Thursday 16 September 2021

Agriculture Journal: August 2021

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-7, Issue-8, August 2021

Effect of mixed Gmelina and Moringa leaf meal inclusion and sampling periods on haematology and serum biochemistry of growing Red Sokoto does

Abstract— A study was carried out to investigate the effect of mixed Gmelina arborea and Moringa oleifera (GMMO) leaf meal inclusion and sampling periods on the haematology and serum biochemistry of Red Sokoto does fed Digiteria smutsii hay based diets. Twenty-eight (28) growing Red Sokoto does aged between 6 and 7 months with average weight of 14.71±0.09 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments balanced for weight with seven does per treatment in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were offered at 4% of body weight. Haematological values shows that all parameters measured are significantly different. Significant (P<0.05) differences were observed cholesterol levels of the animals across the treatments. Cholesterol level was significantly higher (P<0.05) in 0% (107.90) and 10% (107.57) compared to other treatments. Effect of sampling periods on haematological parameters of growing does shows significant differences (P<0.05) in all the parameters measured except white blood cells count. There were significant differences (P<0.05) on total protein and globulin. Total protein ranged from 65.58 to 69.75 g/L at the end and middle of the experiment, respectively. It was significantly higher (P<0.05) at the mid than other periods. Values of globulin were statistically higher (P<0.05) at mid and end of the experiment than at the beginning. Values for all the parameters measured in this study were within the normal ranges for healthy goats. GMMO leaf meal inclusion and sampling periods did not have any adverse effect on blood profile of Red Sokoto does. It can be concluded that GMMO leaf meal can be included in the diets of Red Sokoto does up to 30% without detrimental effects.

Keywords— Haematology, Serum biochemistry, Red Sokoto goats, Gmelina arborea and Moringa oleifera.

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Review Article: Bacteriocin Production and its Application in Food and Pharmaceuticals

Abstract— Bacteriocins are ribosomal - synthesized antimicrobial peptides that inhibit the growing of pathogenic or deteriorating bacteria. Bacteriocin are a heterogenous group of bioactive bacterial peptides or proteins having variable biochemical properties. Bacteriocin is introduced to denote toxic proteins or peptide produced by any type of bacteria that is active on related bacteria but does not harm the producing cell. They are antimicrobial peptides which are ribosomally synthesized and produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). Now days, there are various hazardous effect of chemicals. Instead of chemicals, bacteriocins are mostly effective in food technology which aims to extend food preservation time, treat pathogen diseases, cancer therapy & maintain human health. In food processing, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) shows numerous anti-microbial activities. This is mainly due to production of organic acid, but also of other compound, such as bacteriocin and various peptides. Bacteriocins are used as a potential drug for replacing antibiotics in order to treat multiple drug resistance pathogens. The important mechanism of bacteriocins is pore formation. Bacteriocins are used as food preservation against contaminating organism. It also used against anti-tumor drug in pharmaceutical. They play major role in prevention of human diseases such as cancer, inflammatory diseases, respiratory infection, intestinal disorders, etc. The species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus are successfully used. These are isolated from vegetables, dairy, cheese, meat and other products. Therefore, Bacteriocin may become a potential drug candidates for replacing antibiotics in order to treat multiple drugs resistance pathogens in the future. Bacteriocin become one of the weapons against micro-organisms due to the specific characteristics of large diversity of structure and function, natural resource and being stable to heat.

Keywords— Bacteriocin, Lactic acid bacteria, Cancer therapy, Pore formation, Antimicrobial activity.

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Effect of Storage Method and Storage Duration on Chicken Egg Quality

