Saturday 16 May 2020

Agriculture Journal: April 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-4, April 2020

Nematophagous Fungi: A Biological Agent for Regulation of Plant Parasitic Nematodes

Abstract The occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes amongst farmers around the globe is a major concern. Farmers also turn to organic pesticides as an additional method to combat pests and diseases. Nematicides are widely available and of significant toxicity in the natural environment, for example, Aldicarb (Temik). Meanwhile, one of the major components of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the biological control using other organisms. Many microorganisms predate nematodes, but only handfuls are used for commercial purposes. In addition, the success of a nematode check is strengthened by a combination of two or more biocontrol agents. Fungi can be an efficacious biocontrol agent in particular, and can be feasibly obtained on a large scale. This review would include an outline of the different biomonitoring processes of technological development, but more on the morphological and biochemical dimensions and interactions of nematophagous fungi must be made available. This analysis will contribute to more nematodes and fungal biodiversity resources.

Keywords— Plant-parasitic nematodes, Biocontrol agent, Integrated pest management (IPM), Nematophagous fungi, Nematicides.

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Sorghum Yield Under the Canopies of Faidherbia Albida (Delile) A.Chev and Cordia africana Lam Parkland Trees in Fedis District, Eastern Ethiopia

Abstract Among several agroforestry practices in the east Hararghe of Ethiopia, Parkland agroforestry practices are common. However, the effect of tree species on the grain yield and above ground biomass of Sorghum has not scientifically quantified in the study area. Therefore, the study was conducted to investigating the effect of parkland trees on the grain yield and above ground biomass of Sorghum at Fedis District, Oromia, Ethiopia. Six isolated and nearly similar F. albida and C. africana trees of each species growing on similar site conditions were selected and the canopy coverage of each tree was divided into four radial transects. Three plots from the tree trunk were established for assessing the sorghum yields and above ground biomass. Sorghum yield and biomass samples from three horizontal distances: 2.5m, 5.0m and 25m were collected for analysis of Sorghum yield and biomass .The result revealed that sorghum grain yield were significantly (p<0.05) higher under the tree canopies than open field that means its higher by 2089.51 and 1789.53 kg /ha under F. albida and C. africana respectively at the distance of 2.5m and these values decreased to 1459.40 and 1266.01 kg /ha under F. albida and C. africana respectively, at the distance of 25m. The mean biomass recorded at three different distances from the two tree trunks, were not differently significant statistically (p >0.05). The research finding showed that trees have positive relation with grain yield and above ground biomass of sorghum. Hence, the growing of Faidherbia albida and Cordia africana trees on small holder farms improve crop productivity for improvement of this Parkland agroforestry system.

Keywords Fedis District, Parkland Agroforestry, Canopy cover, sorghum yield, open field.

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Growth Rate of Area, Production and Productivity of Sugarcane Crop in India

Abstract Sugarcane is an important commercial crop of India. It plays a crucial role for overall socio-economic development of farming community. India ranks second in production of sugarcane after Brazil. In India about 4.73-million-hectare land is occupied by sugarcane crop. Based on the importance of sugarcane crop, present study was conducted to know growth rate of area, production and yield of sugarcane in India and performance of sugarcane crop in major sugarcane producing states of India. The study was based on secondary source of data. Simple statistical tools like compound annual growth rate, percentage methods were used in this study. The study reveals that compound annual growth rate in case of area, production and yield showing a positive sign. The area under sugarcane cultivation is reported an increase of 5.63 percent in a duration of thirty years between 1985 and 2015and the sugarcane production was increased by 7.40 percent in the same period. The area and production of crop is showing a fluctuating trend because there are many factors which is responsible sugarcane cultivation like monsoon conditions, government price polices etc.

Keywords Compound annual growth rate, Production, Sugarcane, Trends.

