TSS), phosphates, nitrates, and ammonium were monitored in three rainy seasons: April, 2012; October, 2012 and May, 2017 respectively. In this research, pH, temperature, electric conductivity were analyzed in situ using multifunction pH-meter and others parameters, were analyzed in laboratory using electrometric, volumetric, turbidity tube and colorimetric methods. The measured values for each parameter in three seasons were analyzed using MS Excel, and then compared to their international standards for surface water delivered by World Health Organization (WHO). The findings showed high variation of TSS (134mg/l, 178mg/l, and 582mg/l), turbidity (322NTU, 317NTU and 1560NTU) and ammonium (0.498mg/L, 0.536mg/L and 0.78mg/L) in three rainy seasons assessed. The quality of Mukungwa River needs prevention measures in order to control its pollution by erosion.

Keywords physico-chemical parameters, seasonal analysis, water quality, water pollution.

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Agriculture Journal: July 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-7, July 2019

Effect of Cutting Frequency on Forage Growth and Yield in Elephant Grass in the Southern Rainforest of Nigeria

Abstract Pot experiment was conducted at Ndele, Rivers state, southern rainforest of Nigeria to determine the effect of cutting frequency on forage growth and yield in elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum. The study was a single factor experiment of cutting intervals (5 days; 10 days; 15 days and 20 days) replicated 3 times, arranged in a randomized complete block design using replicates as blocks. Data collected were plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, forage fresh weight and dry weight. Results showed that cutting frequency significantly influenced plant height or growth rate, leaf area and number of leaves. Leaf area and number of leaves reduced with higher frequency or shorter interval of cutting. Grasses cut at 20 days interval recorded the greatest number of leaves and highest leaf area. Cutting frequency markedly affected forage fresh weight and dry matter production (dry weight) and there was noticeable forage yield reduction in grasses cut at 5 days interval (higher frequency) with progressive cuttings as against those cut at 20 days interval (low frequency). Grasses cut at 20 days interval recorded the highest growth and leaf production, the most forage fresh weight and dry matter yield. 20 days interval is hereby recommended for cutting Pennistum purpureum cutting or gracing in southern rainforest of Nigeria.

Keywords Cutting interval, forage production, Pennisetum purpureum, southern rainforest, Nigeria.

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Effects of Paclobutrazol on fruit yield and physico-chemical characteristics of mango Cvs. Dashehari, Langra, Chausa and Fazri

Abstract Paclobutrazol is triazoles derivatives [(2 RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chloropheny)-4, 4-dimethyl-2- (1, 2, 4 triazole-1-yl)] Pentane - 3 - ethanol. It is taken up of xylem and translocated acropetally to sub apical meristem. Paclobutrazol is metabolized in plant in 10-15 days but persists in soil generally for more than one year Pactbutrazol was applied on a basic trunk drench (1.0 g/m, 0.5 g/m tree canopy diameter) in 21-22 year old mango tree Paclobutrazol treatment induced early ripening, reduced fruit sized when applied continuously for more than one year. However that quality was better in terms of higher TSS, total sugar, and β-carotene and Ascorbic aid.

Keywords Paclobutrazol (PBZ), Auxins (IAA), Gibbcrellins, Cytokinins and Plant growth regulator.

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Carbon stock of woody species along Altitude gradient in Alemsaga Forest, South Gondar, North Western Ethiopia


Purpose: Forest ecosystems play a significant role in the climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation. Therefore carbon determination provide clear indications of the possibilities of promoting forest development and management for mitigating of climate change through soil and vegetation carbon sequestration. The study was carried out to quantify carbon stock potential in Alemsaga Forest, South Gondar zone.

Research method: Vegetation data Collection was made using a systematic sampling method; laying six transect lines with 500 m apart and 54 quadrants of 20 m X 20 m established 200 m distant to each other along the transect lines. In these plots, abundance, DBH and heights of all woody species were recorded, and soil sample was collected 1m X1m from the four corners and center of each quadrant. General allometric model was used for estimating above and belowground biomass. The organic carbon content of the soil samples was determined in the laboratory.

