Perception of effect of climate change and adaptation strategies of beekeepers of Welmera district, Ethiopia
Abstract— This study identifies factors affecting smallholder beekeepers’ decisions to choose strategies to adapt to climate change in Welmera District, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Accordingly, quantitative data analysis and a multinomial logit model was used to identify perception of effects of climate change and adaptation strategies, and factors influencing beekeepers’ choice of adaptation strategies to climate change, respectively. Results signified that skip honey harvesting, additional feeding, bee hive shade and improved bee forage planting are the dominant adaptation strategies that smallholder beekeepers used to limit the negative impact of climate change. The result from the multinomial logit analysis showed that age, education, family size, farm size, income, perception of effects of climate change, membership to beekeeping group, and access to beekeeping extension contact were significance factors influencing adaptation strategies of beekeepers. This would be a catalyst in developing and implementing appropriate as well as viable adaptation strategies in beekeeping practices context.
Keywords— Adaptation strategies, beekeepers, climate change, MNL, Welmera.
Bleaching of Melanomacrophages from Tissues of Ectothermic Vertebrates for Later Use of Immunohistochemical and in Situ Hybridization Technique
Abstract— Due to the large quantity of melanomacrophages in the organs of the ectothermic vertebrates, with special interest in the ranids and fish, with their brownish melanin granules, we decided to test the MELANIN removal technique, in order to facilitate the observation of the organ fragments in the slides, under the direct light optical microscope, when using the antibodies and biotinylated probes.
Thus, the melanin bleaching study favored the visualization of the diaminobenzidine chromogen (DAB) without interfering with the antigen-antibody affinity of immunohistochemistry and without interfering with the technique by which specific nucleotide sequences are identified in histological sections. (of DNA or RNA, endogenous, bacterial or viral).
This bleaching of melanin from tissues avoided false positive results, without interfering with the IHQ and ISH techniques for Mycobacterium spp and Francisella spp in fish.
Keywords— Bleaching, ectothermic vertebrates, IHQ and ISH techniques, melanomacrophages.
Management of Brown Spot Disease of Rice and Studies of Growth Rate of Disease on Application of Different Synthetic Fungicides by using Different Statistical Tools
Abstract— The in-vivo test of selected fungicides against brown spot disease of rice and studies on growth rate of disease incidence by using different statistical tools was carried out during the crop seasons, kharif (2014-15) and (2015-16). The pool mean results data of two crop seasons revealed that among the synthetic fungicides evaluated against per cent disease incidence, minimum disease index (PDI) was found in Propiconazole (7.39) with maximum disease reduction of 72.75% over the untreated control followed by Propineb (7.91) and Myclobutanil (8.84) with per cent disease reduction of 70.83 and 67.40 respectively over the control. Among the fungicides treatment maximum disease incidence was observed in Thiophanate (16) followed by Carbendazim (10.96) with per cent disease reduction of 41 and 59.58 over untreated control. The studies on rate of growth of disease severity by using linear and non linear parameters among the synthetic fungicides found that lowest average growth rate during the first crop seasons (2014-15) was observed in Propiconazole (0.124) at 10 days intervals of disease progression analysis studies. Similarly in the following crop season (2015-16) also lowest average growth rate of untransformed and transformed model was observed in Propiconazole (0.069). The analysis thus obviously confirmed that among the different synthetic fungicides tested, Propiconazole was the most effective and most promising fungicides in managing the brown spot disease incidence of rice.
Keywords— Brown spot disease, rice, synthetic fungicides, minimum disease index.
A Note on Sesame Gall Midge Sphondylia Sesami Felt. (Diptera; Cecidomyidae) in the Blue Nile State, Sudan
Abstract— Sesame gall midge Asphondylia sesami is one of important pest on sesame in the Sudan . A survey was carried out in the Blue Nile State- Sudan, season 2017/2018, the same observation was done in South Kordafan state 2007/2008 for sesame gall midge damage determination on sesame. The damage observed by the maggot feed inside the floral buds and young capsule leading to formation of galls. Three sites was surveyed for sesame gall midge incidence, four farms per site and three unit area per farm were selected, the damage were taken on buds and capsules. it was observed that high infestation was record in late sowing date throughout different sites, the damage which affected on yield was observed on buds and flowers which wither and drop.