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Composting of floral waste by using indigenously isolated microbial consortium: An approach towards the Environment sustainability and waste management

Abstract In India huge number of flowers are offered in temple creating a large amount of flower waste. The temple waste is released in the water bodies or dumped at the available places of land which creates severe environmental pollution and health hazards. Floral waste is biodegradable and contains elements required for growth of microorganisms. The present study focused on the use of Temple floral waste extract for preparation of microbial nutrient media in order to cultivate bacteria (pH7.4) and fungi (pH 5.4). Soil sample was used for screening of microorganisms capable of degrading the floral waste. Thus, in the present study instead of using conventional microbial media we have used the flower waste media to develop microbial consortium for degradation of floral waste. On the basis of capability to produce variety of hydrolytic enzymes two sets of consortia were developed and tested for development of compost as against the control without the microbial consortia. Physicochemical analysis of mature compost revealed that floral waste compost prepared by using the microbial consortium is enriched with the Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium. The mature compost developed using the microbial consortia has the potential to support the growth of tomato plants. This method is cost effective as well as pollution free. Thus, it can be promoted as potential mechanism to maintain the environmental sustainability at wider scales.

Keywords— Compost, Floral waste agar media, Microbial consortia, Temple waste.

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Trichoderma harzianum Enriched Vertical Column Enhances Black Pepper Growth

Abstract The method of pepper cultivation with vertical columns is more efficient and effective because it can be planted with more pepper cuttings compared to the conventional method with only one plant per stake so that the productivity of the plant is higher. The application of Trichoderma harzianum in the vertical column can increase pepper growth. The results of this study indicate that there is an increase in plant height, number of leaves, number of nodes, and number of lateral fruiting branches by applying Trichoderma 1x109/ml in the vertical column. Statistically, the interaction of column media and the addition of Trichoderma shows a significant difference in plant height. Trichoderma can increase nutrient uptake and act as an antagonist for plant pathogens. This microbe is able to dissolve phosphates and certain types of soil minerals. Consequently, the strain effectively increases the growth of pepper. It is important to maintain the suitability of the Trichoderma environment around the pepper so that the microbes continue to survive and provide benefits for plant growth in the long term.

Keywords Organic material, Black pepper, Vertical column, Trichoderma harzianum.

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Agriculture Journal: March 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-1, January 2020

Factors Influencing Cassava Farmers’ Choices of Climate Adaptation Strategies in Rainforest Agro-Ecological Zone of Southwest, Nigeria

Abstract Evidences from literature and past studies have revealed that climate change has influenced agricultural productivity leading to declining global food production. The study was to examine the effect of climate change adaptation strategies on cassava production in Southwest, Nigeria where rain forest agro-ecological zones (AEZ) was chosen for the study. The study used multi-stage sampling procedures, with the aid of well-structured questionnaire, to select 150 cassava producers. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and multinomial logit model. From the study, it was revealed that cassava farmers in the study area were relatively young, fairly educated, mostly married, well experienced, adequately aware of climate change, but operated on a small scale. Factors influencing the choice of these climate adaptation strategies were; sex, age, farm income, years spent in school, labour availability, amount of credit obtained intensity of temperature. It is therefore recommended that government should provide adequate extension services with knowledgeable and skilled extension agents who are equipped with climate useful information, thereby making the farmers aware about the available adaptation strategies to climate change and the benefits inherent in them; farmers, via extension agents, should be encouraged to use improved varieties of cassava as adaptation strategy in order to achieve increased output and multiple planting dates should be embraced by the cassava farmers.

KeywordsCassava farmers, climate adaptation strategies, multinomial logit.

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Use of Crop Ranking Technique for Quantitative Evaluation of Landuse in Ahmednagar District in 1960-61 and 2010-11

Abstract The net sown area, current fallows and land under tree crops and groves are included in agricultural land use. Use of land is an important factor for planning process because of the finite nature of land resource. Ahmednagar district in Maharashtra covered an area of about 17 lakh hectare comprising nearly 73.52percent area under net sown area in 1971-1972. Area under forest decreased slightly, area not available for cultivation decreased by 0.52 percent, other uncultivated area increased by 0.38 percent, while fallow land decreased by 0.92 percent during that period. Among the talukas, overall volume of change is greater in Nagar, Sangamner, Shrirampur and Newasa tahsils probably due to dynamic conditions existing there.

Keywords— Land Utilization, Fallow land, Net Sown Area.

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Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Waste water from Hospital “Case of Centre University Teaching Hospital of Kigali”

Abstract Hospitals produce relatively huge amount of wastewater containing pathogenic microorganisms, toxic, laboratory and pharmaceuticals residuals, disinfectants, biodegradable, polluters and radioactive contaminants that are potentially threats to population health and the components of environment when they are discharged without proper treatment.