Finding: A total of 66 woody plant species belong to 42 families were identified, Fabaceae was the most dominant families. The total mean above and belowground carbon stock was 216.86 ton/ha and 114.71 ton/ha respectively and soil organic carbon (SOC) 103.15 ton/ha. Above and belowground carbon increased as altitude decreased, but SOC increases with increase of altitude.

Originality/value: Carbon stock estimation in the forest helps to manage the forests sustainably from the ecological, economic and environmental points of view and opportunities for economic benefit through carbon trading to farmers.

Key word: Altitude, Carbon stock, Forest, Woody species.

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Agriculture Journal: June 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-6, June 2019

Management of Noorda blitealis Wlk. on Moringa oleifera Lam. using biorationals in the home gardens of Jaffna district, Sri Lanka

Abstract Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is one of the main crops grown for pods and leaves in Jaffna home gardens in Sri Lanka. After the introduction of Periyakulam 1 (PKM 1) Moringa, a leaf eating caterpillar (Noorda blitealis Wlk.) turned out to be a serious pest causing damage to the leaves. Considering the severity of the damage, this study was carried out to find out the suitable biorationals to manage the pest in an eco-friendly method. Using the leaf disc dipping method biorationals such as 1% neem oil, 3% neem seed kernel extract and 2.5g/L neem leaf extract were used to determine the larval mortality. Consumption of the treated leaf area was measured to determine the larval antifeedant activity for 1% neem oil, 3% neem seed kernel extract, (2.5g/L) neem leaf extract, 15% (g/mL) garlic extract and 75% fermented cow urine and ash solution. Distilled water was used as control in both experiments. The experiments were carried out at a temperature of 28.9 ± 1.13°C and 73% relative humidity in complete randomized design. On the 6th day after treatment larval mortality in 1% neem oil, 3% neem seed kernel extract and 2.5g/L neem leaf extract were 85%, 83.33% and 70% respectively. After 24 hours larvae fed with 1% neem oil, 3% neem seed kernel extract, (2.5g/L) neem leaf extract, 15% (g/mL) garlic extract and 75% fermented cow urine and ash solution showed a larval antifeedant activity of 85.51%, 84.84%, 74.18%, 76.13% and 48.16% respectively.

KeywordsMoringa oleifera, Noorda blitealis, Biorationals, Home garden.

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Viability, method and device for horticultural crops with brackish and marine water

Abstract The method that humanity has adopted to hydrate and thus give life to the plants, imitating the model that was most visible, is the rain. However, the great secret to the contribution of nutrients to the vegetables, the irrigation itself, is on earth, in the groundwater layers and aquifers that hoard and administer the water, keeping every drop of rain and distributing the water through the basins, underground rivers, watering indirectly from the mountain to the sea. The key is in the different circulation velocities of the groundwater because of the nature of the substrates. However, agriculture has taken irrigation from above as we know it and has focused especially on drainage capacity. From this point of view, saline water is not beneficial for irrigated agriculture, but may be the only source of irrigation water in large arid regions, especially in developing countries, where the extreme scarcity of freshwater and the rapidly growing population require more water.

When considering the possibility of watering with seawater without desalinating, always by means of capillarity systems, it is essential to take into consideration the different strata of soils, the distance to the groundwater, the composition of seawater, the capacity of drainage, chemical reactions of the soil with salts, etc. The modification of any of these parameters can produce effects of salinization, loss of humidity or desertification among others.

This study presents the accumulated experience through the joint collaboration between the Centre for Research in Security and food Control of the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (CRESCA) and the Aqua Maris Foundation in capillary irrigation and it proposes a system and device that allows the controlled development of different vegetal species using brackish and seawater.

Keywords desertification, desalination, reuse, underground stream seawater.