Abstract Poultry production is a fast growing industry and has become a dependable source of obtaining income for many farmers. There is therefore a growing need for technologies to preserve poultry products, in this case eggs, to prevent or reduce post-harvest losses. The aim of this present study is to evaluate the effect of storage method and duration on internal and external egg quality traits of eggs stored under three different storage conditions. A total of 190 eggs (from Isa brown breed hens aged 51 weeks) were used for the analysis. The storage methods to which the eggs were subjected included; 1) Cold Storage (M1), 2) Saw dust (M2) and 3) Control (M3) at a temperature range of 26°C- 32°C.The eggs were stored for 15 days, while the readings were taken at three day intervals. Albumen height, haugh unit, yolk index and egg weight have been found to be important parameters influenced by storage method and storage duration. Cold storage had the highest value for albumen height, haugh unit, yolk index and egg weight, while eggs stored under sawdust had no significant difference from those under control. Duration however had a deteriorating effect on important egg quality traits form D3 to D15 as could be observed in Albumen weight (41.14 to 36.37), Haugh unit (73.0 to 55.1), Yolk Index (36.99 to 26.61) and Egg weight (61.85 to 56.76). Thus, lower egg quality was recorded as storage time increased. Results from the first microbial analysis (freshly laid eggs) showed that no organism was isolated. Coliform bacteria, mold and yeast were isolated from eggs stored using cold storage and control conditions respectively. This study showed that eggs stored under cold storage retained both internal and external quality traits for longer time than those stored under sawdust and control, after the eggs had been stored for 15 days.

Keywords— Egg, Egg quality, Storage method, Storage duration.

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Genotype × Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Selected Agronomic Traits in Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

Abstract Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root and tuber crop worldwide. The crop is highly influenced by variations in production environments. A significant Genotype × Environment Interaction (GEI) presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. This study determined the magnitude of GEI and stability performances of 26 cassava genotypes for key agronomic traits across three multi-environments. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design during 2016/2017 cropping season. Genotype TR0288 had the highest starch content at Pendembu and Kambia, while TR1436 performed best at Njala. Genotype TR0768 had the highest fresh storage root yield at Pendembu, TR0455 at Kambia and TR0591 and TR0657 at Njala environments. For dry matter content, genotypes SLICASS4, TR0310 and TR0740 performed best at Njala, Pendembu and Njala, respectively. Genotype TR0455 had the highest fresh storage root yield across the three production environments, TR1436 for starch content and TR0310 for dry matter content. TR0310 was the most stable and favorable genotype based on mean dry matter content and stability performance across the three production environments. Harvest index was positive and significantly correlated with storage root (r = 0.54***), fresh storage root yield was highly and positively correlated with number of storage root (r = 0.61***) and harvest index (r =0.49***). The information generated is relevant for selection initiatives targeted at superior high yielding, high dry matter content and starch content cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic in Sierra Leone.

Keywords— Genotypic performance, multi-environment trial, stability analysis, trait correlation, cassava.

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Evaluation of Various Parameters in Mass Multiplication of Beauveria bassiana in Modified Method.

Abstract— In the recent years, the environmental contamination caused by excessive use of chemical pesticides increased the interest in integrated pest management, where bio-pesticides are used to control plant pests and plant diseases. Present study deals with use of different media like SDA, rice bran, wheat bran, sorghum and to find their ability as substrates for mass multiplication of beauveria bassiana and creates effective production methodology which can be easily adopted. Biomasses of fungal grain media, organic media and non-synthetic media have been used for the production. Mass multiplication of Beauveria bassiana on different grain media, different temperature like with incubator and without incubator method and calculate biomass of fungus, microscopic examination. Development of SDA was the result which was considered as a best media for quickly growth of Beauveria bassiana and rice bran produced spore production which are most suitable for Beauveria bassiana. Keywords— Beauveria bassiana, chemical pesticides, SDA, rice bran, wheat bran, sorghum, fungal grain media, organic media and non-synthetic media.

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Implementation and analysis of diagnostic techniques for Mycobacterium spp. and Francisella spp. in granulomatous disease of fish in breeding and wild aquaculture of São Paulo/Brazil

Abstract Mycobacterium spp. and Francisella spp. bacteria have serious implications for Animal Health, Public Health and Agribusiness and yet, in Brazil, there is little knowledge about the best diagnostic techniques to detect and characterize them. Therefore, the occurrence of these bacteria was verified in 519 fish from fish farms (active collection), wild freshwater animals from the State of São Paulo (active collection), and in materials filed in our laboratory (passive collection), using the techniques in situ hybridization (IHS), immunohistochemistry (IHC), optical microscopy (MO) (H&E and (ZN) Ziehl Neelsen or Fite-Faraco), and negative staining for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histologically, granulomas were observed in 135 fish. By the ZN Faraco technique, Mycobacterium spp was found in 54 animals. By Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization, 46 fish were found infected with Mycobacterium spp, 40 with Francisella spp and 30 with both bacteria. In one of the animals the presence of granulomas was found, although not caused by Mycobaterium spp or Francisella spp. TEM also showed the presence of other bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best diagnostic techniques for Mycobaterium spp or Francisella spp in fish fragments.