The purpose of the study was the assessment of water quality effluent from CHUK wastewater treatment plant (CHUK WWTP) by analyzing physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters. Sampling has been take place at different points and time better understanding of how hospital unit operations affect the effluent quality. A sum of twelve (12) samples were collected in three (3) trials at four (4) different points in Nyarugenge, Gitega and at the border with Kimisagara sector especially Mpazi stream where CHUKWWTP’s effluents are discharged. Samples collection, conservation, preparation and measurement took place at university of Rwanda-college of science and technology (CST) laboratory.

The obtained results at WWTP outlet, at point of meeting with Mpazi stream, Mpazi stream and mixture of Mpazi stream with CHUK effluent were Cu (0.06, 0.07, 0.05 and 0.07mg/l); Fe (0.13, 0.037, 0.037 and 0.034mg/l); Pb (0.021, 0.024, 0.024, and 0.027mg/l); Hg (0.0015, 0.003, 0.003 and 0.004 mg/l) respectively. pH (7.25, 812,7.74 and 7.4); COD (215.5, 122.4, ,145.5 and 187.2mg/l); BOD5 (29.3, 30.85, 29.4 and 27.3 mg/l); TN (3.29, 2.97,3.2 and 3.46 mg/l); TP (1.05, 0.91, 0.92 and1.05mg/l); NH4+(7.46, 8.5,7.5and 8.8 mg/l); TSS (77, 56.5,62.8 and 69.1mg/l); fecal (282, 263,270, and 273 CFU/ml) and TC (233, 213, 224 and 210 CFU/ml). These parameters are prescribed within the reference limits of Rwanda Standard Board (RSB) and World Health Organization (WHO) standards, thus they have no negative side impact and effects on the receiving environments and their components.

Keywords hospital wastewater, physico-chemical, bacteriological -analysis.

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Determination of the Carcass Characteristics of Breeding Pigs in Côte D’ivoire

Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics of the carcass of pigs reared in the south of Côte d'Ivoire. The work involved 320 pigs from pig farms in the district of Abidjan and around Abidjan, and a few pig farms in the provinces of Côte d'Ivoire. The animals are left on fasting in the SIVAC slaughterhouse park on the eve of slaughter. On the day of slaughter, the animals are weighed on the ground and after slaughter; the pigs are gutted, split before the carcass weight is determined. The lean meat content of the carcasses is determined by the manual method, using the grading slider ZweiPunkt (ZP), and then the carcasses are classified according to the EUROP grid. The study reveals that the pigs slaughtered at the SIVAC slaughterhouse have an average live weight of 89.1 ± 13.6 kg. The average carcass weight is 66.5 ± 11.2 kg and the average carcass efficiency is 74.71 ± 4.5 %. Most pig’s carcasses are in class E where the estimated lean meat content is greater than or equal to 55%. Female pigs are predominantly less fatty than castrated male pigs, with estimated lean meat content greater than or equal to 55 %. These results confirm that the pigs reared in Côte d'Ivoire are less fat and partially meet the nutritional needs of the population.

Keywords— pigs, lean meat, carcass, Côte d’Ivoire.

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Evaluation of the Biological Efficacy of Fungus and Bacteria Isolated from Mushroom Substrates against Pathogenic Fungi

Abstract In vitro efficacy of fungus and bacteria isolated from mushroom substrates were evaluated against selected pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Colletotrichum corchori). There were four fungi Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicilliumsp and four bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas sp. and Paenibacillus polymyxa isolated from substrate. Different biochemical and pathogenicity test were performed to confirm their species. In in-vitro dual culture method T. harzianum showed the highest inhibition in case of Fusarium oxysporum (70.26%) followed by Sclerotium rolfsii (59.94%) and Colletotrichum corchori (57.02%) whereas Penicillium sp showed the least significant result against these pathogens. To inhibit the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii and F. oxysporum. Pseudomonas spp. was significant around 72.19% and 62.62% respectively. On a comparative study among the four isolated bacteria and fungi Pseudomonas sp. and T. harzianum showed the best significant antagonistic activity against all the selected plant pathogenic fungi.

Keywords— In vitro, isolated, mushroom substrates, dual culture, pathogenic fungi.