Keywords— Gall, Midge, Bud, Damage, Infestation.
Effect of Chlorine Treated Water on Germination and Growth of Cowpea Cultivars (Vignaunguiculata L. Walp)
Abstract— Effects of different water qualities (WQ1- WQ5) of varying chlorine contents were tested on the growth and germination of four varieties of cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) IT03k 131-2 (v1), IT99k -573-1-1(v2), UAM09 1046-6-1 (v3) and UAM09 1055-6 (v4). The experimental design was factored using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three (3) replicates for each treatment of the five (5) water qualities for four (4) cowpea varieties. Growth parameters, germination rate, seedling vigor indices and chlorophyll content were measured. The interactions of cowpea variety and water quality had no significant effect on the any growth parameter tested (p>0.05). Variety factor was largely insignificant (p>0.05) with minor exceptions. Water quality factor had significant effects on all growth parameters of cowpea (p<0.05). Germination rate was highest in pond water (no chlorine) but least in disinfected water when10g and 20g of chlorine were applied. Percentage germination recorded the high values of 98.6% and 95.8% in pond and river water respectively. Water-treated plant without additional chlorine had the same germination with river water (95.8%). 10gCl and 20gCl added to disinfected water reduced cowpea germination to 10.1% and 0.5% respectively. Chlorination had significant effects on seedling height from 7 day to 28 day after planting (p<0.05). Seedlings treated with disinfected water were the tallest at 28 day after planting (18.1cm) followed by river and pond water (16.2cm and 16.1cm respectively). Heights of seedlings reduced drastically to 0.5cm on addition of 10g and 20g of chlorine. The two best vigour indices were found among seedlings treated with pond water (1186) and disinfected water (1172). Vigour were significantly reduced when seedlings were treated with additional chlorination (p<0.05). The same trend was observed in the germination speed indices of seedlings. Shoot and root weight were also reduced by chlorine. Disinfected water +10g of chlorine and disinfected water +20g of chlorine recorded zero weight (0.000g). The highest chlorophyll content was found in the leaf of plant treated with disinfected water (1.799) followed by river water (1.658) and pond water (1.402). No chlorophyll test was conducted on plants treated with additional chlorine as they died off before maturity when treated with DFW+10gcl and DFW+20gcl. As a result, normal disinfection yielded the same result as pond and river water having no significant effect on the growth parameters evaluated. However, additional chlorination (DFW+10gcl and DFW+20gcl) significantly affected the cowpea cultivars (p<0.05).Therefore, municipal water treated with chlorine for drinking should be considered safe for irrigating the crop. However, high chlorine concentrations adversely affect the crop and this outcome may also be applicable to other commercially cultivated crops of huge importance to the economy.
Keywords— Cowpea, Chlorine, Water quality, Growth parameters.
Monitoring the Impact of Surface Water Flooding on Groundwater Quality around Nyabarongo River in Rwanda
Abstract— Rwanda exhibits a climate characterized by two rainy seasons in which erosions and inundations are likely to occur and cause the flooding of rivers which threaten the quality of waters. Most of rivers are connected hydrologically with groundwater aquifers which allow the recharge. This study aimed to monitor the impact of surface water flooding on groundwater quality around Nyabarongo River in Rwanda. Two parameters namely turbidity and color which are directly influenced by flooding of water bodies were monitored between January 2017 and June 2020. Laboratory analyses for turbidity on an hourly and color on a monthly basis were conducted at Nzove Water Treatment Plant Laboratory and the computed monthly average values were used. The laboratory results for surface water and groundwater were compared through graphical presentation which indicated that there is a relationship between the change in quality of both waters due to the fact that the trends in variation of the quality of both waters correlate in the same periods or groundwater quality changes similarly just a little bit after surface water quality has changed. This observation has led to the conclusion that the changes in water quality of Nyabarongo River which is mainly exacerbated by the flooding of March to May and October to December rainy seasons affect the quality changes of the groundwater recharged by this river. This finding indicates the need and urgency of implementation of Nyabarongo catchment rehabilitation and management plans.
Keywords — Floods, groundwater recharge, impact, Nyabarongo River, water quality change.