Keywords— Francisella spp; Mycobacterium spp, fish disease.

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Novel Ecofriendly Approaches for Controlling Soil Borne Fungal Pathogens: A Review

Abstract— The application of chemical fungicides for controlling soil borne plant pathogens is rapidly increasing due to their potential to deliver desirable results in a short span of time. However their rampant use has made many invasive plant pathogens resistant to any chemical control making them way harder to eradicate or eliminate as compared to the past days. The uncontrolled use of chemical fungicides is also causing soil toxicity and water pollution leading to several health hazards. The aim of the review article is to highlight the recent advancements in the field of eco-friendly disease management using the extracts obtained from natural resources and biologically active antagonistic organisms. The review article highlights the management of Black scurf disease (Rhizoctonia solani) in Potato using Bacillus subtilis V26 strain and by using a mixture of cattle manure and date palm compost. Biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici) by the application of endophytic bacterial isolates from Silver Leaf (Solanum elaeagnifolium) has been also mentioned. The review includes the management of Late blight of potato (Phytophthora infestans) using antagonistic Poplar (Populus nigra) bud extracts and peptide extracts obtained from Common Horsetail (Equisetum arvense). The review article also mentions the innovative method of management of Black shank disease of tobacco (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae) by colonization of tobacco roots with Paenibacillus polymyxa C5 strain. As per the article, Foot rot of rice or rice bakanae (Fusarium moniliforme) can be effectively managed by the application of antifungal Surfactin-A extracted from Bacillus subtilis NH-100 and NH-217 strains. The article highlights the potential of the Bacillus subtilis RH5 strain as a bioformulation for controlling Sheath blight of rice (Rhizoctonia solani). The extracts and the antagonistic biocontrol agents can be used in the effective management of some economically important soil-borne plant diseases as a novel, innovative and environmentally safe approach.

Keywords— Soil-borne fungus, Bio control agents, Late blight, Black scurf.

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Assessing the Value of Community-Based Tourism Approach in Community Development in the Surrounding area of the Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda

Abstract Community based-tourism (CBT) is both an integrated approach and a collaborative tool for socio-economic empowerment of communities through the development and marketing of natural and cultural community resources to add value to the experience of local and foreign visitors and simultaneously improve the level of the community. But there is lack of clear approaches to measure performances of CBTs, thus meaning that how they enhance socio-economic livelihoods of local communities and conserve protected areas is difficult to measure in both quantitative and qualitative terms. This study assessed the performance of Community Based Tourism on the socio-economic lives of local community around Volcanoes National Park, and it specifically 1) profiled and examined the performance of existing CBT ventures, 2) the factors affecting community-based tourism development around Volcanoes National Park and 3) the contribution of CBTs on social and economic lives of the local community. The methods used for data collection were sampling, key informant interviews, surveys, focus group discussions, observation and use of secondary data. Data was analysed using SPSS to generate descriptive information and further strata analysis was used. The study recommends that for Rwanda to achieve its goal of harnessing tourism for its vision 2050 the local communities around Volcanoes National Park should be empowered to embrace community-based tourism as an alternative to farming and fishing to improve their livelihood income.

Keywords— CBT Approach, and Community Development.

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Detection of Coronavirus in Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) by Transmission Electron Microscopy in São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Abstract Coronaviruses belong to the order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae and have four genera, Alphacoronavirus, Betaconavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. They infect humans and several animal species, causing various diseases. Coronavirus constitute zoonotic risk to global public health because of their ability to adapt to new species and establish sppilover events. In this study, we evaluated the presence of coronavirus particles in the feces of giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Under the transmission electron microscope, particles with coronavirus-like morphology, pleomorphic, rounded or elongated with radial projections forming a corona and measuring 80-140 nm in diameter, were visualized in all examined samples. The technique used was extremely useful for rapid viral diagnosis in affected animals. This report is the first occurrence of coronavirus in Giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

Keywords— Coronaviruses, Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), Transmission electron microscopy.