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Spotting the sensory preferences of artichokes to improve the consumption of this functional food

Abstract - Given the greater varietal supply of the globe artichoke and evaluating its use for human consumption, it is important to carry out market positioning work, including the recognition of the newly available cultivars. Sensory analysis comes up as an important instrument to assess the potential of insertion of artichoke into the market. Within this perspective, the aim of the present study was to determine the sensorial quality characteristics of three globe artichoke cultivars produced in the Rosario´s Horticultural Belt and associated with the preference of consumers. The cultivars were Opal, Madrigal and Romanesco. For sensory evaluation, the method called CATA (Check All That Apply) was used. The results of the CATA test were analyzed using multivariate statistics, applying the Correspondence Analysis. The most distinguishing elements between artichokes were the color and aroma. When associating these results with which was the artichoke that consumers liked the most, it was observed that the Romanesco obtained the best rating. Consumers preferred sweet and tender artichokes. This information could guide the production strategies of the horticulturists to offer cultivars that meet these characteristics.

Key words: artichoques, sensory analysis, CATA.

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Hepatitis A virus and environmental quality indicators in aquatic ecosystems for oyster farming in the Northeast of the State of Pará, Brazil

Abstract - Research into the occurrence of microbiological contaminants, including hepatitis A virus (HAV), in river waters intended for oyster farming is of extreme importance for public health. This study aimed to detect the occurrence of HAV in the aquatic environment for ostreiculture in northeastern Pará, Brazil, and correlate with microbiological, physico-chemical and climatological variables. The HAV research was based on the method of water concentration by filtration membrane adsorption-elution and in the organic flocculation method with skim milk, followed by Nested-PCR. Quantification of coliforms, Enterococci and heterotrophic bacteria was performed. The physico-chemical variables were measured with multiparametric probe and spectrophotometry. Positive samples were purified and submitted to sequencing. From March 2017 to December 2018, 203 samples of river water were collected and analyzed in the municipalities of Augusto Corrêa, Curuçá, Salinópolis and São Caetano de Odivelas. In 10.8% of the analyzed samples the HAV RNA was detected, in all localities the HAV was classified in genotype IB. There was no significant difference between the concentration methods of the water samples. The only physicochemical variable that most influenced HAV detection was dissolved oxygen. Regarding the bacterial indicators, the highest statistical significance occurred with thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli. The detection of HAV in the four municipalities studied shows that the virus is circulating in the aquatic environment and, therefore, in the community. In this context, more effective hygienic-sanitary measures are necessary in these communities dedicated to oyster farming.

KeywordsHepatitis A Virus, Quality Indicators, Water and Ostreiculture.

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Sunday 22 September 2019

Agriculture Journal: April 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-4, April 2019

Production of barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens) seedlings of increasing doses of domestic sewage effluent

Abstract The barbatimão is a traditional plant species of Brazilian cerrado. Barbatimão bark is widely used in the production of medicines and cosmetics. Because it is an extractive exploitation plant, the activity can be considered aggressive for plants that after having their shells removed may die. Another point to consider is the lack of a fertilization protocol. Aiming to improve the nutrition of barbatimão seedlings through the use of effluent of domestic exhaustion. This work had as objective to study the production of barbatimão seedlings in function of crescents doses of domestic exhaustion. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 10 replications. The seedlings were grown in plastic bags of 7.5 liters filled with substrates based on pinus bark. The biometric evaluations were initiated 30 days after transplanting when the plants were already established in the new container and consisted of: height of the plants (measured by means of millimeter ruler) being considered with initial point of the region of the collection until the apex of the seedling; diameter of the stem (measured by means of digital caliper) and number of leaves counted from the base to the apex of the plant, being considered as leaf the petiole of the composite leaf inserted in the branches of the plant. In general, it was concluded that barbatimão seedlings were negatively influenced by the addition of domestic effluent from household wastewater. However, studies with lower dosages than those tested in this study are suggested.

Keywordsbiomass, Agricultural production, nutritional management.

