Friday 2 October 2020

Agriculture Journal: September 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-9, September 2020

Perception of effect of climate change and adaptation strategies of beekeepers of Welmera district, Ethiopia

Abstract This study identifies factors affecting smallholder beekeepers’ decisions to choose strategies to adapt to climate change in Welmera District, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Accordingly, quantitative data analysis and a multinomial logit model was used to identify perception of effects of climate change and adaptation strategies, and factors influencing beekeepers’ choice of adaptation strategies to climate change, respectively. Results signified that skip honey harvesting, additional feeding, bee hive shade and improved bee forage planting are the dominant adaptation strategies that smallholder beekeepers used to limit the negative impact of climate change. The result from the multinomial logit analysis showed that age, education, family size, farm size, income, perception of effects of climate change, membership to beekeeping group, and access to beekeeping extension contact were significance factors influencing adaptation strategies of beekeepers. This would be a catalyst in developing and implementing appropriate as well as viable adaptation strategies in beekeeping practices context.

Keywords— Adaptation strategies, beekeepers, climate change, MNL, Welmera.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Bleaching of Melanomacrophages from Tissues of Ectothermic Vertebrates for Later Use of Immunohistochemical and in Situ Hybridization Technique

Abstract Due to the large quantity of melanomacrophages in the organs of the ectothermic vertebrates, with special interest in the ranids and fish, with their brownish melanin granules, we decided to test the MELANIN removal technique, in order to facilitate the observation of the organ fragments in the slides, under the direct light optical microscope, when using the antibodies and biotinylated probes.

Thus, the melanin bleaching study favored the visualization of the diaminobenzidine chromogen (DAB) without interfering with the antigen-antibody affinity of immunohistochemistry and without interfering with the technique by which specific nucleotide sequences are identified in histological sections. (of DNA or RNA, endogenous, bacterial or viral).

This bleaching of melanin from tissues avoided false positive results, without interfering with the IHQ and ISH techniques for Mycobacterium spp and Francisella spp in fish.

Keywords— Bleaching, ectothermic vertebrates, IHQ and ISH techniques, melanomacrophages.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Management of Brown Spot Disease of Rice and Studies of Growth Rate of Disease on Application of Different Synthetic Fungicides by using Different Statistical Tools

Abstract The in-vivo test of selected fungicides against brown spot disease of rice and studies on growth rate of disease incidence by using different statistical tools was carried out during the crop seasons, kharif (2014-15) and (2015-16). The pool mean results data of two crop seasons revealed that among the synthetic fungicides evaluated against per cent disease incidence, minimum disease index (PDI) was found in Propiconazole (7.39) with maximum disease reduction of 72.75% over the untreated control followed by Propineb (7.91) and Myclobutanil (8.84) with per cent disease reduction of 70.83 and 67.40 respectively over the control. Among the fungicides treatment maximum disease incidence was observed in Thiophanate (16) followed by Carbendazim (10.96) with per cent disease reduction of 41 and 59.58 over untreated control. The studies on rate of growth of disease severity by using linear and non linear parameters among the synthetic fungicides found that lowest average growth rate during the first crop seasons (2014-15) was observed in Propiconazole (0.124) at 10 days intervals of disease progression analysis studies. Similarly in the following crop season (2015-16) also lowest average growth rate of untransformed and transformed model was observed in Propiconazole (0.069). The analysis thus obviously confirmed that among the different synthetic fungicides tested, Propiconazole was the most effective and most promising fungicides in managing the brown spot disease incidence of rice.

Keywords— Brown spot disease, rice, synthetic fungicides, minimum disease index.

Click here to Download Full Paper

A Note on Sesame Gall Midge Sphondylia Sesami Felt. (Diptera; Cecidomyidae) in the Blue Nile State, Sudan

Abstract Sesame gall midge Asphondylia sesami is one of important pest on sesame in the Sudan . A survey was carried out in the Blue Nile State- Sudan, season 2017/2018, the same observation was done in South Kordafan state 2007/2008 for sesame gall midge damage determination on sesame. The damage observed by the maggot feed inside the floral buds and young capsule leading to formation of galls. Three sites was surveyed for sesame gall midge incidence, four farms per site and three unit area per farm were selected, the damage were taken on buds and capsules. it was observed that high infestation was record in late sowing date throughout different sites, the damage which affected on yield was observed on buds and flowers which wither and drop.

Keywords— Gall, Midge, Bud, Damage, Infestation.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Effect of Chlorine Treated Water on Germination and Growth of Cowpea Cultivars (Vignaunguiculata L. Walp)

Abstract Effects of different water qualities (WQ1- WQ5) of varying chlorine contents were tested on the growth and germination of four varieties of cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) IT03k 131-2 (v1), IT99k -573-1-1(v2), UAM09 1046-6-1 (v3) and UAM09 1055-6 (v4). The experimental design was factored using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three (3) replicates for each treatment of the five (5) water qualities for four (4) cowpea varieties. Growth parameters, germination rate, seedling vigor indices and chlorophyll content were measured. The interactions of cowpea variety and water quality had no significant effect on the any growth parameter tested (p>0.05). Variety factor was largely insignificant (p>0.05) with minor exceptions. Water quality factor had significant effects on all growth parameters of cowpea (p<0.05). Germination rate was highest in pond water (no chlorine) but least in disinfected water when10g and 20g of chlorine were applied. Percentage germination recorded the high values of 98.6% and 95.8% in pond and river water respectively. Water-treated plant without additional chlorine had the same germination with river water (95.8%). 10gCl and 20gCl added to disinfected water reduced cowpea germination to 10.1% and 0.5% respectively. Chlorination had significant effects on seedling height from 7 day to 28 day after planting (p<0.05). Seedlings treated with disinfected water were the tallest at 28 day after planting (18.1cm) followed by river and pond water (16.2cm and 16.1cm respectively). Heights of seedlings reduced drastically to 0.5cm on addition of 10g and 20g of chlorine. The two best vigour indices were found among seedlings treated with pond water (1186) and disinfected water (1172). Vigour were significantly reduced when seedlings were treated with additional chlorination (p<0.05). The same trend was observed in the germination speed indices of seedlings. Shoot and root weight were also reduced by chlorine. Disinfected water +10g of chlorine and disinfected water +20g of chlorine recorded zero weight (0.000g). The highest chlorophyll content was found in the leaf of plant treated with disinfected water (1.799) followed by river water (1.658) and pond water (1.402). No chlorophyll test was conducted on plants treated with additional chlorine as they died off before maturity when treated with DFW+10gcl and DFW+20gcl. As a result, normal disinfection yielded the same result as pond and river water having no significant effect on the growth parameters evaluated. However, additional chlorination (DFW+10gcl and DFW+20gcl) significantly affected the cowpea cultivars (p<0.05).Therefore, municipal water treated with chlorine for drinking should be considered safe for irrigating the crop. However, high chlorine concentrations adversely affect the crop and this outcome may also be applicable to other commercially cultivated crops of huge importance to the economy.