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Impact of Ginger Enrishment on Biochemical Characteristics of Tisane from Aloysia Citrodora Leaves, Cultivated at a small scale in the Area of Man (West Region of Côte d’Ivoire)

Abstract— This study confirm one of the official missions attributed to the University of Man, those to enhance natural’s resources of the region of Man and its properties. The assessment of the biochemical characterization of a tisane from Aloysia citrodora’s leaves enriched at ginger has been conducted.

To reach this goal, tisane has been prepared with Aloysia Citrodora. An aqueous extract of Zingiber rhizomes has been also produced. Ginger extract incorporated in tisane of Aloysia citrodora at 2.5 % level. The results have shown that many studied parameters increased highly. The dry matter increased from 88.92±3.92% to 90.07±2.91%. Incorporated ginger in tisane of Aloysia citrodora improved total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, insoluble solids. Total amount of phenolic compounds was 11.68±4.05mg GAE/g and it’s increased to 15.90±0.42 mg GAE /g. Antioxidant activity of this enriched tisane was also 3.96±1.58 µM Trolox Eq / Kg for the ABTS method. The analysis concerning mineral content of obtained tisane has noted a high content particularly those of Calcium. Its content were three time (535 130.4 ppm) important in enriched ginger tisane at 2.5% than Aloysia Citrodora’s tisane (192888.9 ppm).

Keywords— Aloysiacitriodora, tisane, Zingiber officinale, Man, Côte d'Ivoire.

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Economic Analysis of Costs and Returns of Vitamin A Cassava Production in Anambra State, Nigeria, West Africa

Abstract The study investigated the costs and returns of vitamin A cassava production in Anambra State, Nigeria. Multi-stage and simple random techniques were adopted in selecting one hundred and thirty eight respondents for the study. Data were collected using well structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression, budgetary technique and benefit cost ratio. The specific objectives were to ascertain costs and returns on vitamin A cassava based production; ascertain influence production costs have on the financial value of the crop’s output and to identify the constraints to production of the crop. Findings on costs and returns showed that gross margin, net farm income and net return on investment were ₦41,128.00, ₦41,097.00 and 1.6 respectively. This implies that for every 100 kobo invested in the production, 160% was gained. The result of Benefit Cost Ratio is an indicator that the venture is a profitable business. The findings also revealed that out of the five predictors included in the model, three namely cost of planting material, cost of labour and cost of renting land statistically and significantly influenced production returns earned by the farmers. High cost of labour, poor access to yellow stem, poor access to capital, poor pricing of yellow cassava tubers and poor transportation infrastructure were perceived as the most serious constraints encountered by vitamin A cassava production. Farmers should be encourage to form cooperative in order to enable them access or purchase tractors which should be made available and affordable to farmers to ease the cost of labour, government and other stakeholders should be encourage to multiply vitamin A cassava stems and investors should be encouraged to set up industries that would enter into contracts with vitamin A cassava farmers in the State in order to buy off their produce and process them into value added products were recommended.

Keywords— Cassava, Vitamin A, Production, Profitability.

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Effect of Socio-economic Characteristic on Maize Farmers in Zing Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

Abstract Smallholder farmers are one of the most important stakeholders in Nigeria’s agrarian economy. This study examined the effect of socio-economic characteristic on maize farmers in Zing Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. This study adopted descriptive survey design and used primary and secondary data. Questionnaires were used to elicit information from the respondents. Five (5) wards were purposively selected out of ten (10) wards in the study area. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study reveal that men are more involved in farming activities in the study area than women because of their ability to handle complex farming operations such as land preparation (clearing bushes and creating mounds and ridges). The study findings reveal that 33.73% of the respondents were in their prime age, between 20-30 years. As much as 63.86% of the respondents have small farm holdings between 3 to 5 hectares and 42.77% of the respondents acquire their farmlands through inheritance, 28.31% bought their farmlands, 19.28% rent their farmlands while 9.64% obtain their farmlands by lease. The study reveals that 34.64% of the respondent’s income ranges between ₦10,000 to ₦20,000. This income is very low, thereby forcing the local people to take to other alternative sources of livelihood such as commercial cyclist riding, carpentry, welding and petty trading. In terms of labour, 43.97% of the respondents use family labour exclusively in their farming operation, 27.11% used hired labour, 21.69 used mechanical power in form of tractor and 7.23% use animal draught in their farming operations. The poor socio-economic characteristics of the farmers contribute greatly to increasing decline in maize production in the study area which also translate to low income of the rural farmers. Based on the findings, the study recommended the need to assist the rural farmers to organize themselves into cooperatives and increase provision of up-to-date information and technology by extension workers to improve the skills of the rural farmers in modern agronomic practices.