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The Role of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene in Plant Defense

Abstract A complex network of cross – talk between the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways further fine tunes plant defense responses. SA can be formed from cinnamate via o – coumarate or benzoate depending on whether the hydroxylation of the aromatic ring takes place before or after the chain – shortening reactions. SA not only functions against biotrophs, but also activates plant resistance against the below – ground disease such as root – knot nematodes. The synthesis of jasmonates and many other oxylipins is initiated by lipoxygenases (LOXs), which catalyze the regio – and stereoselective dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. JA activates plant immune responses to necrotrophic pathogens, some phloem – feeding insects and chewing herbivores. Also JA is also involved in other aspects of plant – pathogen interactions, including systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The role of ethylene (ET) in plant diseases resistance is dramatically different duo to type of pathogene and plant species. There are many evidence that show ethylene response is linked to gene for gene resistance. It is proven that there are a strong connection between different pathways related to SA, JA and ET for plant diseases resistance. So that SA – dependent and JA/ethylene – dependent pathwa ys induce expression of different sets of PR genes and result in plant resistance to different pathogens.

Keywords Jasmonic acid, Plant Resistance, Salicylic acid.

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Different land use systems improve soil fertility status of sandy soil and increase the yield of rice under rain-fed wet lowland tropical climatic conditions in Papua New Guinea

Abstract The pratical use of different land use systems(LUS) as a management strategy and the effect of the LUSon soil proprties as an indicator of soil fertility status, and the understanding of the long-term effect of the LUS, are important to maintaining optimal soil fertility and yeild of crops. In the rain-fed wet lowlandtropical soils, studies related to rice production and the associated effectson soil properties are limited to a few studies. In this study, we investigated the effects of four LUS (crop rotation, continuous cropping, manure application and fallow) on soil properties that influence soil fertility status and yield of crops under a rain-fed wet lowland tropical sandy soil conditions.The data were compared with the natural soil data obtained prior to and at the end of the study. All the LUS had no to small effects on bulk density, moisture content, electrical conductivity and pH.Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, extractable potassium, and cation exchange capacity were all higher in all the LUS.Crop rotation increased soil organic carbon and cation exchange capacity, fallow increased total nitrogen, and manure application increased available phosphorus and extractable potassium contents, respectively.The LUS had no significant effects on particle composition except that small increases in the silt contentswere observed in the continuous, rotation and fallow systems. In almost all cases, soil organic carbon content influenced the fertility status of the sandy soil and yield of rice. Higher soil organic carbon contentresulted in higher available phosphorous and extarvale potassium,enhence reulted in higher yield of rice but decreased the total nitrogen content.Our results implied that the soil organic carbon content of sandy soils needs to be managed properly for optimal soil fertility and higher yieid.

Keywords— land use systems, soil fertility, yield of rice, rain-fed, sandy soil.

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Study on financial management problems and countermeasures of public hospitals under the new reformation of the medical treatment

Abstract The reform of financial management is the top task of the new health care reform in public hospitals, and is the cornerstone that new health care reform has succeeded. This paper clarifies two basic concepts which are "New medical reform" and "Financial management of public hospitals", and on this basis, it analyzes and studies the financial management of public hospitals, and puts forward some improvement measures, such as strengthening the construction of administrative management system and improving the mode of decision-making management; building a team of high quality financial management and deepening the comprehensive budget management; perfecting cost management and control system, standardizing medical service behavior, and strengthening the management of state-owned assets; establishing and improving the financial supervision and control mechanism of public hospitals; establishing the finance risk warning, prevention and management system of hospital.

Keywords new health care reform, public hospital, financial management, improvement measures.

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Preliminary Study on Investigation of Turf Fungi Disease in Hailing District, Taizhou City, Jiangsu Province China

Abstract In order to find out the disease of turf fungi and the damage of the disease to the lawn in Hailing District of Taizhou, this paper investigates fungal diseases of lawn and grassland, such as Festuca arundinacea, Cynodon dactylon, Zoysia matrella, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, in major parks and urban green spaces in Hailing District of Taizhou City. Then this paper separated and identified pathogenic fungi, mainly there are Alternaria alternate, Bipolaris sorokinianum, Drechslaris poae and Curvularia lunata, etc (8 kinds in all), and then basically defined the species, distributions and damage of turfgrass fungal diseases in Hailing District, Taizhou. In the meantime, this paper put forward specific proposals for the prevention and control of lawn diseases.