Keywords— Cowpea, Chlorine, Water quality, Growth parameters.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Monitoring the Impact of Surface Water Flooding on Groundwater Quality around Nyabarongo River in Rwanda

Abstract Rwanda exhibits a climate characterized by two rainy seasons in which erosions and inundations are likely to occur and cause the flooding of rivers which threaten the quality of waters. Most of rivers are connected hydrologically with groundwater aquifers which allow the recharge. This study aimed to monitor the impact of surface water flooding on groundwater quality around Nyabarongo River in Rwanda. Two parameters namely turbidity and color which are directly influenced by flooding of water bodies were monitored between January 2017 and June 2020. Laboratory analyses for turbidity on an hourly and color on a monthly basis were conducted at Nzove Water Treatment Plant Laboratory and the computed monthly average values were used. The laboratory results for surface water and groundwater were compared through graphical presentation which indicated that there is a relationship between the change in quality of both waters due to the fact that the trends in variation of the quality of both waters correlate in the same periods or groundwater quality changes similarly just a little bit after surface water quality has changed. This observation has led to the conclusion that the changes in water quality of Nyabarongo River which is mainly exacerbated by the flooding of March to May and October to December rainy seasons affect the quality changes of the groundwater recharged by this river. This finding indicates the need and urgency of implementation of Nyabarongo catchment rehabilitation and management plans.

Keywords Floods, groundwater recharge, impact, Nyabarongo River, water quality change.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Agriculture Journal: August 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-8, August 2020

Commercial Eucalyptus and Poplar Plantations – New Approaches in Eastern UP

Abstract The commercialization of Eucalyptus and Poplar plantations in western Uttar Pradesh attracted other parts of central and eastern UP in the past few years. In Eastern UP, plantation practices vary according to different agro-climatic conditions, land capability and socio-economic status of farmers. The status and pattern of these commercial practices across eastern region of UP reflect that traditional agriculture / farmers are transforming into multifunctional directions and are increasing in a progressive manner. With a view to study planting pattern, demand- supply gap and economic returns of these commercial species, the socio-economic studies in six districts viz. Raebareli, Barabanki, Gorakhpur, Bahraich, Sonbhadra and Prayagraj of the region was carried out . The planting pattern of trees showed that on an average, 23 % trees were scattered on farms, 36 % were in blocks/orchards, 24 % were on bunds and 17 % were around homesteads etc. Due to huge demand of these two species in plywood/veneer and other wood based industries, a wide demand supply gap persists. The results depicted that in districts, Gorakhpur, Bahraich and Raebareli where plywood/veneer industry exists; highest demand supply gap of 135450, 151410 and 75230 cft/yr respectively for Eucalyptus and 55741,111050 and 48100 cft/yr respectively for Poplar was recorded. The market value of Eucalyptus and Poplar trees are almost same with a gain of Rs. 2000 to 2500 per tree by 3.0 to 3.5 qt of wood after 6-7 years of planting. The results clearly show that there is a great scope of planting of these two species in the commercial manner in the region of Eastern UP as they are fast growing, exempted from felling and transit permit and availability of market places in wood industries. Thus, commercial approaches for developing profitable, ecologically and socio-economically viable plantation models of these species may further open a new path for economic strengthening of farmers and increasing green cover of the region.

KeywordsCommercial agroforestry, demand-supply gap, economic strengthening, livelihood, planting pattern.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Effects of Biochar and Compost on Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao) Seedlings Growth

Abstract The research was carried out at the experimental field of the Kumasi Institute of Tropical Agriculture (KITA) to evaluate the effect of biochar and compost on the growth of cocoa seedlings. There were four (4) treatments including biochar, compost, a combination of biochar + compost, and a control. Treatments were applied at a rate of 0 g (control), 60 g compost, 60 g biochar, and 30 g each of biochar and compost combination into 60 kg soil in polybags. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were collected on the number of leaves, plant height, stem girth, and leaf area, all analyzed using analysis of variance. Significant treatment means were separated LSD at P≤0.05. The analysis of variance indicated significant differences among treatment types in plant height (P<0.00001), the number of leaves (P<0.034), stem girth (P<0.044) and leaf area (P<0.012). The highest seedlings height was recorded in soil amended with biochar (55.3 cm) and the least in the control (28.1 cm). Soils amended with compost (15.3) recorded the highest numbers of leaves while a relatively low number was recorded by control (9.0). Stem girth was very high in soils amended with compost+biochar (0.76 mm) and the least in the control (0.62 mm). The highest leaf area was recorded in soils amended with biochar (84.6 cm2) while the control recorded 57.0 cm2. It can be recommended that the application of 60g biochar influences significantly growth parameters of cocoa seedlings at nursery.