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Effects of NP and Biofertilizers on Growth and Some Yield Attributes of Sunflower Helianthus Annus L

Abstract A field experiment was carried out in the demonstration farm of Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Agricultural Studies, Shambat, for two consecutive seasons 2014/15 and 2015/16 to determine the effects of synthetic N (urea) and P (superphosphate) fertilizers and/or microbial biofertilizers on plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, shoot and root dry weights, head diameter and 1000 seed weight of the sunflower hybrid Shambat. Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied at 100 and 50 kg/feddan, respectively. Biofertilizers were applied as a mixture of Azospirillum Brasilense (a nitrogen fixer) and Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum (a phosphate solubilizer). A combination of synthetic and biofertilizers was applied in addition to the control. NP treatment gave the highest values of growth parameters in the first season followed by biofertilizers. In the second season biofertilzers then their combination produced the highest values. Head diameter and 1000 seed weight were enhanced by NP fertilizers. Significant differences in the first season were found only between NP and the combination of NP + AB in the number of leaves per plant and root dry weight, and in the second season the same treatments were significantly different only in shoot dry weight.

Keywords Sunflower, biofertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorus, growth.

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Influence of Project Management Practices on Construction Projects in Rwanda

AbstractThe construction industry is among the leading sectors in economic growth of Rwanda. Most of construction projects failed to maintain their schedules, and remain within budgetary costs; this despite there being knowledge of project management practices introduced in construction project. Generally this study aimed to investigate influence of project management practices on construction project in Rwanda. 99 survey questionnaires were administered to 99 active contractors and consultants registered in RPPA. It was found that 91.9 % of respondents confirmed that they applied project management practices in their daily assignments however 74.7 % got skills from experience, therefore majority in industry are not professional managers. Construction planning like risk plan, communication plan are not done satisfactory, 77.7% confirmed that risk plan analysis is less applied; few analysis done the top management involvement is not satisfactory, uncertainties contribute a lot in time and cost overruns. Other researches revealed that the best organization structure is project-based and matrix while it was found that in Rwanda 85.8 % confirmed the functional structure, the later was proved not suitable in multidisplinary projects. The study concluded that industry has not professionals in management therefore less application of management practices. The contractors and consultants are recommended to encourage their engineers to go ahead management classes or profession trainings (PMI, PRINCE 2, AGILE….) to save the construction industry.

KeywordsConstruction projects, organization structure, effective project manager and risk analysis.

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Agriculture Journal: February 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-1, January 2020

Optimization of gamma-aminobutyric acid in three varieties of germinated brown rice using the rotatable central composite design (RCCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM)

AbstractGamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the bioactive compounds required for nervous health of man especially that of the elderly. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in plants and animals. It is present in paddy rice at levels too low for an active functionality in a health food. Germination of paddy rice varieties could increase the concentration of GABA to levels required for human health. GABA is a non-protein amino acid, it is applied to relieve or prevent non-communicable diseases in man especially among the elderly. Synthetic has failed to meet the ideal requirement of a good supplement; affordability, safety and availability and renewability. The work was done to improve the content of GABA in Sesalin, Mars, and Vara rice varieties through germination process. The three rice varieties (X1), were obtained from Ini Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State, Nigeria. Germination of the brown rice was done under the environmental conditions of germination time (X2), steeping time (X3), and temperature of steeping water (X4). The rotatable central composite design (RCCD) of the response surface methodology was deployed (RSM)for the study to identify terms of the models which exhibited optimum levels of GABA concentration, sensory and market attributes of the germinated brown rice (GBR). The experiment revealed that rice variety, steeping time, germination time and their interactions synergistically influenced the germination process. The model of GABA was significant (p<0.05), R2=0.8722 and mean value =16.03µg/100g of the samples. The models for colour, taste and general acceptability of the samples were not significant (p>0.05), but the response surface plots exhibited some effects on the parameters. Optimization process showed that Vara 44 rice variety, sprouting time of 91.42 hr, 0.023 hr, and steeping water temperature of 37oC produced 906.64ug/100g, 4.53, 4.19, and 7.07 of GABA, colour, taste, and general acceptability of the GBR respectively at 92.80% desirability. More studies are needed using higher values of the independent variables to obtain higher levels of the study responses and education of the consumers on the health benefits of GABA.

Keywords— RCCD, RSM,GBR, GABA, sprouting, gamma-aminobutyric acid-enriched white rice.

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The Determinants of Access to Agricultural advice in the West Cameroon Region

Abstract This study analyzes the determinants of access to agricultural advice in the West Cameroon region. Farm surveys and interviews with agents of the ACEFA advisory were conducted to examine the supply and demand for agricultural advice. The results show that the majority of farmers carry out several agricultural activities and seek various advices, while the offer of advice is mainly intended for a small audience, and much more oriented towards the modernization of production systems and centered on improvement of agricultural techniques. Among the variables identified and included in the logit model, 7 of them positively influence access to agricultural advice.