Keywords Taizhou city, turfgrass, fungal diseases, control.

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Agriculture Journal: March 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-3, March 2019

Application of Citrus Bioadsorbents as Wine Clarifiers

Abstract In recent years, reuse and recycling has taken on an increasingly important role in our society. As a result, there has been an increase in research and development of sustainable technologies. The experience acquired by the CRESCA team in the study of the revaluation of orange peels and lemon have allowed him to have a vision of this by-product as a raw material that, with the opportune treatments, can be origin of products of high added value. In this sense, very satisfactory results have been achieved for different fields of application such as:

  1. Agricultural: As water adsorbents, obtaining better results than conventional products (silica gel).
  2. Wine: As an alternative wine clarifier to products currently used (gelatin, potato protein, egg albumin, etc.)
  3. Treatment of wastewater with high metallic load: As heavy metal adsorbents (Ni, Cu, Pb, etc.)
  4. Wastewater Treatment of textile industry: as adsorbent of organic dyes.

This paper proposes the use of orange peel and lemon, after being subjected to a process physicochemical, as clarifiers of wine and compared the results with those obtained with vegetable protein, gelatin and bentonite.

Keywords absorption, lemon, orange.

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Modeling of Soil Organic Carbon Concentration and Stability Variation in Top and Deep Soils with varied Aggregate Size under Climate Change of Sub-tropical India: A Review

Abstract The effects of tillage on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient content of soil aggregates can vary spatially and temporally, and for different soil types and cropping systems. Surface soil (0–15 cm) was fractionated into aggregate sizes (>4.76 mm, 4.76–2.00 mm, 2.00–1.00 mm, 1.00–0.25 mm, 0.25–0.053 mm, <0.053 mm) under two tillage regimes. The percentage of soil OC mineralized (SOCmin, % SOC) was in general higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates. Tillage significantly reduced the proportion of macro-aggregate fractions (>2.00 mm) and thus aggregate stability was reduced by 35% compared with RNT, indicating that tillage practices led to soil structural change for this subtropical soil. Soil organic C decreased with increasing soil depth but was greater under tree than others and was mainly concentrated in the topsoil layer (0–20 cm). In comparison to topsoil, deep soil aggregates generally exhibited a lower Cmin, and higher SOCmin. The highest SOC was in the 1.00–0.25 mm fraction, while the lowest SOC was in micro-aggregate (<0.025 mm) and silt + clay (<0.053 mm) fractions and CT, respectively. Tillage did not influence the patterns in SOC across aggregates but did change the aggregate-size distribution, indicating that tillage affected soil fertility primarily by changing soil structure. The percentage of soil OC mineralized (SOCmin, % SOC) was in general higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates. Meanwhile, SOCmin was greater in coniferous forests (CF) than in broad-leaved forests (BF) at topsoil and deep soil aggregates. In comparison to topsoil, deep soil aggregates generally exhibited a lower Cmin, and higher SOCmin. The sum of macro-aggregate contributing rates for clay-humus stability of soil organic C (SOC) was significantly superior to that of the micro-aggregates. Water-stable aggregates increased by 34.5% in the CA with residue retention treatment, effectively improving the soil structure. Furthermore, 0.25–1.00 and 1–2mm aggregates had the highest SOC microbial biomass storage and responded rapidly to the various tillage treatments. Greater proportion of micro-aggregates within macro-aggregates in the plots under NT–NT compared with CT–CT was also observed in the surface layer only. Plots under NT–NT had about 10% higher coarse (250–2000 μm) intra-aggregate particulate organic matter-C (iPOM–C) within >2000 μm sand free aggregates in the 0- to 5-cm soil layer compared with CT–CT plots. The fine (53–250 μm) iPOM–C within the 250- to 2000-μm aggregates was also higher in the continuous NT plots compared with CT within both >2000 and 250 to 2000 μm sand free aggregate size classes in that soil layer.