Keywords— cocoa, biochar, compost, seedlings, growth, soil, treatments, nursery.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Yield and Yield Parameters of 46 Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Cultivars under Kahramanmaras (Turkey) Conditions

Abstract Variety yield and adaptation studies are of great importance in increasing cotton production and cultivation. This work was carry out to determine yield(seed cotton and fiber) and yield parameters (plant height, sympodial branches, boll number, seed cotton weight, 100 seed weight and ginning outturn) of 46 cotton genotypes, two of which belong to barbadense and forty-four of hirsutum species, under east Mediterranean ecological conditions of Kahramanmaras – Turkey in 2013 and 2014. According to the analysis of variance yield and yield parameters showed significant differences between genotypes. Year and genotype-year interactions were not significant for all characteristics studied. Based on two-year average results, cotton cultivars BA-119, ST-468 and Furkan gave higher seed cotton and fiber yield per hectare than the others. Minimum seed cotton and fiber yield was observed in Maydos. Cotton varieties BA-119, ST-468 and Furkan can be recommended to cotton producers for production regions due to their high seed cotton and fiber yield.

Keywords Seed cotton yield, fiber yield, yield parameters.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Isolation and Selection of Actinobacteria Against Pathogenic Bacteria From Shrimp Pond Water on Duyen Hai District, Tra Vinh Province, Vietnam

Abstract In the shrimp-farming process at Vietnam has used antibiotic mostly, this leads status of antibiotic resistant bacteria and product do not qualified to the market. Bacteria, especially actinobacteria, had resistant ability to human pathogenic bacteria in water and they have an important role in sustainable aquaculture. This study aimed to isolate and select good actinobacterial strains against pathogenic bacteria, from 8 samples of shrimp-pond water at 3 sites Ngu Lac, Phuoc Tri and Long Toan of Duyen Hai district, Tra Vinh province on Gause-1 agar medium. Fifty-three actinobacterial isolates were isolated in which 23 isolates resistant to at least one of pathogenic bacteria by well-diffusion method. Among them, 15 isolates were identified as resistant to Bacillus cereus, 12 to Staphylococcus aureus, 11 to Escherichia coli and 18 to Vibrio parahaemolyticus. There were 7 isolates had good resistance to select for PCR technique and sequencing and the result were determined 7 these strains: NL1-1.9, NL1-18a, NL2-2.1b1, NL2-2.2, PT1-1.7a, PT2-2.8a, LT1-1.3 belonged to three genere: Streptomyces, Nocardioides, and Glutamicibacter.

Keywords— actinobacteria, antimicrobial, schrimp-pond water, Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Proliferation of Citrus aurantifolia by In Vitro Epicotyl Segment Culture

Abstract It is clear that, beneficial species of Citrus need to improvement especially by new methods due to limitations of conventional methods. New methods like biotechnology and gene transfer need to establishment of regeneration plants by tissue culture. Shoot proliferation in Citrus is easy but rooting of proliferated micro shoots has been discussed in various articles. The goal of this study is presentation of a proper method for rooting of micro shoots in Citrus by manipulation of media content. Hypocotyl segments of Citrus aurantifolia from 45 day old seedlings and 0.5 – 0.7 cm in length were cultured on MS media supplemented with different kinds and concentrations of plant hormones suitable for shooting and rooting such as BA, IBA and NAA alone or together. 1 mg/l BA and 1.5 mg/l NAA on MS media was the best treatment for shooting and rooting respectively. In this study we can overcome one of the most important problems of establishing regeneration system in Citrus and opening the way for biotechnology and gene transfer for this important and economic plant.

Keywords— Citrus aurantifolia, gene transfer, rooting, shooting.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Impact of Technology on Improving Cassava Yield and Value

Abstract Many cassava farmers suffer from low production and low profit because of little or no support in terms of improved technology to improve yield and add value to their produce. In this paper we examined the available improved production and processing technologies among cassava farmers and how they are propagated and used in Momo Division. Descriptive survey research design was used, and primary data was collected using the purposive and random sampling techniques from a sample size of 350 respondents. Data were extracted through excels and computed using the SPSS.20 software. The results of this study revealed that most producers (35%) were in Mbengwi Sub Division, the majority (76%) were women, most of them (71.2%) were married; have had primary education (51.8%); fell within the active age range of 31- 50 years. Households with children were majority (93.64%) and relied on family labor. Hypothesis testing results attested that some techniques like the use of improved varieties and planting distances were well propagated, while the use of mechanized equipment, fertilizers and pesticides were very minimal. All categories of the variables studied, occurred with equal probabilities with one sample Chi – Square test at 0.05% level of significance. Suggestions were made to all actors, to ameliorate the situation by improving on the social amenities, road infrastructure; farm cultivation and processing equipment, seed material, and capacity building of farmers to make them more self-sustaining.

Keywords— Cassava, propagation, use, improved technology, production, value chain.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Agriculture Journal: July 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-7, July 2020

Impact of Farmers’ Profile Characteristics on their Knowledge Gain through Need-based Community Radio Programme

Abstract Present study highlights an innovative media technology, Community radio, which has potential to be an effective tool to strengthen agricultural extension system. It also indicates that knowledge of an innovation or technology is the foremost requirement in the way of adoption of the technology by farmers. The pre-knowledge test assessment regarding Integrated Pest Management (IPM) technology of the farmers highlighted that they had significant knowledge gap about the concept and practices of the technology. However, it was also concluded that community radio programmes which are need based and participatory in design could lead to significant increase in knowledge of the listeners. Majorly, the study emphasizes the significant impact of various profile characteristics like education, achievement motivation, scientific orientation, information seeking behaviour and social participation on gain in knowledge of the respondents through community radio programme. This result of the study provides conclusive evidence that audience profile characteristics need to be kept in mind while designing community radio programmes. Moreover, few characteristics can also be modified in favour of knowledge gain of the respondents through appropriate training.