Keywordsaccess to agricultural advice, advisory service, agricultural advice.

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The Effluent Quality Discharged and Its Impacts on the Receiving Environment Case of Kacyiru Sewerage Treatment Plant, Kigali, Rwanda

Abstract The study evaluates the performance of Kacyiru Sewage Treatment Plant and its effluent impacts on the receiving wetland. Influent and effluent wastewaters as well as receiving wetland water qualities were measured from April to September 2019, at Kacyiru estate. The average removal efficiency (%) of the parameters such as TN, TP, COD, BOD5 were recorded as 46.57; 61.49; 50.51; 66.79 respectively. The parameters such as pH, TDS, temperature value, were recorded within the prescribed limit of Rwanda standards for domestic wastewater discharge. The other parameters such as NTU, TN, TP, TSS, BOD5 and Fecal coliforms were not complying with National standards requirements for domestic wastewater discharge. The finding showed that the excess nutrient observed may present potential sources of pollution in wetland and decrease the oxygen levels which affect the water living organisms. The discharged effluents contain microbes which can negatively devastate the receiving environment, thus the effect of discharged wastewater on environment is significant.

Keywords Bacteriological parameters, physico-chemical parameters, receiving environment, sewage treatment plant, wastewater.

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Assessing Constituents and Efficiency of Neem Seeds Powder (Azadirachtaindica A. Juss) modifying Soil physical and Chemical Properties

Abstract— Neem is an indigenous tree spreading over some tropical arid climatic area. The trees are carrying fruits containing seeds. The importance of this study is to identify the benefits gained from Neem seeds powder being applied as soil conditioner. The objective is to estimate the inherent chemical components of Neem powder and eventually assess its potential on decreasing soil pH values and salinity levels. Soil samples were collected from College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST). A total of 6 kilogram soil was taken at a depth of 0-30cm from the soil surface, dried and grinded to pass 2mm sieve, divided equally into 4 groups each of 1.5Kg (equivalent to 1500mg). The soil samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and physical properties. Neem seeds were obtained from Department of Integrated Pest Management that belongs to the Institution of ENRDRI. Neem seeds are dried, grinded and kept under room temperature, further used for determine their physical and chemical properties. To each subsoil sample (1.5Kg.) and amount of 0g, 25g, 50g and 75g Neem seeds powder was added and thoroughly mixed. Each of the 4 soils- Neem seeds powder mixture was subdivided into 15 pots, each containing 10mg of the mixture. The experiment ended up with 3 different treatments and the control. After 14 week incubation, the soil- Neem mixtures were analyzed for pH and Ec. At 25% Neem seeds powder, pH recorded values ranging from 7.22-7.99, and values of 7.47-7.89 were for Neem seeds powder of 50% and 75% respectively. Variation in electrical conductivity among different treatments recorded different values according to change in Neem seeds contents. At 25%, electrical conductivity values ranged from 0.22-0.33, at 50% and 75% recorded 0.17-0.28, and 0.17-0.28 respectively, while being 0.22-0.32 in the control. Results showed that the soil pH and electrical conductivity have decreased with increasing Neem seeds powder. Also on conclusion, the results indicated that Neem seeds powder can be used as organic amendment for saline and alkaline soil.

Keywords— Amendment, Organic fertilizer, soil pH, Salinity, Neem seeds powder.

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Drivers of honey production and its effects on rural livelihoods in Odravu Sub-country, Yumbe district, Northern Uganda