Keywords Aggregates sizes, aggregate stability, soil depth, macro-aggregates, micro-aggregates, fractionation, particulate organic carbon.

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Genotypic differences of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) as a factor of biological intensification of agroecosystems

Abstract Unfavorable environmental conditions limit the continued yield increases of modern commercial cultivars and hybrids of agricultural plants in the intensive agroecosystems. Therefore, the genotypic differences in resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and the yield of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) are the focus of our long-term studies (2010 – 2018). The soybean breeding lines, collection varieties and commercial cultivars are investigated. The pathogens of viral diseases, namely, the Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and the Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) have been identified. The soybean genotypes having one of such dominant genes as Rsv1, Rsv1t or Rsv1y (locus Rsv1) proved to be resistant to local strains of SMV. The genotypes with a relatively high level of the yield and resistance to viral diseases and downy mildew (Peronospora manshurica (Naum.) Syd.) are detected. Artificial selection of soybean genotypes for cold tolerance during the seed germination and seedling development period should be carried out taking into account the effect of early planting onto yield components and other plant morphological traits. Soybean yields, as a result of genotype-environment interactions, and the addressed introduction of commercial cultivars into specific agroecosystems are discussed. Selected genotypes can be used in agronomic practice and also as germplasm in breeding of the new high-yielding soybean cultivars with a good adaptability to soil and climatic conditions of Ukraine.

Keywords addressed cultivars, cold tolerance, downy mildew, soybean viruses, yields.

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The Cation Exchange Capacity, pH of Soil in Mwogo Marshland, and the Rice Plantation in Huye District -Rwanda

Abstract Agriculture is a major component of Rwanda’s national economy. In 2017, agriculture contributed 33% to the country’s GDP. About 66.46 % of population, of which 50.9 % are women, depends either directly or indirectly on agriculture for living. The average arable surface area available is about 0.60 ha per household use. This causes overexploitation of available land which is often accompanied by agricultural malpractices with disastrous consequences on land resources and on environment in general. Given the limited availability of arable land for agriculture and the constantly growing food requirements of the population, ensuring food security poses a major challenge. This present study aimed at investigating the cation exchange capacity and pH of soil of Mwogo Marshaland in order to resolving the problem of soil fertility of Mwogo marshland by looking the method for increasing its fertility and then the problem of low rice production. By using soil Auger, samples were taken randomly in the field where each sample of soil was used in laboratory to determine both pH and Cation Exchange Capacity, in each blocks namely Block du Nord and Block du Sud. During this study the laboratory results and laboratory analysis has shown that marshland soil is very acidity with pHkcl is 4.37, Ph water with a weak cation exchange capacity. These findings support the previous studies showing that the soils with those properties need particular management; like liming, addition of organic matter, and so on, in order to adjust its chemical properties.

Keywords— Soil, chemical properties, rice production.

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Forage plants in Daloa city livestock market: specific diversity, market practices and economic land

Abstract The sale of forage is little known to the majority of people in Côte d'Ivoire. The target of the study is to identify the forage species marketed in the livestock markets of Daloa and to estimate the financial profitability of this activity in the socio-economic life of the actors of the sector. Semi-structured surveys were conducted from September to December 2018 among 45 vendors in the forage marketing chain. Nine forage species divided into five genera and four families were identified. The study showed that these plants come from the non-agglomerated areas of the city, fallows and old plantations. The main species are f forage Moraceae, especially Ficus exasperata, highly sought after by customers. The average selling price of a forage species boot is around 100 to 150 FCFA. The estimated average daily financial income per player is FCFA 750 and varies between 18,750 to FCFA 37,500 per month for a monthly average of FCFA 26,125 and oscillate between 225,000 to FCFA 450,000 for an annual average of 313,500 FCFA. However, although the harvesting and sale of forage trees is a pathway generating substantial income, it is a source of degradation of plant formations already overexploited in Côte d'Ivoire.

Keywords— Forage plants, livestock markets, financial income, actors, Daloa, Côte d'Ivoire.

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