Keywords Community radio programme, profile characteristics, knowledge gain, farmers, integrated pest management.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Efficacy of Various Botanicals against Maize Weevil (Sitophilus Zeamays) in Laboratory Condition

Abstract Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamays (Motschulsky) is one of most important economic pest that causes severe economic damage to store grain and its management at the farmers level is must. To determine the efficacy of different botanicals against maize weevils in stored maize a study was carried out at the laboratory of IAAS, Lamjung Campus at room temperature from January to April. Nine treatments were laid out in Completely Randomized Design with four replications. Number of infected seeds, dead weevils, number of exit holes and live weevils were recorded at every 30 days intervals till four months. Analysis of variance showed significant effect of all botanicals on weevil mortality compared to untreated check, but not as effective as liquid extracts as Cinnamomum (9.75), citronella (9.75), mentha (9) and lemon grass (9) were significantly more effective than the rest botanicals (P <0.05). Upto 90 days statically lower numbers of infected seeds were seen at Cinnamomum, Mentha, Lemon grass, Titepati, and Citronella while on 120th day Cinnamomum showed best results. Among all treatments, Cinnamomum oil was found to be better on every parameter thus can solve poor farmer's problems by integrating them with other cultural measures. However further research are needed to fix the rate graph and the long term effect in large stores of farmers conditions.

Keywords— Botanicals , Maize (Zea mays), Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamays Mots), Mortality.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Drought Tolerance and Nitrogen use Efficiency of Upland Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Genotypes Grown under Varying Water and Nitrogen Regimes

Abstract Rice genotypes were grown under different water regimes and nitrogen levels. Sufficient soil moisture content (SMC) and high N level caused optimum growth of the genotypes. Deficient water and N supply both retarded growth of rice. PSB Rc14, P42, and P38 had high number of tillers, number panicles per hill, number of spikelets per panicle, relative growth rate (RGR), water use efficiency (WUE), harvest index (HI), straw yield, grain weight, and grain yield at field capacity (FC). These genotypes also had high values in the aforementioned growth and yield parameters at 120 kg N ha-1 treatment. In terms of the efficiency in the use of N as indicated by agronomic efficiency of nitrogen application (AEN), recovery efficiency of nitrogen application (REN), and internal efficiency of nitrogen application, PSB Rc14, P42, and P38 still performed better than the rest of the genotypes tested. Evaluation of the combined effect of water and N application showed that PSB Rc14, P42, and P38 significantly produced high grain yields among the genotypes under SMC at FC with 120 kg N ha-1 which suggests that water plays a fundamental role in rice growth in combination with N. P42 showed the less affected by water deficit and low N nitrogen levels, hence, produced the high grain yield.

Keywords Upland rice, nitrogen use efficiency, agronomic use efficiency, recovery use efficiency, rice genotypes.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Application of Geospatial Techniques for Monitoring Gikondo Wetland Management: from Industrial Park to Eco-Tourism Park

Abstract For several years, Gikondo Wetland has been serving as home for industries, warehouses, garages, and was critically degraded by various anthropogenic activities since its establishment as industrial park in 1960s. The objective of this study is to analyse quantitatively and qualitatively the dynamics of Gikondo Wetland degradation and its rehabilitation progress from industrial to eco-tourism Park. Geo spatial techniques (GIS and Remote Sensing) have been used to analyse changes induced by management techniques from 1987 to 2019. Results show that wetland area has reduced from 32.03% (1987) up to 25.70% (2010) indicating its degradation due to the increase of built up areas and bareland over the wetland area. From 2010 to 2019, the area of wetland has increased. This positive change of land cover is indicating a good progress of Gikondo wetland restoration process. Continuing reinforcement of national legal framework is required and the implantation of development programs should be done with minimum tradeoffs in order to achieve the transformation of this former industrial park into an eco-tourism park. Rehabilitation process should consider wetland functions, services, and replacement options for achieving sustainable use and management of wetlands in Rwanda.

Keywords Geospatial techniques, Gikondo Wetland, Industrial Park, Historical Dynamics, Eco-tourism Park.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Use of Medicinal Plants of Brazilian Caatinga in a Perspective of Solidarity Economy

Abstract The culture of using medicinal plants is a practice that has been present since ancient times and is passed on from generation to generation by indigenous peoples, traditional populations that are made up of farmers, researchers. This work aims to perform a survey of the ways in which medicinal plants are used by students of Youth and Adult Education and their perspectives for a solidarity economy in a Municipal School in the Picuí city, Paraiba, Brazil. This research has a qualitative and quantitative character, which involves the obtaining of descriptive data, obtained in the direct contact of the researcher with the studied situation, emphasizes the process more than the product and is concerned with portraying the perspectives of the participants about the use of medicinal plants, using as main tools the application of questionnaires and a lecture-class. According to the characteristics of the system of production of medicinal plants described in this research, family farming presents favorable conditions for its cultivation. It is, therefore, another alternative in the generation of employment and income through a solidarity economy for this segment so important and representative of Brazil.

Keywords Medicinal Plants, Solidary Economy, Family Agriculture.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Agrometeorological Indicators based on Satellite Imagery in Western Bahia, Brazil

Abstract The western region of Bahia stands out for its large-scale agricultural activity, which uses advanced technology and produces high yields of soybeans, corn and cotton, making it the largest grain producer in Northeast Brazil. The aim of this study is to apply the SAFER algorithm to biophysical indicators, in order to analyze the dynamics of natural vegetation and irrigated crops throughout the crop cycle. The model requires data from meteorological stations and satellite images for its application. Sixty-nine MODIS satellite images with a 250-m spatial resolution and a 16-day temporal resolution taken from 2016 to 2018 were used. The method was effective as a tool to monitor agricultural crops, and to distinguish the phases and vigor of the crops according to the spectral characteristics of their surface. The results of this study may assist in the monitoring of crops and in decision making, and may contribute to the rational use of water resources for irrigation and management of rainfed crops.