Abstract— The study identified the key drivers of honey production and its effects on rural livelihoods in Odravu sub-country, Yumbe district, Northern Uganda. The specific objectives were to establish the economic benefits accruing from honey production; to determine the factors that influence the honey produced and establish the socio-economic effects of honey production on the rural livelihoods. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional study design with the questionnaire as the primary data collection tool administered to 80 honey-producing farmers from Odranga, Lukenene, Kobo, Ayuri and Pamua villages. The data was analyzed using SPSS v23. The findings revealed that income, medicine, employment, food, pollination, and medicine were the most economic benefits accruing from honey production. The results also indicated that most farmers in the age brackets of 36-45 (36%) were more involved in honey production. most male (75%) were involved in honey production, most honey producers were married (86%) and had 4-7 (69%) members in a household and most honey farmers (53%) had attained the secondary level of education. The factors that influence honey production included the level of education, experience, types of hives kept per farmer, the total number of hives kept per farmer and number of hives colonized. Honey production was highest among farmers with honey production ranking as the first position among the beekeeper's income-generating activities. Honey production was high among farmers keeping only traditional hives and those who kept more than one hive type as compared to modern beehives. The household honey production level increased with the number of hives kept. The enterprise resulted into increased people's incomes, access to domestic lighting systems, and better pollination of plants, employment and improved diet of the local people. It is recommended that the government should establish honey and beeswax collection centres and cooperatives and equipping them with the necessary facilities to help in marketing and improve honey production. It is also important to document the available indigenous knowledge and practices of beekeeping for its further improvement and development of the beekeeping sector.

Keywords Honey production, farmers, rural livelihoods, socio-economic factors.

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Yield, Yield Components and Lint Quality Traits of Some Cotton Cultivars Grown under East Mediterranean Conditions

Abstract This study was carried out to determine yield, yield components and lint quality traits of some cotton cultivars during the cotton growing season under East Mediterranean conditions of Kahramanmaraş-Turkey. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications. Eighteen cotton cultivars (Delcerro, Korina, Tamcotsphinx, Aleppo-40, Kurak-2, Sealand-542, Coker-320, Dak-6, Carolina Queen, Nak-8, Siokra-133, Gürelbey, Small bract-1, NK-245, Bahar-82, Silcot-3, Acala-5 and Frego) were used as plant material. At the end of the study, it was determined that there were significant differences among the cotton cultivars for all investigated characteristics. The results showed that plant height, boll number, seed cotton weight, 100-seed weight, lint percentage, seed cotton yield, seed yield, seed oil and protein content, fiber length, fineness and strength for eighteen cotton cultivars ranged between 55.59-112.50 cm, 6.40-9.76 no. plant-1, 4.40-5.83 no. boll-1, 9.11-12.65 g, 35.19-43.06 %, 293.76-419.91 kg da-1, 173.11-272.14 kg da-1, 17.12-22.93 %, 22.71-31.82 %, 26.00-32.80 mm, 3.50-4.60 micronaire and 25.40-40.20 g tex-1, respectively. Cotton cultivar Gürelbey was distinguished with high lint percentage. Cultivar Bahar-82 gave the best results for 100-seed weight, seed cotton yield, seed yield, seed protein content and lint quality traits.

Keywords Cotton, yield, yield components, lint quality.

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Obtaining a Bioadsorbent from Orange Peel suitable for Batch and Continuous Treatment

Abstract One form of chemical contamination involves the contribution of heavy metals to the ecosystem mainly from industrial spills and mining operations. The most toxic heavy metals are cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. The importance of this type of toxic lies in the tendency to be accumulated and concentrated by the different species, being more dangerous as it ascends the evolutionary chain towards man.

Chemical precipitation is the most widely used technique for metal recovery. This process is conditioned by the pH, metal concentration and anions present in the water to be treated.

Bioadsorption is considered a viable alternative to the physico-chemical methods currently used for the recovery or removal of heavy metals dissolved in liquid effluents. Its main attractiveness, from an industrial point of view, is its low cost due to the great abundance, easy obtaining and low price of the bioadsorbent material. Bioadsorption is very effective in the treatment of metal concentrations below 100 mg/L, where the application of physical-chemical methods is not technically and economically feasible.

One of these materials of interest is orange peels because, due to their abundance as a waste product of the food industries, they have problems for their disposal and currently have little economic value. However, this residue has a low adsorption capacity, so both physical and chemical modifications are required to increase its adsorption properties.

The objective of this work has been to optimize the treatment of orange peel intended to obtain a bioadsorbent that allows the removal of heavy metals both in a discontinuous process (Batch) and in an ongoing process. The verification of the characteristics of the bioadsorbent obtained has been carried out with a series of synthetic solutions of Cu (II).

The particle size and consistency of the final bioadsorbent has been optimized. In addition, to achieve a homogeneous elution in the continuous process, additional heat treatment has been necessary to prevent the development of microorganisms in a period of time less than one week.

Keywords bioadsorption, orange peel, heavy metal removal.

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