Keywords— Maize farmers, Smallholder farmers, Socio-economic characteristics and Zing.

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Production Techniques and Quality Evaluation of Distilled Alcoholic Beverages (Rum Spirits) in Onitsha Metropolis of Anambra State, Nigeria

Abstract Evaluation of production techniques and quality of rum distilled alcoholic beverages (Rum spirits) sold in Onitsha metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria was carried out using survey and laboratory studies. Rum distilled alcoholic beverage brands investigated included Nigerian and foreign makes. Nigerian made rums evaluated included DCL, SBD, S5BD, PBC, BWR, CBD and foreign made rums included KSCR, ELR, IVGR and GMCR. Field studies involved administration of questionnaires to the sellers of spirit alcoholic beverages in only three markets in Onitsha metropolis namely Ose-Okwodu, Relief and bridge Head markets that were purposely sampled for this study. Questions asked the sellers of distilled alcoholic beverages included names, background, and status of respondents and physicochemical characteristics of the products. There were also laboratory production of rum spirit beverage (LBC) based on survey studies and findings from producers. The laboratory produced and market samples were analyzed for physicochemical and organoleptic attributes. The mean and standard deviation of the data obtained were presented in tables whereas the statistical differences of the obtained data were determined by ANOVA (P < 0.05) using SPSS 22. The significant means were compared using Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (LSD). The alcohol content, pH, titratable acidity, specific gravity, total solids, suspended solids and dissolved solids contents of the eleven rum spirit brands ranged from 42% to 50% and average of 47%, pH3.3- 5.1 (average pH value of 3.7), 011 to 4.5 (average value of 0.74), 0.87-0.99 and average value of 0.94, 3.03 to 32.18 (average of 8.45), 1.19 and 12.31(average of 6.08) and 1.53to 18.05 (average of 6.38) respectively. The consumer acceptance and preference evaluation of the rum spirit brands using 10 panelists and 9-point Hedonic scale revealed sensory scores of 3.70-6.40, 2.50-6.80, 3.20- 6.70, 2.60-6.70 and 3.30-6.60on colour, taste, aroma, mouth feel and general acceptance respectively.

Keywords— Distilled Alcoholic Beverages, Rum Spirits, Anambra State.

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Economic Efficiency and Profitability of Sweet Potato Marketing in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Abstract The study examined the economic efficiency and profitability of sweet potato marketing in Anambra State, Nigeria. Specifically, it described profitability, economic efficiency and constraints to sweet potato marketing. Multistage sampling procedure which involved purposive and random sampling methods was used to select 240 marketers (120 wholesalers and 120 retailers). Data were collected from primary source using well structured questionnaire and were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics, enterprise budgeting and Sherpherd-Futell techniques. From the result, profitability indicators such as net marketing income, return on investment, net return on investment and coefficient of marketing efficiency of ₦ 8,775,807.4, 1.68, 0.68, 59.6 and ₦7, 892,837.4, 1.89, 0.89, 52.6 for wholesalers and retailers respectively proved the enterprise profitable at both levels. The implication of the net return on investment figures is that the wholesalers and retailers respectively return 0.68 kobo and 0.89 kobo for every 1 Naira invested in the business. Findings also indicated marketing efficiency levels of 59.6% for wholesalers and 52.6% for retailers implying that the retailers are more efficient in the marketing of sweet potato than the wholesalers. Findings on the constraints shows that seasonality of the product, high cost of transportation and rioting militated against sweet potato marketing on the wholesale whereas rioting and inadequate storage facility were perceived at the retail levels. Modern storage facilities and good road transport systems should be made available so that the volume of trade of marketers should increase for optimum profit.

Keywords— Economic, Efficiency, Profitability, Sweet potato.