Keywords biomass, evapotranspiration, irrigated crop, SAFER, water production.

Click here to Download Full Paper

The Impact of Land Degradation on Agricultural Productivity in Nyabihu District-Rwanda, A Case Study of Rugera Sector

Abstract This study looked at the impact of land degradation on agricultural productivity in Nyabihu district. Specific objectives were to assess the factors influencing land degradation in Nyabihu district, Rugera sector, the vulnerability level of land degradation and propose suitable land management conservation strategies.

Geographical Information system (GIS) and Remote sensing data were used for the assessment of factors influencing land degradation, where Land cover (classified) maps were produced based on data extracted from google earth and cultivated slope was computed based on the Digital elevation model (DEM) of 2018 downloaded from GIS vulnerability assessment and classification method was used to assess level of vulnerability to soil degradation and land slide. To propose suitable land management conservation strategies practical Tools on Soil and Water Conservation measures alongside with W4GR matrix of soil and water conservation measures documents were consulted. The data collected were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.4software, and Excel; the results were presented using maps, bar graphs and tables. Based on two main factors (slope and soil depth) a conservation map and matrix were developed with proposed options of restoration and conservation of land degraded.

Keywords— land degradation, agricultural productivity, soil fertility, GIS.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Impact of an APT01 Compost on Quality Improving of the Anna Apple (Age of the Plant 8.0-8.5 Years)

Abstract This study aims to analyze the effect of theAPT01compost as the soil organic matter to the apple crop production (Malus sylvestris) at harvest time (SPN).The experiment was carried out according to completely randomized factorial design with the amount of mud cake that was fermented for two weeks by APT01 as bio-catalyst. The experiment was conducted in a treeation area of ​​400 square meters. The amount of the APT01compost as much as 20, 30, and 40 kg per tree was applied a day after defoliation. A total of 48 apple trees aged about 8.0-8.5 years with a distance between trees 2-3 meters were randomly selected. Observations made during fruit growth took 5-6 months after giving the APT01compost at harvest (SPN).The parameters measured were the number and weight of fruit per tree. Results were analyzed variance, two-way ANOVA with interaction (α = 0.05), using Microsoft Excel. The results of variance analysis concluded that : (1) The addition of 20, 30, and 40 kg of APT01 compost per tree, shows significant differences (α = 0.05) on the amount of fruit production on SPN, (2) The addition of 30 and 40 kg of APT01 compost has an impact on increasing the quality of fruit from grade C (12-15fruits per kg) to grade AB (10-11 fruits per kg).

Keywords— APT01; mud cake; compost; apple; fermentation.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Agriculture Journal: June 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-6, June 2020

Mapping of Milk Processing Units in Organized Sector: A Case Study for Haryana

Abstract The State Haryana is known for its major crops like wheat and rice and stands at the second largest contributor of food grains in India. Just like that Haryana ranks second in milk production. Dairy farming is also a form of agriculture in which milk is extracted from cow, buffalo, goat etc. then it sell by vendors from different rural and suburb regions to informal sector agents or to cooperative agents. This milk distributed further in different ways. Milk production is no more subsistence in nature and organized sector is a best example to prove it because cooperatives is an independent association of persons those fulfill their economic needs and distribution of milk and milk products is all a business as we can see it in “Haryana Dairy Development Cooperative Federation Ltd.” This federation is famous by vita brand which was opened by the Haryana govt. on the pattern of Amul.

Keywords— Dairy, Federations, Informal sector, Milk Production, Organized sector.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Effect of Percent and Stage of Leaf Defoliation on the Quality of Sugarcane, at Arjo - Dedessa Sugar Factory, in Western Ethiopia

Abstract The research was conducted at Arjo-Didessa Sugar Factory which is located in East Wollega Zone of Oromia Regional State with the objective to determine the effect of leaf defoliation at different stages of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) on the quality. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is unusual among field crops in that it is not the seed that have economic values, but rather the stalk. Sucrose is extracted from the large stalks that are produced by sugarcane plants. The effect of percent and stage of leaf defoliation on sucrose content as well as recovery percentage of sugar cane is still unknown. Effect of leaf defoliation at three different stages on quality of sugarcane juice was studied under field conditions. The methodology used include seven percent of leaf defoliation comprises of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 0% as a check and three growth stages of defoliation at 9, 10 & 11 month of sugarcane was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design. The results depicted that, significant variation among leaf removal and cane age was noted for quality parameters. Thus, significantly higher percent of sucrose percent (11.70%) at 30% of leaf removal and (11.50%) at20% of leaf removal were obtained from 11 and 10 month age of NCO-334 sugarcane variety respectively ,however, lower percent of sucrose (9.03%) at 11month age was recorded from undefoliated (check).In addition to these results the sugar cane plants that could be partially defoliated with changing sucrose production and retention of defoliated leave between furrow providing advantage, that increase soil moisture leads to water conservation especially for sugarcane grown under rainfall condition like Arjo Dedessa sugar factory, reduce weed growth, and prevent substantial losses of C and N due to sugarcane leaf burning at harvesting time. However, further future research is required to strengthen the investigation by confirming similar research on different location are necessary to recommend to all Ethiopian sugar factories.

Keywords— sugarcane, defoliation, stage, quality.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Economic Analysis of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfaria Occidentalis) Production in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria

Abstract The study was carried out to analyze the economics of fluted pumpkin production in Ibadan metropolis. A total of 80 fluted pumpkin farmers were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were collected using a set of questionnaire. Analysis of the data obtained from the questionnaire was carried out through the use of descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, profit function analysis, gross margin and multiple regression analysis. From the analysis, all the farmers interviewed were literate. From the gross margin analysis, fluted pumpkin production was found to be a profitable venture in the study area. The profit function analysis result of R2 (0.8910) showed that 89.01 percent of the variability in profit in explained by the combined effect of the variable price items in the function. This is indicative of the price variable for output price had a positive significant effect on the profit level of farmers. The regression result showed that the coefficient for farming experience was positive and significant at 5 percent level. Recommendations from the study area include among others, government should provide inputs such as chemicals and planting seed at subsidized rate to farmers and also aim at solving the problems in vegetables production.

Keywords Gross margin, Profit function, Production, Fluted Pumpkin, Chi-squre.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Isolation and Identification of Mycoplasma Species in Dogs

Abstract Mycoplasmas can be associated with several canine health issues, mainly when dogs do not respond to antimicrobial treatment usually aimed at bacterial infections. Different mycoplasma species can be found in both healthy and sick animals; however, the following subjects have yet to be fully understood: The role played by mycoplasmas in canine habitats and the various diseases caused by them. The aim of the present study is to assess the presence of mycoplasma in dog samples at NUDMIC/UFF, RJ, Brazil, over a timeframe of ten years. Out of all assessed dogs, 9.67% (15/155) had respiratory symptoms, whereas the rest of them were asymptomatic. Moreover, 29.96% of the cultured samples (77/257) were positive for mycoplasmas. Typical colonies of said samples were divided into 42.86% (33/77) of oropharynx samples, 51.95% (40/77) of urogenital samples and 5.19% (4/77) of samples from other sources. Species Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma edwardii and Mycoplasma cynos were identified by PCR and/or immunoperoxidase. The most common species was M. canis. M. cynos was found in a dog with signs of respiratory disease. Despite the recent improvement in early identification and the biomolecular knowledge surrounding canine mycoplasma, the etiopathogenesis of canine mycoplasmosis remains uncertain..

Keywords Diseases, dogs, isolation, Mycoplasma, PCR.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Effect of Genotype by Environment Interaction (GEI), Correlation, and GGE Biplot analysis for high concentration of grain Iron and Zinc biofortified lentils and their agronomic traits in multi-environment domains of Nepal

Abstract Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. culinaris ) is a cool season food legume contains the high quality of proteins and minerals. Selecting genotypes for high mean yield and yield stability has been a challenge for lentil breeders. The complexities of genotype × environment interaction (GEI) make selection difficult to identify the best performing and most stable genotypes. Therefore, this study was carried out to apply a GGE biplot and AMMI analysis model to evaluate the magnitude of the effect of GE interaction on grain yield of 25 lentil accessions at three environments during the year of 2016 and 2017 seasons in alpha-lattice design (5x5) with three locations and to evaluate relationships between test environments for identification of favorable genotypes for lentil production areas. Combined pooled mean analysis of variance for grain yield tested at three environments over the two subsequent years 2016 and 2017 showed that highly significant differences in genotypes, environment and G x E interaction effect indicating the possibility of selection for stable accessions. The stability of the assessed genotypes using some stability statistics derived from three types of statistical concepts (variance and regression analyses), AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction) analysis and GGE biplot (genotype main effects and genotype-by-environment interaction effects) models were applied to obtain good understanding of the interrelationship and overlapping among the used stability statistics. Research results showed that lentil accession WBL-77 (1451 kg ha-1) , RL-79(1446 kg ha-1) and PL-4(1429 kg ha-1) were the best performer and well adopted across the environments and over the years. AMMI analysis of variance for lentil grain yield (tha-1) of lentil accessions tested at three environments over the years showed that 80.71% of the total sum of squares was attributed to environmental effects, only 8.38 % to genotypic effects and 10.90% to genotype × environment interaction effects. The partitioning of GGE sum of squares through the GGE biplot analysis showed that PC1and PC2 accounted 74.75%, and 25.24% of GGE sum of squares respectively over the years. Accessions ILL8006, RL-6, Shital, ILL3490 and simal were more close to the center point and indicated that stable across the environments. In another words, the genotypes which have low stability value (ASV) is said to be stable and the breeder chose the stable genotypes along with grain yield above the mean grand yield. In this experiment accessions RL-6(G-2) ranked 1st stability (ASV-0.53) followed by Simal (ASV-2.05), ILL-3490 (ASV-2.42) and Shital (ASV-2.72) and suitable for all environment.

Keywords Stability parameters, lentil, GGE biplot, AMMI-additive main effects and multiplicative interaction; ASV–AMMI stability value.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Agriculture Journal: May 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-5, May 2020

Farmers’ Perceptions of Agricultural Extension Agents’ Performance in Sub-Saharan African Communities

Abstract Considering the important role extension agents perform in the rural community, potential exists to measure the performance of extension workers from the smallholder perspective. The study investigated farmers’ perceptions of agricultural extension agents’ performance in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Data were collected with structured questionnaires distributed to 200 rural smallholder farmers and 20 agricultural extension agents using a multiple stage sampling technique. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of extension agents on agricultural production. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square analysis was used to test significant relationship between farmers' perception regarding the role of extension services and increase in crop production. The result of the socio and demographic characteristics of the farmers showed that more than half (59%) are within the active age and are married and had one form of education or the other. The estimated chi-square value of 12.84 revealed that there is no statistical significant relationship between extension services and increase in crop production among farmers in the study area. In addition, majority (89%) of the respondents perceived lack of regular contacts with extension agents as a great challenge in the area, while a large proportion (82%) of the respondents reported that extension services was not effective in the area. However, since contact with extension agents was ineffective, the results obtained showed that smallholder farmers preferred traditional ICT, mainly radio (63%) as their main source of accessing agricultural information. The study however recommends that government should employ and train more agricultural graduates. More extension workers need to be hired in order to significantly reduce the problem of the extension workers to farm families’ ratio which is currently 1:3000 in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Keywords— Extension agents, smallholder farmers, perception, extension ratio, village.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Institutional Factors and Crop Farmer’s Participation in Agricultural Insurance Scheme: Evidence from South Western Nigeria