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Mesquite (Prosopis Juliflora) Pod Meal to Goats Feed: Ruminal Parameters and Molecular Diversity of Ruminal Bacteria and Methanogenic Archaea

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pod meal (MPM) replacing corn in concentrate feeds on ruminal parameters and microbial diversity. MPM was used in 0.0, 33.3, 66.7 and 100% levels in isonitrogenous diets, and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage as forage. For the experiment we divided the animals into 4x4 Latin square. The intake of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were not affected by the MPM levels. The pH varied linearly, increasing according to the levels of MPM and remained at adequate range between 6.32 and 6.85 for 8 hours after feeding. The ammonia concentration showed a peak of 14.01 mmol L-1 2 hours after the morning feeding and the acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations did not show any effect. The genetic diversity of bacteria and archaea was determined by PCR-DGGE. The analyses showed variations in banding pattern, indicating changes in the populations studied as a result of the treatments and a reduction in methanogenic after the addition of up to 66.7% of MPM. MPM can be used at levels of 33.3% and 66.7% of corn replacing without reducing the nutrients intake. The reduction of archaea has a possible contribution in reducing methanogenesis, since it also reduces the acetate:propionate ratio. Mesquite is a source of food for goats in small holdings, with potential reduction in methanogenesis.

Keywords ecology, microbial, multivariate analysis, PCR-DGGE, ruminal fermentation.

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Quantitative Growth Analysis of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

Abstract The plant growth analysis parameters like Fresh Mass, Dry Mass, Resource Allocation, Leaf Area, Leaf Area Ratio (LAR), Net Assimilation Rate (NAR), Relative Growth Rate (RGR), Leaf Weight Ratio (LWR) and Root Shoot Ratio and relation between these parameters was studied in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) during entire life span i.e. from sowing till senescence in the field conditions. The values of growth analysis parameters like RGR and NAR were highest for the period of vegetative growth showing gradual decline towards the senescence. Leaf Weight Ratio (LWR) in general followed a declining trend but the decline was sharp during the transition from vegetative phase to reproductive phase. More resources were allocated towards leaves during vegetative phase to increase the photosynthetic efficiency whereas there was a shift towards reproductive parts during reproductive phase for fruiting. Leaf area followed an increasing trend with time reaching at its peak just before senescence and thereafter leaf area declined with the progress of senescence.

Keywords— Growth Analysis Parameters, Root-Shoot Ratio and Resource Allocation.

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Review on Barley Scald Disease Management

Abstract Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the ancient grain crops cultivated and used worldwide. In Ethiopia, barley is among important staple crops next to tef, maize, wheat and sorghum mainly grown on about 1 million ha of land with average yield of 2.1t ha. Leaf scald is one of the most important diseases of barley in the worldwide where the crop is grown and it causes significant reduction in yield and quality. In Ethiopia, barley is the predominant cereal in the high altitudes and it accounts nearly 25% of the total production in Africa. In addition, Ethiopia is the second largest barley producer in Africa.

Leaf scald is one of the most important diseases of barley in the worldwide wherever the crop is grown and it causes significant reduction in yield and quality. Yield loss due to scald disease reaches up to 100% in susceptible cultivars under severe epidemics. In Ethiopia, scald is among widely distributed and destructive diseases in cool highland areas and yield losses reaching about 67% have been recorded. This review discusses recent information on economic importance, epidemiology, life cycle, geographical distribution and disease management of barley leaf scald disease. It also presents the barley leaf scald disease management methods such as cultural, chemical, use of host resistance methods as well as integrated barley leaf scald disease management. Under host resistance method, information on types of resistance, sources of resistance have been presented.

Keywords— Barley, Scald disease, Management, Methods, Cultural, Chemical, Host resistance.

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Custard Apple Seed Oil as a Pesticide

Abstract Essential oils are oils extracted from plants. These categories of oils are obtained through distillation or mechanical methods such as cold pressing. Custard Apple Seed Oil is a type of essential oil. This oil can be used as an eco-friendly biopesticide. They are cheap, safe to use also maintains the fertility of the soil. Therefore natural pesticides like custard apple seed oil are given preference over synthetic pesticides. Oil extracted from it can be used as a pesticide against several common pests like the white mealybug, aphid, termite, etc. The oil extracted from custard apple seeds contain acetogenin a group of powerful respiratory inhibiting toxic components, which is responsible to act as a bio-pesticide. Cold pressing, solvent extraction, steam distillation, maceration, percolation, tincture, and infusion are the methods that are used for custard apple seed oil extraction.

Keywords— Essential oils, distillation, cold pressing, acetogenin, maceration.

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