AbstractThe paper investigated the effect of institutional factors on crop farmer’s participation in agricultural insurance schemes in South Western, Nigeria. Specifically, the study described the socio-economic characteristics of crop farmers in the study area, examined the level of awareness of the crop farmers, analyzed the factors influencing the participation of crop farmers and intensity of use of the agricultural insurance policy and compare the income between the participating and non-participating crop farmers in the study area. Multistage sampling techniques were used to select 240 respondents in the study area. Primary data were used for the study, which was sourced from a cross-sectional survey of crop farmers in the study area with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive, Cragg’s (double-hurdle) model, and t-test. The result of the descriptive analysis showed that the mean age of participant and non-participant was 49.47 (±16.36) and 48.19(±15.41) respectively, where the mean years of formal education for participants and non-participant were 10.23(±5.46) and 10.54(±5.72) respectively. The result of Cragg’s model in the first hurdle (Probit model) showed that variables such as education, access to credit, farm size, membership of association, and awareness significantly influence the decision of crop farmers to participate in agricultural insurance scheme. In the second hurdle (truncated regression), access to credit, income, risk assessment, and contact with extension was significant to intensity of participation in agricultural insurance scheme in the study area. The result of the t-test showed that there is a significant difference in the income of participants and those that do not participate in agricultural insurances scheme in the study area. Even though a considerable proportion of respondents sampled were aware of agricultural insurance, there is still a need to increase awareness among the farmers so that more farmers can participate in the scheme in other to stabilize their income.

Keywords— Agricultural Insurance, Participation, Crop farmers, Double- hurdle, South Western.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Assessment of Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and Soil CO2 Emissions as Influenced by Compost Doses and Irrigation Regimes

Abstract Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most important vegetables cultivated in Togo. Water stress constitutes one of limiting factors of production in dry season. Compost use improves soil properties and crop production but may lead to soil CO2 emission into atmosphere. This study assessed the influence of compost doses and irrigation regimes on tomato yield and soil CO2 emission. Trial agronomics were conducted in dry season in year 2018 and 2019 in a randomized complete block design with three repetitions. Treatments included control plots, compost plots and chemical fertilizer plots. Water was supplied according to three irrigation regimes of 1, 2 and 4 days interval. Tomato fruits were harvested when color was yellowish red. Soil CO2 emission measurement was conducted in four months (120 days) during field experiment from January to April in 2019. Soil samples were collected from plots and incubated in laboratory. Soil CO2 emission was measured every day during 28 day’s incubation using 0.1 N HCl after precipitating the carbonate with a BaCl2 solution by alkali back-titrating. The results shown that highest tomato yield and highest soil CO2 emission were recorded on plots treated with compost and submitted to two days interval irrigation while the lowest values of these parameters were obtained from control plots and treated plots submitted to daily and four days interval irrigation.This was noted that CO2 emission from soil samples collected in third and fourth months of field experiment were more than those of first and second months.

KeywordsTogo, household waste compost, irrigation interval day, tomato yield, soil CO2 emission.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Formation of Dioxins during Energy Cogeneration by Burning Bagasse and Sugarcane Straw Fertilized with Chlorinated Compounds: State of the Art and Presentation of Alternatives

Abstract Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), also known as dioxins, are part of a group of organochlorine chemical compounds, highly persistent in the environment, with similar chemical structures. High levels of this compound are found in the burning ashes of the sugarcane and are attributed to the high concentration of chlorine present in bagasse and in the sugarcane straw that are used as a substrate for obtaining energy in the bioethanol production plants. This occurred due to the application of chlorine-containing fertilizers, such as potassium chloride, during the cultivation of sugarcane. Considering the high degree of toxicity of dioxins, the objective of this study was to conduct a literature review on the subject and research alternatives that can control the generation and emission of dioxins in bioethanol production plants, either through the application of appropriate technologies to control emission of dioxins generated during burning, or by substituting the chlorinated fertilizer used in the cultivation of sugarcane. From the analysis of different studies that researched the presence of dioxins in the ash of the bagasse burning boiler, there is a concentration that varies from 2, 2 to 190 picograms of dioxin equivalent toxicity (TEQ) per gram of ash. For the removal of these dioxins, the control systems commonly used in sugarcane plants have not proved to be efficient. In this context, the main alternatives would be the application of technologies for optimizing the combustion process combined with the treatment of end of pipe by means of a scrubber and bag filter or selective catalytic oxidation using NH3-SCR catalysts. Another option is the substitution of the potassium source, which presents itself as the most viable alternative, with the use of non-chlorine sources, such as Glauconitic Siltstone, Potassium Nitrate, Potassium Sulfate or vinasse instead of using chlorinated fertilizers such as Potassium Chloride.

Keywords Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, cogeneration, control systems, Glauconitic Siltstone, bioethanol production.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Ultrasonic Radiation Influence on the Bioadsorbent Characteristics of Citrus (Citrus x Lemon) & (Citrus x sinensis)

Abstract Of all the materials used as adsorbents, activated charcoal is the most popular as it is excellent for reducing/eliminating a wide variety of contaminants. This capacity is mainly due to its structural characteristics that give it a large surface area. However, it has several disadvantages. The most important are that the adsorbent material is quite expensive as is its regeneration. For this reason, more economical absorbents have been sought, highlighting the study of adsorption phenomena in some types of biomass as adsorbents.

Bioadsorption is considered a viable alternative to the physical-chemical methods currently used for the recovery or removal of heavy metals dissolved in liquid effluents. Its main attraction, from an industrial point of view, is its low cost due to the great abundance, easy to obtain and low price of the bioadsorbent material. Bioadsorption is very effective in treating metal concentrations below 100 mg/L, where the application of physical-chemical methods is neither technically nor economically feasible.

One of these materials of interest is citrus peels, because, due to their abundance as a waste product of the food industries, they are hardly reused and currently have little economic value. However, these residues have a low adsorption capacity, so both physical and chemical modifications are required to increase their adsorption properties.

This study compares the characteristics of orange and lemon peels undergoing a physical-chemical treatment with ultrasonic radiation assistance and the optimization of experimental conditions to obtain useful bioadsorbents in discontinuous processes (batch).

Keywords— bioadsorption, orange peel, lemon peel, ultrasonic radiation, heavy metal removal.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Nanotechnology and its Application in Water Treatment: A Review

Abstract Environmental pollution, mainly caused by toxic chemicals, includes air, water, and soil pollution. This pollution results not only in the destruction of biodiversity, but also the degradation of human health. Pollution levels that are increasing day by day need better developments or technological discoveries immediately. In this sense, Nanotechnology, is the production and art of operating matter at the nanoscale (1–100 nm), offers the potential of novel nanomaterials for treatment of surface water, groundwater, and wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, organic and inorganic solutes, and microorganisms. Nanotechnology has three main capabilities that can be applied in the fields of environment, including the cleanup (remediation) and purification, the detection of contaminants (sensing and detection), and the pollution prevention. Different nanomaterials and their application in water treatment, purification and disinfection is reviewed in this article.

Keywords Nanotechnology, Nanoparticles, Water Purification, Water Remediation, Wastewater treatment.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Assessment of Nutriseed Pack Technology on Maize in Cuddalore District

Abstract On Farm Trail was conducted in five locations of Mangalore and Nallore Block of Cuddalore District to assess the 'Nutriseed pack' technique on maize. Nutriseed pack is a small tubular form that is 20 mm diameter, 10 cm height. Nutriseed pack contains seed at top, manure in the middle and fertilizer at bottom. The experiment consisted of three treatments viz., Farmer practice (TO1), recommended dose of fertilizer (TO2) and Nutriseed Pack (TO3) The results revealed that, the grain yield recorded with different treatment ranged between 65.44 to 74.00 q ha-1. Among the technologies, Nutriseed pack (TO3) was recorded more yield of 74.00 q ha-1 (13.08% increased yield over control) than that of 71.92 q ha-1 recommended dose of fertilizer applied in the field followed by farmers practice (65.44 q ha-1). Similar trend of results were also observed in yield parameters. Enrichment of manure pellet and fertilizer that is Nutriseed pack was effective when compared to other technologies.

Keywords— Nutriseed Pack, Hybrid Maize, Yield, Yield Attributes.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Relationship between California Mastitis Test Scores and Somatic Cell Counts in Different Crossbred Dairy Cattle Genotypes

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate relationship between California Mastitis Test scores (CMT) and Somatic Cell Counts in different crossbred dairy cattle genotypes. A total of 152 milk samples were screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) kit. Somatic Cell Count (SCC) in milk samples were analysed directly using microscopic method. Based on the analysis of CMT score, the study found out that 55.92 % of udder quarters were negative while 43.99 % were positive for subclinical mastitis. The Least Square Difference (LSD) for pairwise comparison between CMT scores and lactation stage were significantly different between First and second lactation at 0.25±0.11; second and third at 0.27±0.0118 at P≤ 0.05. The means of SCC among the breeds were significantly different at P≤0.05; Ayshires and Friesians (68,055±18.82 cells/ml); Ayshire and Guernsey (71,976±23.844 cells/ml); Friesians and Jerseys (64.863±21.429 cells/ml); and Guernsey and Jersey (68.78±25.952 cells/ml). In conclusion, this study provides baseline information in the area of selection for mastitis resistant breeds of dairy cattle. This study also strongly recommends the use of this technique in screening for somatic cell counts in udder quarters of crossbred dairy cattle.

Keywords; Crossbred, Mastitis resistant, Somatic Cell Count, Somatic Cell Score.

Click here to Download Full Paper

Functional and Sensory Characteristics of Sorghum-Cocoyam-Cassava (SCC) Composite Flour Bread

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the bread characteristics and sensory attributes of sorghum- cocoyam-cassava flour composite bread using simplex lattice of experimental design of response surface methodology (RSM). The sensory evaluation results from semi-trained panelists were generated into a 3D plot for color, taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability. Wheat bread was used as control for comparison. The loaf weight of the bread samples ranged from 216.0g by sorghum-cocoyam-cassava bread to 177.5g of wheat bread(control); the loaf specific volume ranged from 251.9cm3 of wheat to 187.2cm3 of sorghum bread while loaf specific volume ranged from 1.42cm3/g to 1.10cm3/g. The linear mixture components of sorghum-cocoyam, sorghum-cassava, cocoyam-cassava and sorghum-cassava-cocoyam flours were not significant on the attributes. The mean hedonic score values for all tested attributes were different from the bread sample (control) at p<0.05. The overall acceptability of the samples showed p>0.05 indicating poor acceptance of the composite bread. Generally the samples under study showed dark brown external and internal colour with increased coarseness and firmness. However, a successful use of sorghum, cocoyam and/or cassava with improved processing methods leading to production of indigenous bread would save many less developed countries from importation of wheat.

Keywords— Bread characteristics, sensory evaluation, composite flour, mixture experimental design, Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

Click here to Download Full Paper